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  • Think of a skilled writer (yourself or a student) think of a struggling writer. List characteristics
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    1. 2. Skilled Writers Struggling Writers Extensive knowledge in writing genres, devices, and conventions. Intimately familiar with the elements and characteristics associated with good writing Engage in multidimensional process that involves planning, composing, evaluating, and revising Devote significant amount of time to planning and developing goals that guide what they say and do. Generate more content than needed and eliminate ideas and information through revision Engage in extensive evaluation and revision processes that improve their compositions. -Lack contextual knowledge -Believe good writing is related to form and mechanics rather than substance or process. -Limited knowledge of what constitutes good writing -Utilized an ineffective writing approach -Do not engage in advance planning -Difficulty generating content -Rarely make meaningful revisions -Struggle with transcription -Evidence minimal persistence -Unrealistic sense of self efficacy -focus solely on content -Less than 20% of the revisions represent substantive changes to original text (word substitutions, correct spelling and usage errors)
    2. 3. <ul><li>Writing Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Summarization </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative Writing </li></ul><ul><li>Specific Product Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Word Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence Combining </li></ul><ul><li>Prewriting </li></ul><ul><li>Inquiry Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Process Writing Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Study of Models </li></ul><ul><li>Writing for Content Learning </li></ul>
    3. 4. <ul><li>Writing Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Summarization </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative Writing </li></ul><ul><li>Specific Product Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Word Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence Combining </li></ul><ul><li>Prewriting </li></ul><ul><li>Inquiry Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Process Writing Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Study of Models </li></ul><ul><li>Writing for Content Learning </li></ul>
    4. 5. <ul><li>Explicitly and systematically teaching steps necessary for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And/or editing text </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goal: teach students to use independently </li></ul>.82
    5. 6. <ul><li>I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand. </li></ul>
    6. 7. <ul><li>Can be reordered, combined, modified, and repeated, based on students need. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop background knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss it </li></ul><ul><li>Model it </li></ul><ul><li>Memorize it </li></ul><ul><li>Support it </li></ul><ul><li>Independent performance </li></ul>
    7. 8. <ul><li>Purpose: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>understand, learn, and apply the strategy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teachers must identify the prerequisite skills needed </li></ul><ul><li>Assess whether students possess these skills. </li></ul>
    8. 9. <ul><li>Purpose: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>motivated and willing to learn new strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine and discuss their current writing performance & perceptions of writing process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foundational to discuss purpose of strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At conclusion of this stage, steps for strategy introduced </li></ul></ul>
    9. 10. <ul><li>Purpose: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show exactly how to use strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most effective when teachers use “think-aloud” & highlight the “why” and “how” of each strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>After strategy is modeled, students should have time to discuss benefits & challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Establish specific product goals </li></ul>
    10. 11. <ul><li>Purpose: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students become familiar enough to the steps in the strategy that they can use automatically. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fastest step </li></ul><ul><li>Effective when memorization is fun! </li></ul><ul><li>For students who struggle to memorize </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prompts (cards) </li></ul></ul>
    11. 12. <ul><li>Purpose: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students gradually assume responsibility for using the new strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effective when teachers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>scaffold instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative peer groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide frequent constructive feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer positive reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most students should be independently using strategy after 2-4 collaborative scaffold experiences. </li></ul>
    12. 13. <ul><li>Purpose: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure students consistently use strategy over time, in multiple settings, and with variety of tasks. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generalization and maintenance is achieved by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students recognize how strategy improves their writing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify where else it would be beneficial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to modify it </li></ul></ul>
    13. 15. <ul><li>In groups </li></ul><ul><li>Pick the strategy TREE or DARE </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a lesson plan including one or two stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource: reflect back on 5 th grade story or model </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be prepared to share lesson with whole group. </li></ul>
    14. 16. Rinda Analicia Template for cubes POW, TREE, DARE, STOP handouts Cubes Glue sticks & scissors Markers Graphic organizers Slide show