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SOCI 101
CH 6 DEVIANCE CONT.

11/18/2013

Rima Brusi, Ph.D. CSUF

6.2
DEVIANCE (CONT.)
• Last 2 classes:
• Deviance – meaning, difference between normative
approach and relativistic approach
•...
THEORIES OF DEVIANCE (CONT’D.)
• Conflict theory:
• Deviance is a result of social
conflict.
• In order for the powerful t...
THEORIES OF DEVIANCE (CONT’D.)

• Structural strain theory:
• Developed by Robert Merton
• It states that there are goals ...
THEORIES OF DEVIANCE (CONT’D.)
• Merton’s
typology of
deviance
(structural
strain theory
table)

5
THEORIES OF DEVIANCE (CONT’D.)
Merton’s typology: Conformists

Conformists accept
the goals of the
society and the
means o...
THEORIES OF DEVIANCE (CONT’D.)
Merton’s typology: Innovators

Innovators accept the
goals of the society, but
they look fo...
THEORIES OF DEVIANCE (CONT’D.)
Merton’s typology: Ritualists

Ritualists aren’t
interested in the goals
of the society but...
THEORIES OF DEVIANCE (CONT’D.)
Merton’s typology: Retreatists

Retreatists don’t
accept the goals of the
society or the me...
THEORIES OF DEVIANCE (CONT’D.)
Merton’s typology: Rebels

Rebels don’t accept the
goals of the society or the
means of ach...
THEORIES OF DEVIANCE (CONT’D.)

• Differential association:
• A symbolic interactionist
perspective developed by
Edwin Sut...
THEORIES OF DEVIANCE (CONT’D.)

• Labeling theory:

• A symbolic interactionist
perspective developed by Howard
Becker
• S...
THEORIES OF DEVIANCE (CONT’D.)

• Labeling theory:
• Becker suggests that
“labeling” can lead to a selffulfilling prophecy...
DEVIANT IDENTITIES

• Stigma:
• Term coined by Ervin Goffman
• Describes any physical or social
attribute that devalues a ...
DEVIANCE AND CRIME

• Crime:
• If a behavior is considered
deviant, it means that it violates
the values and norms of a gr...
DEVIANCE AND CRIME (CONT’D.)

• Crime is the violation of a norm
that has been codified into
law.

17
DEVIANCE AND CRIME (CONT’D.)
• Crime and punishments can change over time!

18
CONTROL AND PUNISHMENT

• Deterrence: prevent crime by
threatening harsh penalties
• Retribution: retaliate or take
reveng...
CONTROL AND PUNISHMENT (CON’T.)

• Incapacitation: remove
criminals from society by
imprisoning them
• Rehabilitation: ref...
SOCI 101, Lecture 11/18/13. Rima Brusi, CSUF. Slideshow 1 of 2.
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SOCI 101, Lecture 11/18/13. Rima Brusi, CSUF. Slideshow 1 of 2.

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Topics:Deviance, theory and deviance, deviance and crime.

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SOCI 101, Lecture 11/18/13. Rima Brusi, CSUF. Slideshow 1 of 2.

  1. 1. SOCI 101 CH 6 DEVIANCE CONT. 11/18/2013 Rima Brusi, Ph.D. CSUF 6.2
  2. 2. DEVIANCE (CONT.) • Last 2 classes: • Deviance – meaning, difference between normative approach and relativistic approach • Examples of body modification and food • The functions of deviance according to functionalism (Durkheim) • TODAY: • Other theories – conflict, symbolic interactionism • Deviance and crime 11/18/2013 Rima Brusi, Ph.D. CSUF 2
  3. 3. THEORIES OF DEVIANCE (CONT’D.) • Conflict theory: • Deviance is a result of social conflict. • In order for the powerful to maintain their power, they marginalize and criminalize the people who threaten their power. Inequality is reproduced in the way deviance is defined. 3
  4. 4. THEORIES OF DEVIANCE (CONT’D.) • Structural strain theory: • Developed by Robert Merton • It states that there are goals in our society that people want to achieve, but they cannot always reach these goals. This creates stress (or strain) because people are aware of the goals but do not have the means to achieve them. 4
  5. 5. THEORIES OF DEVIANCE (CONT’D.) • Merton’s typology of deviance (structural strain theory table) 5
  6. 6. THEORIES OF DEVIANCE (CONT’D.) Merton’s typology: Conformists Conformists accept the goals of the society and the means of achieving those goals. 7
  7. 7. THEORIES OF DEVIANCE (CONT’D.) Merton’s typology: Innovators Innovators accept the goals of the society, but they look for new, or innovative, ways of achieving those goals. 8
  8. 8. THEORIES OF DEVIANCE (CONT’D.) Merton’s typology: Ritualists Ritualists aren’t interested in the goals of the society but they do accept the means of achieving those goals. 9
  9. 9. THEORIES OF DEVIANCE (CONT’D.) Merton’s typology: Retreatists Retreatists don’t accept the goals of the society or the means of achieving those goals. 10
  10. 10. THEORIES OF DEVIANCE (CONT’D.) Merton’s typology: Rebels Rebels don’t accept the goals of the society or the means of achieving those goals, so they create their own goals using new means. 11
  11. 11. THEORIES OF DEVIANCE (CONT’D.) • Differential association: • A symbolic interactionist perspective developed by Edwin Sutherland • States that we learn deviance from hanging around deviant peers 12
  12. 12. THEORIES OF DEVIANCE (CONT’D.) • Labeling theory: • A symbolic interactionist perspective developed by Howard Becker • States that deviance is caused by external judgments (labels) that change a person’s self-concept and the way that others respond to that person 13
  13. 13. THEORIES OF DEVIANCE (CONT’D.) • Labeling theory: • Becker suggests that “labeling” can lead to a selffulfilling prophecy—a prediction that causes itself to come true. 14
  14. 14. DEVIANT IDENTITIES • Stigma: • Term coined by Ervin Goffman • Describes any physical or social attribute that devalues a person or group’s identity, and which may exclude those who are devalued from normal social interaction 15
  15. 15. DEVIANCE AND CRIME • Crime: • If a behavior is considered deviant, it means that it violates the values and norms of a group, not that it is inherently wrong. • However, research on deviance also includes crime. 16
  16. 16. DEVIANCE AND CRIME (CONT’D.) • Crime is the violation of a norm that has been codified into law. 17
  17. 17. DEVIANCE AND CRIME (CONT’D.) • Crime and punishments can change over time! 18
  18. 18. CONTROL AND PUNISHMENT • Deterrence: prevent crime by threatening harsh penalties • Retribution: retaliate or take revenge for a crime that’s been committed 19
  19. 19. CONTROL AND PUNISHMENT (CON’T.) • Incapacitation: remove criminals from society by imprisoning them • Rehabilitation: reform criminals so that they may re-enter society 20

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