Key dimensions of Self-awareness The Enigma of Self awareness Understanding and appreciating Individual Differences Important areas of Self Awareness Summary
Publilius Syrus had proposed as early as 42 B.C.: “It matters not what you are thought to be, but what you are.” Self-awareness lies at the heart of the ability to master oneself, but it is not sufficient. Self-Awareness is having a clear perception of your personality, including strengths, weaknesses, thoughts, beliefs, motivation, and emotions. Knowledge of oneself – self-awareness, self-insight, self- understanding – allows you to understand other people, how they perceive you, your attitude and your responses to them in the moment.
Managing stressSymptom Tactical Managing Time Setting Priorities and Goals Self- AwarenessProblem Strategic A Hierarchy of Personal Life- Management Skills
Sensitive line comes at a point where individuals tend to be more defensive or protective when encountered with information about them. Sensitive line is crossed when something goes against your own self-image that we hold. Crossing the sensitive line makes us feel uncomfortable and rigid – psychologically and emotionally. Self-disclosure is a very powerful tool that contributes to greater self- awareness without crossing the sensitive line.
Diversity is the key to success. Differences among individuals must be perceived as a pool conflicting ideas that are passionate, innovative, focused and responsible for a great invention in the future. Creating distinctions rather than focusing on differences bolster social barriers and restrain self-disclosure.
Five critical areas of self-awareness:1. Emotional intelligence2. Personal values3. Learning Style4. Orientation toward change5. Core self-evaluation These areas have been found to be among the most important predictors of various aspects of effective managerial performance.
It is the ability to identify, use, understand, and manage your emotions in positive and constructive ways. I believe there are 5 skill sets: The ability to quickly reduce stress The ability to recognize and manage your emotions The ability to connect with others using nonverbal communication The ability to use humor and play to deal with challenges The ability to resolve conflicts positively and with confidence It is an array of non-cognitive skills.
A person with strong emotional intelligence is able to get in touch with and accurately diagnose their own internal feelings. In corporate world, managers with high EQ are twice more likely to generate higher revenues or get promoted than those with low self-awareness or EQ. Emotional intelligence evolves as a strong predictive power in managerial success and in work setting – much stronger than IQ scores.
Values are the most enduring characteristics of individuals upon which attitudes and personal preferences are formed.Cultural Values: Trompenaars’ 7 major cultural value dimensions are coined to identify differences among national cultures. Universalism Particularism Individualism Collectivism Affective Neutral Specific Diffuse Achievement Ascription Past and Present Future Internal External
Personal values are implicitly related to choice; they guide decisions by allowing for an individuals choices to be compared to each choices associated values.Rokeach - Two Types of Personal Values: Terminal Instrumental Comfortable life Ambitious Exciting life Capable World at peace Cheerful World of beauty Clean Equality Courageous Family security Forgiving Others Others
Kohlberg – Value Maturity Model: Three levels of maturity with six stages of development Self-centered level – (1) obedience and punishment, (2) naively egoistic orientations Conformity level – (3) good person, (4) “doing duty” orientations Principled level – (5) contractual legalistic, (6) conscience of principle orientation
Learning Style is an individual’s inclination to perceive, interpret and respond to information in a certain way. Two key dimensions include: manner in which you gather information way in which you evaluate and act on information David Kolbs theory on learning style:1. Concrete experience – learn through personal involvement2. Abstract conceptualization – build theories using logic, ideas and concepts3. Reflective observation – seek meaning through study4. Active experimentation – change situations and influence others to see what happens
Awareness about our orientation toward change is necessary in order to capitalize fully on the strengths of our learning style. Two dimensions of change orientation are termed particularly relevant for managers.Tolerance of ambiguity: The extent to which individuals are threatened by or have difficulty coping with ambiguity, uncertainty, unpredictability or complexity.
Novelty score: coping with new, unfamiliar situations Complexity: using multiple, distinctive, or unrelated info Insolubility: dealing with problems that are difficult to solve
The attitude people develop regarding the extent to which they are in control of their own destiny. Internal locus of control: Individuals interpret the reinforcement they receive to be contingent upon their actions External locus of control: Individuals interpret the reinforcement as being a product of outside forces
Individuals possessing internal locus of control are more likely to Be attentive to aspects of the environment that provide useful information for the future Engage in actions to improve their environment Place greater emphasis on striving for achievement Be more inclined to develop their own skills Ask more questions Remember more information than people with an external locus of control External locus of control is often associated with high levels of stress and violence, presumably due to less emphasis on self-control.
Core self-evaluation represents a stable personality trait which encompasses an individual’s subconscious, fundamental evaluations about themselves, their own abilities and their own control. Big five Attributes: Extroversion: inclination towards gregariousness and being outward Agreeableness: friendly and affable Conscientiousness: careful, task oriented, and orderly Neuroticism: emotionally fragile, negative, and fearful Openness: curious and open to new ideas
Four prominent components include: Self esteem Generalized self-efficacy Neuroticism Locus of control
Self-Awareness training programs should be encouraged in order to boost morale within every organization. Relate what we see in others to our own experience to be able to manage or interact successfully with them. Identify your personal sensitive line. Recognize the cultural differences between your value orientation and individuals from other age, ethnicity, or cultures. Broaden your perspective to welcome different kinds of activities and increase your exposure to new information. Balance work activities with some time for self-renewal.
Building A Power Base A Balanced View of Power Strategies for Gaining Organizational Power Transforming Power Into Influence Conclusion
“The art of leadership... consists in consolidating the attention of the people against a single adversary and taking care that nothing will split up that attention.” By Adolf Hitler Meaning Of Power Power is the capacity of person, team or organization to influence others. The most effective use of power is the most critical constituent of management.
An out-in-the-box process of methodically mapping the political terrain, building coalitions, and leading defines political competence.
Effective use of power is the most crucial element of management. Influential leaders around the globe play a significant role in making others feel powerful by their own accomplishments in their organizations or institutions.Lack of Power: Power is associated with domination, manipulation, cunningness or ruthlessness. Powerlessness creates ineffective, desultory management, dictatorial, rules-minded managerial styles. These negative views are often affiliated with ‘personal power’.
“The greater the power, the more dangerous the abuse.” by Edmund Burke, a British philosopher. Abusive characteristics in managers result into dangerous consequences in their careers. Lack of ethical values Abrasive and intimidating Arrogant, aloof and cold Overly ambitious Corrupt and untrustworthy Both lack and abuse of power are equally weakening and destructive.
It is key to learn how to use power wisely using different strategies. Having the power of discerning and judging properly a s to what is true or right.
Expertise: Self learning, formal education and experience from work knowledge Personal attraction: Charisma Agreeable behavior Physical characteristics Effort: Individuals are reliable and dependable Legitimacy: Increase in acceptance within the organization
Acquiring Power can be tough but Balancing it is the toughest. Personal attributes and position characteristics determine a person’s power in an organization.Networking: Network across departments builds strong social ties & provides additional support. More the decision making a position offers, more is the power. Involvement in problem solving opportunities. Involvement with activities directly related to goals of organization automatically commands power.
Four important factors that defines a position’s power potential in an organization: 1. Centrality: The more centralized in position and the more critical in function, the more of organizational power they gain. 2. Flexibility: Flexibility or discretion is the freedom to exercise one’s judgment Power can be diminish because conditions change faster than people are willing or capable of change to keep up with it Flexibility is also associated with the lifecycle of a position New tasks are much harder to standardize
3. Visibility: Try to increase your visibility; expose your name every chance you find. Make your presence count.4. Relevance: Being engaged in activities that are directly related to the major goals and issues in an organization. These days base on the companies nature and the focus of the business these positions may differ. As in a developed consumer product oriented economy, sales and marketing represent the central focus of most business.
The skill of transforming power into influence centers on achieving the support of others in ways that stimulates commitment instead of resentment and resistance. Power is transferred to influence when the goal individual allows to perform base on the desire of the power holder.
Three important strategy categories: Retribution: Through intimidation (pressure) or coercion (threaten) Reciprocity: Through ingratiation (obligate) or bargain (exchange) Reason: A direct approach in persuading the use of facts or needs to support one’s viewpoint
Influence Strategy Pros Cons • Produces immediate • Creates resistance, effect alienation, resentment Retribution • Manager • Stifles innovation and specifications are initiative followed • No justification of • Restricts group actions required commitment Reciprocity • Better results without • Expectation of resentment negotiations for every request • High level of job • Requires more satisfaction and low people and time Reason levels of stress • Takes time to build • Prominent form of trust and Compliance understanding
Expert power: Act confident and decisive Keep informed Willing to share your knowledge with others Don’t threaten subordinates’ self-esteem – be approachable Referent power: Treat subordinates fairly Defend subordinates interests Be sensitive to subordinates’ needs & feelings
Legitimate power: Be cordial, polite, and confident Make appropriate requests Follow proper channels Exercise power regularly and enforce compliance Reward power Verify compliance and accomplishments Offer rewards for desired actions and behaviors Offer credible rewards that are desired by subordinates Coercive power Inform subordinates of rules and penalties Understand the situation before acting & warn before punishing Administer punishment consistently & punish in private
It is as important to be able to control and resist theunwanted influence of others as to be able to influencethem. In real world you need to be strong and explicit todevelop and master the skill of opposing inappropriateefforts to control your behavior.
Two skills discussed focusses on gaining power and translating power into influence. Skillful use of power for constructive growth of the organization. Consequences are destructive if power is used solely for personal gain. Increase centrality of your position, flexibility of your job and visibility of your job performance. Continuous implementation of the three R’s strategy and its neutralization to avoid unwanted influence from others.
PAGE 116 - MANAGING PERSONAL STRESSPowered By:-Rijul Dhruv
1. Violation of Time and Stress Management Principles: Ineffective and inefficient use of time. Chet lost track of time because he is always overscheduled. No specific set agenda or time limits to accomplish tasks. Work piling – Tasks were not prioritized and issues were handled as they came along. Wishful thinking – Undetermined long term goals and objectives. Lack of organizational skills in dealing with the project as a whole rather than dividing and working in parts.
2. Organizational problems reflected in this case study: Chet must inform the VP and General Manager of day-to- day operations about the Central Plant in order for them to be answerable to the departments they are in line with. VP and the GM must be responsible for internal employee problems, discussing delivery issues with the secretary at the treasurer’s office and answering to VP sales’ questions. Chet must have at least one administrative assistant to keep track of his daily logs.
3. Chet’s personal characteristics inhibiting his effective time management: Chet spends most of his day on trivial issues rather than the important ones. He gets the job done no matter what but for long-term and preventing future mistakes he needs to set a balance between his daily schedule, family, weekend and personal life. Seemed more like a pushover and needs to learn to say ‘NO’ to other people’s request. Needs to balance his work with proper hygiene by taking rest and having regular lunches.
4. If hired as a consultant to Chet, I would advise him to: Firstly, review the organization chart and job responsibilities of top management; eliminating redundancy by finishing incomplete tasks. Set-up a schedule for him to comply in order to seek help incase of any undone tasks remaining at the end of the day Outline clear and specific goals and objectives and execute open door policies. An established information system by the company in order to save time and money on operations. Creation of an advanced database system for production.
MSE 608BOL California State University - NorthridgeProfessor: Prepared by:Dr. Mark Rajai Rijul Dhruv