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Research methodology


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Basic concepts about research methodology

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Research methodology

  1. 1. RESEARCH METHODOLOGYRESEARCH METHODOLOGYA CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKA CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKbybyChandra P. Rijal, PhDChandra P. Rijal, PhDManaging DirectorManaging DirectorEdify International Pvt. Ltd.Edify International Pvt.
  2. 2. Research MeansResearch Means Systematic and objective investigation of aSystematic and objective investigation of asubjectsubject or aor a problemproblem in order to discoverin order to discoverrelevant information.relevant
  3. 3. Investigation on a subject refers to … Establishing a conceptual, or theoreticalunderstanding about something to be promoted aspart of disciplinary studies. For example, development of a theory in publichealth.Investigation on a problem refers to … Assessing, diagnosing, exploring, or evaluatingvarious facets pertaining to a management problem. For example, what percentage of first timeBhatbhateni Superstores visitors come back again tothis place for shopping?
  4. 4. Discovery of a relevant information refersto … Establishing theoretical grounds for a disciplinarystudy, or Deducting problem solution under a
  5. 5. So, what does it mean by research in youopinion?1. ------------------------------------------------------------------------2. ------------------------------------------------------------------------3. ------------------------------------------------------------------------4. ------------------------------------------------------------------------5. ------------------------------------------------------------------------6.
  6. 6. Why is a research conducted?1. ------------------------------------------------------------------------2. ------------------------------------------------------------------------3. ------------------------------------------------------------------------4. ------------------------------------------------------------------------5. ------------------------------------------------------------------------6.
  7. 7. Types of ResearchBasically, there are only two types of researcha.Fundamental Researchb.Applied
  8. 8. Fundamental ResearchKnown as basic or pure research; seeks to expandthe boundaries of knowledge in the given area.For example, development of research methods,propagation of new theories, conduction ofacademic research
  9. 9. Applied Research Known as a decisional research Attempts to use existing knowledge for resolvingthe current problem.For example? What are the customer needs, expectations, andproblems associated to our offerings? How did the general public like the prevailinggovernance system?Doc5rijal@edifyintl.org9
  10. 10. Lets repeat it again…¤ A research may be considered as asystematic and objectiveinvestigation that involvessystematic design, collection,preparation, interpretation andreporting of information needed tosolve specific problems or promotea domain of learning.Doc5rijal@edifyintl.org10
  11. 11. 1.1. AssessmentAssessment2.2. ExplorationExploration3.3. EvaluationEvaluation4.4. ExaminationExamination5.5. ComparisonComparison6.6. EstimationEstimation7.7. PropagationPropagationDoc5rijal@edifyintl.org11
  12. 12. LevelsNature ofobjectiveObjective description1.AssessmentAssessment To observe the situation and infer results2.ExplorationExploration To uncover the reality facing a problem3.EvaluationEvaluation To measure the level of existence4.ExaminationExamination To test the existence5.ComparisonComparison To compare and contrast between givenvariables6.EstimationEstimation To project probable level of happening7.PropagationPropagation To declare a concept, theory, system or modelDoc5rijal@edifyintl.org12
  13. 13. Doc5rijal@edifyintl.org13Step 1Define theproblem andresearchobjectivesStep 2Design theresearch withplan forcollecting dataStep 3Implementthe research- collect,prepare andanalyze thedataStep 4Produceresults,interpret ,deduceinferencesand reportthe findings
  14. 14.  Specification of methods and procedures forobtaining the information needed A plan or organizing framework for conductingthe study and collecting data Serves as the blueprint of the detailed proceduresand rationales of a research project An essential part of research methodologyDoc5rijal@edifyintl.org14
  15. 15.  What is the study all about? Why is the study being carried out? Where will the study be carried out? What tools and techniques of data collection willbe used? How will the issue of validity and reliability beaddressed? What type of data are required? How much time will the study require? What will be the sample design? What techniques of data collection will be used ? How will the data be analyzed and interpreted?Doc5rijal@edifyintl.org15
  16. 16.  Serves as a foundation to formulate and guidethe research study Supports in better planning & execution of theresearch methodology Useful in the estimation of probable researcherrors and handling strategies Maintains necessary control over the contentsof the study Makes the study more systematic, andeffective Doc5rijal@edifyintl.org16
  17. 17.  Determine the exploratory, descriptive, or causalphases of the research Determine the information needed Specify the measurement and scaling procedures Construct and pretest appropriate forms of datacollection Specify sampling process and sample size Develop a plan of data analysis and presentation Develop a monitoring and control mechanism tofacilitate the overall research functionDoc5rijal@edifyintl.org17
  18. 18. On the basis of the study techniques undertaken,research designs can primarily be categorizedinto TWO forms:1. Exploratory Research Designs1. Exploratory Research Designs2. Conclusive Research Designs2. Conclusive Research Designsa. Descriptive Research Designsb. Causal Research DesignsDoc5rijal@edifyintl.org18
  19. 19. Doc5rijal@edifyintl.org19ObservationalResearchGathering databy observingpeople, actionsand situations(Exploratory)ExperimentalResearchUsing groups ofpeople todeterminecause andeffectrelationships(Causal)Survey ResearchAskingindividualsabout attitudes,preferences orbehaviors(Descriptive)Three Research Approaches
  20. 20. Doc5rijal@edifyintl.org20ExploratoryResearchExploratoryResearchDescriptiveResearchDescriptiveResearchCausalResearchCausalResearchTest hypotheses about cause and effectrelationshipsX causes YTest hypotheses about cause and effectrelationshipsX causes YGathers preliminary information to definethe problem and suggest hypothesesLiterature search, expert interviews, focusgroups, case studies, company audits,qualitative researchGathers preliminary information to definethe problem and suggest hypothesesLiterature search, expert interviews, focusgroups, case studies, company audits,qualitative researchDescribes things as the market potential ofa product, consumer demographics andattitudesSecondary data analysis, surveys, observations,panels, simulationsDescribes things as the market potential ofa product, consumer demographics andattitudesSecondary data analysis, surveys, observations,panels, simulations
  21. 21. Step 1: Define the Research ProblemStep 2: Estimate the value of the information to beprovided by the researchStep 3: Select the Data Collection MethodStep 4: Select the Measurement TechniquesStep 5: Select the SampleStep 6: Select the Analytical ApproachStep 7: Evaluate the Ethics of the ResearchStep 8: Specify the Time and Financial CostStep 9: Prepare the Research ProposalDoc5rijal@edifyintl.org21
  22. 22. 1. Problem Definition2. Study Approach and Designs3. Population and Sampling Strategies4. Sources of Data5. Instrumentation6. Mechanism for Research Administration7. Mechanism for Data Processing and Analysis8. Confirmation of the Expertise Involved9. Timeframe of the Study10. Cost of the StudyDoc5rijal@edifyintl.org22
  23. 23. MeaningMeaningKnown as a property of proposition beingKnown as a property of proposition beingstudiedstudiedAlso known as the constructs of aAlso known as the constructs of apropositionpropositionA symbol to which we assign numerals orA symbol to which we assign numerals orvaluesvaluesNumerical value assigned to a variable isNumerical value assigned to a variable isbased on its propertiesbased on its propertiesDoc5rijal@edifyintl.org23
  24. 24. Three General Examples of VariablesThree General Examples of Variables1. Dichotomous Variables1. Dichotomous VariablesThese variables are so called because they haveThese variables are so called because they haveTWO values, reflecting presence or absence of aTWO values, reflecting presence or absence of exampleFor example: pass or fail, exists or does not exist,: pass or fail, exists or does not exist,employed - unemployed, male - female, yes - no.employed - unemployed, male - female, yes - no.The dichotomous variables can be assigned with aThe dichotomous variables can be assigned with anumerical value of ‘0’ or ‘1’ for analysis purpose.numerical value of ‘0’ or ‘1’ for analysis purpose.Doc5rijal@edifyintl.org24
  25. 25. 2. Discrete Variables2. Discrete VariablesThese are categorical variables.These are categorical variables.For example, the demographic variables race orFor example, the demographic variables race orreligion are the examples of discrete variables.religion are the examples of discrete variables.Religion: Hindu, Islam, Buddhism, and Jain canReligion: Hindu, Islam, Buddhism, and Jain canbe assigned numerical values of 1, 2, 3, and 4be assigned numerical values of 1, 2, 3, and 4respectively.respectively.The numerical values assigned to these variablesThe numerical values assigned to these variableswill be of absolute nature; not like 3.5, or 4.7.will be of absolute nature; not like 3.5, or 4.7.Doc5rijal@edifyintl.org25
  26. 26. 3. Continuous Variables3. Continuous VariablesThese variables take on values with a given rangeThese variables take on values with a given rangeor, in some cases, an infinite set.or, in some cases, an infinite set.For example, test scores may range from 0 - 100,For example, test scores may range from 0 - 100,age may be 2.5 years, present income of aage may be 2.5 years, present income of aperson could be Rs. 15000, you may discloseperson could be Rs. 15000, you may discloseyour property worth more than Rs. 500,000,000.your property worth more than Rs. 500,000,000.Doc5rijal@edifyintl.org26
  27. 27. Doc5rijal@edifyintl.org27Sample vs. PopulationPopulation = collection of ALL possibleobservationsSample = subset of a populationRandom Samplerepresentative of a populationall observations have equal chance ofbeing selected
  28. 28.  Cost Time Inaccessibility of the population Accuracy Destruction of the observationsDoc5rijal@edifyintl.org28
  29. 29. Doc5rijal@edifyintl.org29Step 1: Define thePopulation ofInterestStep 1: Define thePopulation ofInterestStep 2: ChooseData CollectionMethodStep 2: ChooseData CollectionMethodStep 3: ChooseSampling FramesStep 3: ChooseSampling FramesStep 4: Select aSampling MethodStep 4: Select aSampling MethodStep 5: DetermineSample SizeStep 5: DetermineSample SizeStep 6: Develop andSpecify OperationalPlanStep 6: Develop andSpecify OperationalPlanStep 7: ExecuteOperational SamplingPlanStep 7: ExecuteOperational SamplingPlan
  30. 30.  Probability vs. Nonprobability Probability members in the population have a known chance(probability) of being selected into the sample Nonprobability the probability of selecting members from thepopulation is not knownDoc5rijal@edifyintl.org30
  31. 31. 31Define PopulationDetermine Sampling FrameDetermine Sampling ProcedureProbability SamplingSimple Random SamplingSystematic Random SamplingStratified SamplingCluster SamplingNon-Probability SamplingConvenienceJudgmentalQuotaSnow-ballDetermine Appropriate Sample SizeExecute Sampling
  32. 32. Doc5rijal@edifyintl.org32SamplingMethodsSamplingMethodsProbabilitySamplesProbabilitySamplesSimpleRandomSimpleRandomClusterClusterSystematicSystematic StratifiedStratifiedNon-probabilityNon-probabilityQuotaQuotaJudgmentJudgmentConvenienceConvenience SnowballSnowball
  33. 33. MeaningData are the units, or, numbers, or facts that aregenerated through observation.Data can be qualitative as well as quantitative.Considered as the backbone for the evidence ofevery findings and decision alternatives in theresearch.Doc5rijal@edifyintl.org33
  34. 34. Data ObjectivesData objectives are derived from the researchobjectives and comprise of what we have observedto be lacking in the example.Their determination mainly rests on the researcher,to translate what the decision maker wants into aspecific description of the needed data.Doc5rijal@edifyintl.org34
  35. 35. General Qualities Required1.The measurement should be relevant and adequate tothe problem faced to provide key guidance in decisionmaking.2.The data must be accurate in both --i. Validity: Measure what they are supposed to,andii. Reliability: On repeating the same method,shouldgive the same results.3. Data should be obtained quickly enough at anaffordable cost.Doc5rijal@edifyintl.org35
  36. 36. Nature of Data1. Facts: Include the measurements of anything thatactually exists or has existed. Facts, generally describe tangible things, theyalso can be intangibles. They generally originate as the demographic,sociological, psychographic, or behavioral types.Doc5rijal@edifyintl.org36
  37. 37. 2. Knowledge: That is what people know. The information true or false, exists or does not exist,etc.ExampleConsumers awareness about a product or a brand.3. Opinion How people perceive something. What they believe about attitudes. The mental sets or predisposition to act in some manner.ExampleConsumer perception regarding good or bad.Doc5rijal@edifyintl.org37
  38. 38. 4. Intentions: The acts that people have in mind to do. The expectations of their behaviorExample: Consumer interest upon a certain retailer.5. Motives: Internal forces that cause people to behave asthey do. Motives may be instrumental ideas for identifyingthe subjects about which the people will speakfreely.Example: A certain consumer never liking wine.Doc5rijal@edifyintl.org38
  39. 39. Functions of Data1. Causation2. Pay offHere, ‘X’ is the causation and ‘Y’ is the pay off.3. Description: Determination of causal variablesin the sample. E.g.: How many of them are ‘X’.4. Identification: Identification of the particularsource.e.g.: The name of person who took an interview, ormade an observation, name, address, andlocations of subjects, etc.Doc5rijal@edifyintl.org39Y = f(X)‘X’ Causes ‘Y’
  40. 40. 1. Primary Vs. SecondaryPrimary DataThat originate from primary sources and are basedon observation or investigation or directquestioning.* Observation Method* Interview Method* Questionnaires* Projective Techniques* Content AnalysisDoc5rijal@edifyintl.org40
  41. 41. 1. Primary Vs. SecondarySecondary DataThat originate from secondary sources.Data already available, collected and analyzed bysomeone else.* Publications* Books* Journals* Magazines and Newspapers* Reports* Collateral Materials* PR MessagesDoc5rijal@edifyintl.org41
  42. 42. 2. Qualitative Vs. QuantitativeQualitative Data: Psychological, perceptual, or conceptualdata that is not counted in numbers, rather coded as ‘goodor bad’, ‘interesting or boring’ etc.Quantitative Data: Number based facts and figures.Frequency of occurrence.3. Personal ReportingData based on individual observation and reporting.Can be qualitative as well as quantitative.Doc5rijal@edifyintl.org42Can be primary/secondaryAlways primary
  43. 43. 1. InternalData developed or gathered, maintained, andpreserved by the organization itself.MIS is the best source for internal records.MIS comprises of FOUR major components;Management Research Systems (MRS), InternalDatabase Systems (IDS), Management IntelligenceSystems (MIS), and Analytical Information Systems(AIS).Annual reports, collateral materials, press releasesetc.Doc5rijal@edifyintl.org43Primary
  44. 44. 2. External* Data generated from the published reports ofvarious bureaus, and public surveys.Example:EDIFY International conducting a salt consumptionbehavior research study in Nepal, and the samereport findings to be used in other related futureresearches.Use of CBS - Nepal reports for various researchpurposes.Doc5rijal@edifyintl.org44Secondary
  45. 45. 1. Literature Reviews* A secondary method of data collection.* Facts gathered in the basis of reviews of variouspublications, articles, journals, books, collateralmaterials, reports, etc.* Useful in providing the evidence to the results ofthe primary observation.* Mostly used in understanding the theoreticalphenomenon.* Very essential in qualitative studies.Doc5rijal@edifyintl.org45
  46. 46. 2. Census* Census represents the study of universe.* Mostly conducted by the governments in longperiodical basis.* Each and every component of the population isthe subject of the study.* Most costly approach of data collection.Doc5rijal@edifyintl.org46
  47. 47. 3. Survey* An alternative to census.* Sample based study; study/observation throughpopulation representation.* Mostly used by the researchers.* A primary method of data collection.Doc5rijal@edifyintl.org47
  48. 48. 4. Focus Group Observation* A approach of group observation.* A source for primary data collection.* Useful in perceptual studies.* The groups may comprise of 6 to 10 people.* The issues are discussed by cross questioningand sharing their views.* Suitable in case of new product launch andtesting.Doc5rijal@edifyintl.org48Can be direct orindirect, structuredor unstructured
  49. 49. 5. Experiments* A primary method of data collection.* Can be field or lab experiment based.* Mostly conducted by using the control groups.* Most useful in new product testing.* May be very costly incase of wrong selection ofcontrol groups.* Sometimes conducted by the help of variousphysical tests; eye movements, pupil movements,skin stimuli etc.Doc5rijal@edifyintl.org49
  50. 50. 6. Interviews* A popular method of primary data collection.* Data collected in the basis of personal interactionwith the respondents.* Can be well-structured or less-structured.* Useful when small size of observation is enoughfor data collection.* The individuals/subjects are the source of study.Doc5rijal@edifyintl.org50
  51. 51. Data Reduction and AnalysisData Reduction ProcessStep I: Establishing field controlsStep II: Editing of dataStep III: Coding the dataStep IV: TranscribingStep V: Creating new variablesStep VI: Calculating andsummarizing statisticsData AnalysisDescriptive analysisBivariate analysisMultivariate analysisDoc5rijal@edifyintl.org51
  52. 52. Presentation of a ReportI. Prefatory PartTitle PageSignatory PageCopy RightsAcknowledgementsExecutive SummaryTable of ContentsList of Tables and GraphsList of AbbreviationsDoc5rijal@edifyintl.org52
  53. 53. II. Main BodyIntroductionReview of LiteratureResearch MethodologyData Reduction, Presentation, and AnalysisSummary of Key FindingsRecommendations and ConclusionsIII. Supplementary PartBibliography or ReferencesAnnexturesAppendixesDoc5rijal@edifyintl.org53
  54. 54. Doc5rijal@edifyintl.org54Nature and Content of Ethical IssuesParticipant TreatmentIssues* Purpose shouldnt beto sell merchandise* Anonymity must beprotected----------------------------Ultraviolet inkHidden tape recordersOne-way mirrorsFake long distance callsFake research firmRight to safetyRight to be informedRight to privacyRight to choiceClient TreatmentIssues* Methods used andresults should beaccurately reported----------------------------ConfidentialityUnqualified researcherProprietary informationUnnecessary researchResearcher TreatmentIssues* Should not disseminateconclusions that areinconsistent with data* Should not solicitdesigns and deliver toanother for execution----------------------------Excessive requestsReneging on promisesAvailability of funds