Management in perspective


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It provides with basic insights about the principles of management in a nutshell.

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Management in perspective

  1. 1. Lecture notes onPerspectives in Management of EducationalInstitutionsbyDr. Chandra P. RijalKathmandu, NepalAugust 15, 2011 1
  2. 2. Perspectives of ManagementBefore heading onto the concepts of strategicmanagement, this session will help you to -- understand the management terms likemanagers, employees, efficiency andeffectiveness, and management, learn management process, managerial roles andessential skills, learn essentials of high performing educationalmanagers, and understand the diagnostic meaning of leadership.August 15, 2011 2
  3. 3. ORGANIZATION An organization is a systematic arrangement ofresources brought together to accomplish somespecific purpose. These resources are people dominant ineducational process climate. In addition to people arrangement, efficient andeffective allocation of other resources is alsoequally important in management of aninstitution.August 15, 2011 3
  4. 4. An Organization is distinct by its …* Vision* Mission* Goal* Strategy, and* TacticsAugust 15, 2011 4An organization has itsgoalstructureandpeople
  5. 5. Operatives• People who work directly on a job or taskand have no responsibility for overseeingthe work of others.• Known as employees.• Operatives at a school?August 15, 2011 5
  6. 6. Managers …Individuals in an organization, who directthe activities of others (operatives)Questions for discussion:1. How are managers different from operatives atschools?2. How operatives and managers contribute for thebetterment of the school as a social institution?August 15, 2011 6
  7. 7. MANAGERS Vs. ENTREPRENEURS¤ Entrepreneurs are the people who pursue businessopportunities, fulfilling needs and wants throughinnovation.¤ Entrepreneurs are the innovative people who givebirth to the new businesses regardless small or bigin size. They are the creators.¤ All entrepreneurs are managers but all managersmay not be entrepreneurs.¤ Can you identify about five successful educationalentrepreneurs of Nepal?August 15, 2011 7
  8. 8. Manager CharacteristicsAdministersMakes a copy or imitatesMaintainsFocuses on systems and structuresRelies on controlsShort-range viewAsks how and whenEyes on the bottom lineAccepts the status quoClassic good soldierDoes things rightAugust 15, 2011 8Manager Vs. LeaderLeader CharacteristicsInnovatesCreates original or innovatesDevelopsFocuses on peopleInspires trustLong-range perspectiveAsks what and whyEyes on the horizonChallenges the status quoOwn personDoes the right thingsWarren G. Bennis, Managing the dream: leadership in 21st century, journal ofOrganizational Change Management, vol. 2, No. 1, 1989, p. 7
  9. 9. LeadershipInfluencing people by providing the purpose,direction, and motivation while operating toaccomplish the mission and improving theorganization.August 15, 2011 9
  10. 10. Influencing• Getting people to do what you want them todo.• The example you set is just as important asthe words you speak.• Through your words and example, you mustcommunicate purpose, direction, andmotivation.August 15, 2011 10
  11. 11. Purpose• Persuades people with a reason tosomething.• You must earn their trust: they must knowfrom experience that you care about themand would not ask them to do somethingparticularly dangerous or affective unlessthere is a good reason, and unless the task isessential to mission accomplishment.August 15, 2011 11
  12. 12. Direction• Communicate the way you want the missionbe accomplished.• Prioritize tasks.• Assign responsibility and communicate;delegate authority when necessary.• Make sure your people understand thestandard.• Listen, and correct the limitations thatoppose your direction.August 15, 2011 12
  13. 13. • People want direction. They want to be givenchallenging tasks, training in how to accomplishthem, and the resources necessary to do them well.Then they want to be left alone to do the job.August 15, 2011 13
  14. 14. Motivation• Motivation gives subordinates the will to do everythingthey can to accomplish a mission.• To motivate your people, give them challenging goals.• Get to know your people and their capabilities.• Give them as much responsibility as they can.• When they succeed, praise them.• When they fall short, give credit for what they have doneand coach/counsel how to do better next time.• Make sure that the example you set is as important as whatyou say and how well you manage the work.August 15, 2011 14
  15. 15. Operating• Actions taken to influence others serve toaccomplish operating actions• Take those actions that help accomplish the statedgoals.• All leaders execute operating actions, whichbecome more complex as they assume positions ofincreasing responsibility.August 15, 2011 15
  16. 16. Improving• Leaders should strive for improving everything thatis entrusted to them, their people, facilities,equipment, training, and all resources.August 15, 2011 16
  17. 17. August 15, 2011 17
  18. 18. Elements of Self-LeadershipAugust 15, 2011 18PersonalGoal SettingConstructiveThought PatternsDesigningNatural RewardsSelf-MonitoringSelf-Reinforcement
  19. 19. ORGANIZATIONAL LEVELS & MANAGERSAugust 15, 2011 19Top ManagersSchool Chair, President,PrincipalMiddle ManagersHODs, CoordinatorsFirst-Line ManagersSupervisorsOperativesTeachers, employeesWhat dothese people do?How can yourelate theselevels atschools?
  20. 20. MANAGEMENTThe process of getting things done - effectively andefficiently - through and with other people.Efficiency: doing something rightly.Effectiveness: doing something right.Management: getting done right thing in a right way.August 15, 2011 20Example?
  21. 21. Efficiency vs. EffectivenessMeans EndsEfficiency EffectivenessGoalsLow Highwastage attainmentAugust 15, 2011 21ResourceUsage GoalAttainment
  22. 22. Features of an Effective ManagementAugust 15, 2011 221. Goalattainment andmaximization2. Development ofresourcefulness4. Stakeholdersatisfaction3. ProcessimprovementBases ofmeasuringmanagementeffectiveness
  23. 23. MANAGEMENT PROCESS The processes aimed at the achievement of theorganization’s stated objectives. The French industrialist Henri Fayol wrote that allmanagers perform FIVE management activities; planning,organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling. In the 1950s, two professors at UCLA recognized FIVEterms planning, organizing, staffing, directing andcontrolling as the framework of management. Now condensed to FOUR; Planning, organizing, leadingand controlling.August 15, 2011 23
  24. 24. Management Process ActivitiesAugust 15, 2011 241. Planning1. Define goals2. Establish strategy3. Develop tactics/subplans3. Leading1. Direct the people2. Motivate the people3. Resolve the conflicts2. OrganizingDetermine:1. What to be done2. How to be done3. Who is to do4. ControllingMotivate activitiesto ensure that theyare accomplishedas planned.Achieving theorganization’sstated purpose
  25. 25. Mintzberg’s Managerial RolesAugust 15, 2011 25Managerial Roles1. InterpersonalFigureheadLeaderLiaison2. InformationalMonitorDisseminatorSpokesperson3. DecisionalEntrepreneurDisturbance handlerResource allocatorNegotiator
  26. 26. MANAGERIAL SKILLS COMPETENCIESA. General Skills1. Conceptual skills 2. Human skills3. Technical skills a. Interpersonal skillsb. Political skillsB. Specific Skills1. Controlling the organization’s environment and resources2. Organizing and coordinating3. Handling information4. Providing for growth and development5. Motivating employees and handling conflicts6. Strategic problem solvingAugust 15, 2011 26CATZ’s Skills
  27. 27. Management as an Integrated FunctionAugust 15, 2011 27ManagementHuman Resources ManagementR&D and ProductionsManagementFinancial ManagementMarketing Management
  28. 28. WHY STUDY MANAGEMENT?General Reason1. Gain conceptual insights in general management ofany institutionSpecific Reasons1. To improve organization’s overall management2. To develop careerAugust 15, 2011 28
  29. 29. Universality of Management Management is a universal discipline. Application of management may be modified asper the contexts and environments but the mainessence of management principles remains sameworldwide. For example, employee motivation is a universaltool of productivity but the factors considered formotivation may be different from country tocountry and context to context.August 15, 2011 29
  30. 30. Universality of management should be studied in thefollowing basis1. Levels in the organization: lower, upper, middle2. Organizational objectives: profit or not-for-profit3. Size: big or small4. National borders: similar management concepts5. Decision making: synonymous to management6. Dealing with change: main challenge worldwide7. Competencies and skills: required worldwideAugust 15, 2011 30
  31. 31. Using the WheelThe colors are arranged on thewheel in such a way that purposefulcolor choices can be made.Choices of color combinationdepend on what you are trying toaccomplish.Such as:• Contrast• Blending• AffectAugust 15, 2011 31