Inclusion of Roma communities Dr Philip Brown, University of Salford
Inclusion of Roma communities: Issues and research directions Migration Research Seminar Manchester Metropolitan University Monday 9th July 2012 Philip Brown The University of Salford
This presentation Who are Roma The situation of Roma across the EU Research currently being undertaken Emerging issues
Who are Roma? New term – chosen at the World Romani Congress held in 1971 Describes a diverse range of communities Ancestors originating from northern India but also indigenous groups such as Irish Travellers and Yenish communities from France and Switzerland Inclusive and homogenising
Who are Roma? Four different types of Roma communities (EC, 2010) namely: • Those living in disadvantaged, highly concentrated (sub)urban districts, possibly close to other ethnic minorities and disadvantaged members of the majority; • Those living in disadvantaged parts of small cities/villages in rural regions and in segregated rural settlements isolated from majority cities/villages; • mobile Roma communities with citizenship of the country or of another EU country; • mobile and sedentary Roma communities who are third-country nationals, refugees, stateless persons or asylum seekers (p.3-4).
Numbers of Roma Difficult to know with any robustness Largest ethnic minority groups in Europe with more than 10million people Bulgaria, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the Slovakia, Romania, Serbia and Hungary - Roma people make up between 7% and 10% of the total population.
Social exclusion of Roma Deep social exclusion characterised by combining a lack of involvement in: • democratic and legal systems, • the labour market, • the welfare state • familial and (local) community networks Commins (1993) General agreement that this applies to Roma across Europe (Bartlett, Benini, and Gordon, 2011: ERIO, 2010) Several key domains with a context of social policy: housing, segregation, health, children and education, work and welfare
Key issues to note Widespread social exclusion and discrimination in many nations across Europe. A lack of mixing between many Roma and non Roma people. Entrenched mistrust and hostility towards Roma among sections of the majority populations across Europe. Indications of mistrust from Roma populations towards non Roma officials and members of the non-Roma population. Varied (and variable) response in respect of policies designed to tackle the social exclusion of Roma and / or the promotion of integration between Roma and non-Roma populations across EU states An increased awareness of, and commitment to, challenging the problems faced by Roma at the European level.
Research currently being undertaken Roma SOURCE (Sharing of Understanding Rights and Citizenship in Europe) • Two year project (2011-2013) co-funded by the European Union’s Fundamental Rights and Citizenship Programme. • Largely practice based project lead by Migration Yorkshire • Our research component: – Policy review – Empirical research (focus groups with Roma and non-Roma in 6 EU states) – Health, housing, integration and mixing, education, work and welfare
Research currently being undertaken Roma in the UK • One year project (ends 2013) funded by the Joseph Rowntree Charitable Trust • Collate what is known about Roma (population size, origins, approach by local authorities and areas) across the UK • Comprehensive survey approach to all UK local authorities supported by key informant interviews to provide: – A comprehensive data source – Understand local strategies – Identify barriers and gaps – Development of UK Roma Network
Next steps and key deliverables… Initial Roma SOURCE interim report already available from http://www.romasource.eu/ Interim findings from survey due early August Final report due in Autumn Network currently being developed (by partners Migration Yorkshire) Final Roma SOURCE report and papers due March 2013
Contact Philip Brown Salford Housing & Urban Studies Unit The University of Salford Joule House +44(0)161 2953647 firstname.lastname@example.org @shusuphil http://drphilbrown.com/Thank You!