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Serverless Comparison: AWS vs Azure vs Google vs IBM

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Serverless computing, (sometimes called function-as-a-service) is the top-growing cloud service year-over-year in 2018 compared to 2017 according to the RightScale State of the Cloud Survey. Serverless is appropriate for a variety of different use cases. We share how serverless offerings and pricing for different cloud providers compare.

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Serverless Comparison: AWS vs Azure vs Google vs IBM

  1. 1. SERVERLESS COMPARISON: AWS VS AZURE VS GOOGLE VS IBM
  2. 2. • Raphael Simon • CTO, RightScale • Kim Weins • VP Marketing and Cloud Cost Strategy Presenters
  3. 3. RightScale Cloud Management Platform Orchestrate, automate and govern workloads across all your environments. VIRTUAL SERVERS PUBLIC CLOUDS ANY CLOUD SERVICE PRIVATE CLOUDS BARE METAL SERVERS CONTAINER CLUSTERS RightScale Optima Work collaboratively across the organization to manage and optimize clouds costs. Orchestrate Cloud Workflow Plugins Monitoring Govern Accounts/Groups Access/Permissions Tags Optimize Policies Collaboration Utilization RIGHTSCALE CMP ENGINE EXTENSIBLE ORCHESTRATION API Two Solutions from RightScale
  4. 4. Organizations Use Multiple Clouds 3
  5. 5. Public Cloud Adoption 4
  6. 6. Serverless Adoption is Growing 5
  7. 7. • Understanding Serverless • Comparing AWS, Azure, Google and IBM • Benchmarks and Scalability • Pricing Agenda 6
  8. 8. “Serverless”: you don’t have to manage servers to deploy and run applications • PaaS (Platform as a Service, e.g. Google App Engine) • BaaS (Backend as a Service, e.g. Firebase) • FaaS (Function as a Service, e.g. AWS Lambda) Focus on FaaS • AWS Lambda • Azure Functions • Google Cloud Functions • IBM Cloud Functions What do you mean by Serverless? 7
  9. 9. ● Messaging ○ Integrate with data stream (Kinesis, Google Pub/Sub, Azure Event Hubs and Event Grid) ○ IoT, real-time event processing ● Event Handling ○ Integrate with event sources (S3, Google Cloud Storage, DynamoDB, Azure CosmoDB ...) ○ Real-time file processing (e.g. thumbnail creation) and analysis ● RESTful APIs ○ Integrate with API Gateway (auth, docs, routing) ○ Map endpoints to functions (e.g. one per resource) Serverless Use Cases 8
  10. 10. ● Set of services retrieve bills from clouds and upload to RightScale owned S3 bucket ● AWS Lambda trigger: ○ Validates bill files are complete and consistent ○ Send message to initiate processing Example: RightScale Bill Processing 9 RightScale Bill Pollers RightScale Bill Processing
  11. 11. Serverless Architecture 10 Client API Gateway DBaaS BaaS FaaS ... Events Function C (Event Handler) Function A Function A Function A Function B Function B Function B
  12. 12. ● No “local” persistent state ○ Use other services to store cross-request state ● Limits on execution duration and memory ○ Not suitable for long computations ● Vendor control ○ FaaS all about integration with other services ○ Amount of available compute resources not well defined (except Google) ● Can push logic to client side ○ Client responsible for orchestrating FaaS and BaaS ● Cost ○ Consider usage patterns Caveats and Limitations 11
  13. 13. COMPARING SERVERLESS COMPUTE
  14. 14. Serverless Comparison: Overview AWS Azure Google IBM Service Name Lambda Functions Cloud Functions (Beta) Cloud Functions Availability SLA None Consumption Plan: None App Service Plan: 99.95% None (Beta) No information Languages JavaScript Java C# Python Go JavaScript Java C# F# plus more experimental JavaScript Go (unofficial) JavaScript Go Python Swift PHP Docker Notes Linux is currently only available on App Service Plan 13 Source: RightScaleAs of Mar 28, 2018
  15. 15. AWS Azure Google IBM Service Name Lambda Functions Cloud Functions (Beta) Cloud Functions Memory sizes 128 to 3008 MB Automatic 128 to 1536 MB 128 to 2048 MB 128 to 512 MB CPU options Automatic Automatic 200 MHz to 2.4 GHz Automatic Disk space for function 512MB non-persistent Yes. d:local tmpfs vol uses memory No information Max code size 50 MB compressed 250 MB uncompressed None You pay storage cost 100 MB compressed 500 MB uncompressed 48 MB Max execution time 5 mins Default is 5 mins Can change to 10 mins 9 minutes 10 minutes Concurrent functions Default: 1000 per account/region (ask for increase) 200 copies of a function app 1000 per project (can’t be increased) Default: 1000 per namespace (ask for increase) Serverless Comparison: Sizes and Limits 14 Source: RightScaleAs of Mar 28, 2018
  16. 16. AWS Azure Google IBM Lambda Functions Cloud Functions (Beta) Cloud Functions On-demand (over HTTPS) S3 DynamoDB Kinesis Data Streams SNS Simple Email Service Cognito CloudFormation CloudWatch Logs CloudWatch Events CodeCommit Scheduled Events AWS Config Alexa Lex API Gateway IoT Button CloudFront Kinesis Data Firehose Blob Storage Cosmos DB Event Grid Event Hubs External File External Table HTTP Microsoft Graph (Excel, OneDrive, Outlook, Events) Mobile Apps Notification Hubs Queue storage SendGrid Service Bus Table storage Timer Twilio Webhooks HTTP Cloud Pub/Sub Cloud Storage Direct Others via Pub/Sub Alarms Cloudant database Message Hub Mobile push Github Custom (hooks, polling, connections) Serverless: Built-In Triggers 15Source: RightScaleAs of Mar 28, 2018
  17. 17. AWS • Step Functions - workflow to stitch it together • Lambda @ Edge • Have Fargate and Aurora Serverless Azure • Logic Apps • Part of “Azure App Service” offering • Can run on prem (Azure Functions Runtime) • Can pay based on Consumption plan or VMs (App Service Plan) • Durable Functions extension (stateful coordination) Google • Still in Beta IBM • Based on open source - Apache OpenWhisk • Container-based • Can run on premise Special Notes per Cloud 16
  18. 18. COMPARING SCALING
  19. 19. • Dynamically scales each function up to account limit • You can set limits for each function on number of concurrent copies • Code starts running within “milliseconds” of event AWS Lambda Scaling 18
  20. 20. • Unit of scale is not a function, it’s a functions host (AKA function app). • Functions inside a function app all scale together • You don’t set memory on functions. • Max of 200 copies of a function app • Each function app can process >1 event • New instances (eg functions host) can be added only every 10 seconds • Scaling on HTTPs triggers seems to have improved a lot between Jan and Mar Azure Functions Scaling 19 https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/azure-functions/functions -scale#how-the-consumption-plan-works
  21. 21. • Scales each function independently (function instances) • Dynamically scales each function up to account limit • Function instance environment remains to handle next query unless Google is scaling down • Per Google docs, “cold starts” are “expensive”. They happen • When you deploy your function • On scaling up • To replace an existing instance (such as failure not handled properly) Google Cloud Functions Scaling 20
  22. 22. • Scales each function independently (function) • Dynamically scales each function up to account limit • Uses a container for each active function • Per IBM docs, invocations are “instant” • Openwhisk recycles containers and pre-warms containers • https://medium.com/openwhisk/squeezing-the-milliseconds-how-to-make-serverless-platform s-blazing-fast-aea0e9951bd0 IBM Cloud Functions Scaling 21
  23. 23. CPU Benchmark (512 MB) 22
  24. 24. CPU Benchmark (1024 MB) 23
  25. 25. Total Time to Complete Benchmark 24 Impact of 2x memory on time to complete: AWS: -45% Google: -36% Azure: N/A
  26. 26. HTTP Trigger Scaling: Gradual Ramp 25 Source: https://www.azurefromthetrenches.com/azure-functions-significant-improvements-in-http-trigger-scaling/ Thanks to James @azuretrenches
  27. 27. HTTP Trigger Scaling: Rapid Ramp 26 Source: https://www.azurefromthetrenches.com/azure-functions-significant-improvements-in-http-trigger-scaling/ Thanks to James @azuretrenches
  28. 28. COMPARING PRICING
  29. 29. AWS Azure Google IBM Name of Services Lambda Functions (Consumption plan) Cloud Functions Cloud Functions Memory sizes 128 to 3008 MB 128 to 1536 MB 128 to 2048 MB 128 to 512 MB CPU options Automatic Automatic 200 MHz to 2.4 GHz Automatic Billing increments for memory 64MB 128MB 5 sizes 3 sizes Min billed execution time 100 ms 100 ms 100 ms 100 ms Billing increments for execution time 100 ms 1 ms 100 ms 100 ms Severless: Pricing Factors Source: RightScaleAs of Mar 28, 2018
  30. 30. AWS Azure Google IBM Name of Services Lambda Functions (Consumption plan) Cloud Functions Cloud Functions Function Invocations (per 1M) $0.20 $0.20 $0.40 N/A Duration/Memory (per 1M GB-secs) $16.67 $16.00 $2.50 $17.00 Duration/CPU (per 1M GHz-secs) N/A N/A $10.00 N/A Network egress (per GB) $.09 $.087 $0.12 $.09 Free Invocations (per month) 1M 1M 2M N/A Free Duration/Mem (per month) 400K 400K 400K 400K Free Duration/CPU (per month) N/A N/A 200K N/A Free network egress (per month) Part of overall EC2 free tier of 1 GB Part of overall free tier of 5 GB 5 GB for Cloud Functions None noted for Cloud Functions Severless - Prices Source: RightScaleAs of Mar 28, 2018
  31. 31. Scenarios AWS Azure Google IBM Lambda Functions (Consumption plan) Cloud Functions Cloud Functions 128 MB, 100 ms 100M executions $40.84 $40.00 $63.13 $21.25 256 MB, 100 ms 100M executions $61.68 $60.00 $86.25 $42.50 512 MB, 1 sec 10M executions $85.35 $82.00 $96.50 $85.00 1024 MB, 10 sec 100M executions $16,690 $16,020 $16,876 $17,000 Serverless: Pricing Scenarios Source: RightScaleAs of Mar 28, 2018
  32. 32. Example: Serverless vs. Instances/VMs 31
  33. 33. RightScale Example: Your mileage will vary! 32 Scenarios AWS Lambda AWS Instances (flat) AWS Instances (auto scale) Daily Volume 2.5B function calls 25M API requests 25M API requests Sizing 128 MB, 100 ms 10 m5.xl 240 instance-hrs 4-10 m5.xlarge 178 instance-hours Unit cost $.20 per 1M requests $16.67 per 1M GB-s $0.192/hr $0.192/hr Cost per day $1020.94 $46.08 $34.18
  34. 34. Use when: • Easily decomposable functions • Highly-variable demand (fast response time needed) • Low demand • Overhead of running instances is high (people/mgmt cost) • Need tight integration to cloud events Use caution if: • You don’t want to lock-in to a cloud • Demand is not variable When does serverless make cost sense? 33
  35. 35. • Free Cloud Comparison Tool • cloudcomparison.rightscale.com Contact sales@rightscale.com for more info Q&A 34

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