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National REDD strategy Vietnam


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Pham Manh Cuong, Forest Management Division, Department of Forestry, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Vietnam

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National REDD strategy Vietnam

  1. 1. DYNAMICS OF FOREST RESOURCES AND TENTATIVE VIETNAM REDD STRATEGY Dr. Pham Manh Cuong National REDD Focal Point Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) (with the contribution of Tim Boyle - UNDP)
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Forests and of forest dynamics in Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation of REDD in Vietnam: The government point of view and the National REDD Strategy </li></ul>
  3. 3. I. Forests and of forest dynamics in Vietnam
  4. 5. <ul><li>Hilly and mountainous regions account for ¾ of Vietnam’s total natural land; </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam has coastal lines more than 3,000 km long; </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the mountainous and coastal wetland areas were formerly covered by a wide range of natural forests: tropical rain forest in most region, sub-tropical forest in the north and at high altitudes, mangrove forest along coastline, forests in peatland in the deltas; </li></ul><ul><li>Forests are home to over 20 million people, most of them belong to ethnic minority groups and they are the poorest of the poor. </li></ul>1.1 Brief introduction on f orest in Vietnam
  5. 6. <ul><li>Forest cover has changed dramatically and dynamically over the time and space , especially from the country reunification in 1975 up to date; </li></ul><ul><li>Forest cover increased from 28% (1995) to 38% (2006) BUT the changes are not always in progressive and the same in all regions; </li></ul><ul><li>Forest expansion due to afforestation with fast growing species, short rotation, one canopy layer and low carbon stock; </li></ul><ul><li>Forest quality is continuously degraded: Area of primary forest reduced from 3.84 (1990) – 0.84 mill ha (2005) or 29 900ha/year; </li></ul>1.2 Have deforestation & forest degradation occurred in Vietnam ?
  6. 7. Forest cover changes
  7. 8. 1.2 Examples of Deforestation & forest degradation
  8. 9. Jan 1987
  9. 10. Jan 2007
  10. 11. Feb 1997
  11. 12. Jan 2007
  12. 13. Natural deforestation in 1 District in the Central Highlands Total area of district: 81.500 Ha Forest loss 1987-1997: 13.200 Ha Forest loss 1997-2007: 21.700 Ha
  13. 14. <ul><li>Conversion of forests into other land uses, especially agriculturally and aqua-culturally cultivated land; </li></ul><ul><li>Development of infrastructural facilities and construction of hydro-power plants; </li></ul><ul><li>High population growth, resettlement, migration and poverty ; </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing market demand for timber products and fuel wood; </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate forest management and harvesting methods (e.g. excessive timber logging); </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete legal systems and lack of capacity to enforce the laws; </li></ul><ul><li>Corruption: legal but illegal! </li></ul>1.3 Major driving forces behind the deforestation & FD in Vietnam
  14. 15. Land encroachment
  15. 18. Timber import and export trends 1999-2005 <ul><li>It is estimated that VN wood processing industry will need 10-12 mill m 3 of round-wood by 2010 </li></ul>
  16. 19. Conversion of forests into agriculturally cultivated land in the North
  17. 20. Conversion of forests into commercial crops in the Central Highlands
  18. 21. Exploitation of Melaleuca forest (Peatland forest)
  19. 22. Conversion of peatland forests to agriculturally cultivated land and shriming farms causes huge CO2 emission and soil degradation
  20. 23. Conversion of Mangrove forest to shrimp farms in Ca Mau Peninsular
  21. 24. II. REDD Implementation in Vietnam: The Government point of view and National REDD Strategy
  22. 25. <ul><li>Vietnam has signed the UNFCCC in Nov. 1994 and the Kyoto Protocol in Sept. 2002; </li></ul><ul><li>UNCBD, UNCCD, RAMSAR, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>It is considered as one of the country’s obligation to implementation of the UNFCC and other MEAs; </li></ul><ul><li>Not only adaptation but also mitigation activities; </li></ul>2.1 International Commitments
  23. 26. <ul><li>VN is one of the 5 most adversely CC affected countries. Response to climate change has attracted great attention from Party and Gov of Vietnam; </li></ul><ul><li>REDD implementation contributes directly and significantly to Vietnam SDA (Agenda 21); </li></ul><ul><li>REDD implementation directly contributes to the implementation NTP and AP to response to climate change of MARD; </li></ul><ul><li>Development of R-PIN to apply for WB FCPF; </li></ul><ul><li>Letter of Interest to the UN-REDD; </li></ul><ul><li>REDD will require a new level of forest governance – re-framing forest policy in CC context and capacity buidling </li></ul>2.2 Policies and key actions
  24. 27. <ul><li>It is trans-boundary, multi-sectoral prog; requires the wide and active participation of various stakeholders; </li></ul><ul><li>REDD policies: national-based (programmatic) approach to avoid in-country leakage BUT also accepts project–based option for first period (learning by doing); </li></ul><ul><li>Under umbrella of the NTP and MARD’s AP; </li></ul><ul><li>Utilization of existing institutional structure and platforms: MARD ISG, FSSP with close cooperation with MONRE; </li></ul><ul><li>Mobilization of all potential resources: Gov, donors, private sector and local communities with the integration into existing socio-economic development progs and strategies; </li></ul><ul><li>A combination of market-based and non-market based mechanisms; </li></ul><ul><li>Country-led program but needs support from international donor community; </li></ul><ul><li>Result of pilot studies will amend to current PES policies; </li></ul>2.3 VN View of Point on REDD Prog.
  25. 28. 2.4 National REDD Strategy <ul><li>Objective: to reduce emission from deforestation and forest degradation and promote socio-economic development and poverty alleviation in the forestry areas through sustainble management of existing natural forests and facilitate reforestation (naturally regeneration and forest plantations) </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen FM and reforestation: 14.3 mill ha in 2010 (43%) – 16.24 mill ha 2020 (47%); </li></ul><ul><li>Afforestation: 1.0 mill. (2006-2010);1.5 mill ha in 2011-2020; </li></ul><ul><li>Wood production: 20-24 mill m 3 /year; </li></ul>
  26. 29. Proposed Components of the national REDD Strategy R eference scenario formulation E stablishment of national REDD strategy D evelopment of transparent C-stock monitoring/ verification system and data management D esign of payment system E ngagement with stakeholders at a various levels (stakeholder dialogues) R eport, review, evaluate, and learn from system performance
  27. 30. Components of the national REDD regime REFERENCE SCENARIO FORMULATION Historical trends in forest cover and deforestation analyzed Forecast of development trends Baseline survey of forest cover Stakeholder consultations Reference scenario of forest cover
  28. 32. Components of the national REDD Strategy REFERENCE SCENARIO FORMULATION Historical trends in forest cover and deforestation analyzed Forecast of development trends Baseline survey of forest cover Stakeholder consultations Reference scenario of forest cover Development of C-stock norms and models Reference scenario of forest C-stocks
  29. 33. Components of the national REDD Strategy REDD STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT Mapping of deforestation/ degradation change data Stakeholder consultations Identification of REDD priorities Identification of deforestation/ degradation drivers Socio-economic analysis of drivers Policy/institutional analysis of drivers
  30. 34. Components of the national REDD Strategy C-STOCK MONITORING, ASSESSMENT & VERIFICATION Analyze M&V methodology options and select optimum consistent with IPCC GPG Capital investment Training and institutional capacity development Collection of remotely sensed data Establishment of sample plot system Initial C-stock data collection Establishment re-sampling system Relate to reference scenario of forest C-stocks
  31. 35. <ul><li>National Steering Committee (MONRE, MARD, other line ministries) to respond to CC chaired by Prime Minister; </li></ul><ul><li>MARD’s SC committee for AP chaired by Minister; </li></ul><ul><li>Ad-hoc REDD Technical Working Group chaired by DOF and co-chaired by a donor in rotational basis; </li></ul><ul><li>CC Network among Gov and NGOs chaired by CARE; </li></ul><ul><li>National and (3) regional technical workshops: UNDP, George Washington Univ, Queensland Univ - RECOFTC; </li></ul><ul><li>CC- Public and private partnership (Ford Foundation); </li></ul>Institutional arrangement and consultation processes
  32. 36. <ul><li>Re-planning and re-zoning forest categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production forest: 8.34 mill ha of which 4.15 ha of forest plantations, 30% FA receives FSC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection forest: 5.68 mill ha </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special-use forest: 2.16 mill ha </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accelerate and finalize the Forest land allocation and forest leasing. By 2010: all forests are allocated to HHs & economic entities; By 2020: permanent real forest estate ; </li></ul><ul><li>National FIMAP and NMS for NR&E; </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot study: Winrock Inc (USAID), Japanese Ministry of AF; </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation of national PES policy; </li></ul>Some technical activities
  33. 37. Landsat TM Acquired date : 17 - 10 - 2001 Forest Type: closed evergreen broadleaved forest Location: Kon Ha Nung - Gia Lai Altitude : 1,480m Description: Dark brown color, homogenous structure, fine texture Distribution: far away from residential areas and paved roads. Field Photo Forest type: closed evergreen broadleaved forest (IIIA3) Location: Kon Ha Nung Forest Enterprise Crown cover: 0,8 Tree composition: Sen, Hoang dan, Gioi, Re, Thong nang Forest parameters: H = 19m, G = 19m 2 , D = 27 cm, M = 200 - 230 m 3
  34. 38. Improvement in forest use rights and participation of indigenous people in FM
  35. 39. Components of the national REDD Strategy DESIGN OF PAYMENT SYSTEM Identification of REDD stakeholders/ beneficiaries Agreed allocation framework Stakeholder consultations Design of payment mechanism Analysis of legal, policy and institutional arrangements required for C-credit trading Analysis of legal, policy and institutional arrangement required for transfer payments
  36. 40. Components of the national REDD Strategy ENGAGEMENT WITH VARIOUS STAKEHOLDERS REDD mainstreamed into key national planning documents REDD awareness raising Refinement and endorsement of REDD priorities at provincial/ district level REDD training REDD payment mechanism Stakeholder consultations National REDD strategy Baseline surveys
  37. 41. Components of the national REDD Strategy REPORTING &MONITORING PERFORMANCE National and local REDD strategies Payment mechanism C-stock assessments Stakeholder consultations Change data Payment data Assessment of performance
  38. 42. Result Target Assumptions Outcome 1: Scientifically valid and stakeholder endorsed reference scenario By the end of 2009, C-stock reference scenario established Outcome 2: National REDD strategy with multi-stakeholder endorsement C-norms and models can be developed in time Stakeholders views not too divergent By the end of June 2009, a national REDD strategy is adopted Analyses have correctly captured D&FD dynamics Outcome 3: etc., etc.
  39. 43. Matrix of REDD activities: to enhance effectiveness and avoid overlap & redundancy Component Inputs required Partner comparative advantage C-stock verification Capital investment Training Survey Selection of methodology Payment mechanism, etc. UN-REDD/ FCPF JICA UN-REDD JICA, FAO GTZ, USAID, FCPF, …
  40. 44. Thank you very much for your attention! [email_address]