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Delimiting Community Land Rights in Mozambique


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Simon Norfolk, independent land advisor

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Delimiting Community Land Rights in Mozambique

  1. 1. Securing rights to territories through participatory land delimitation: Lessons for scaling up Simon Norfolk Terra Firma Lda Moçambique
  2. 2.
  3. 3. Customary tenure rights <ul><li>Securing rights based on customary tenure at group level is a relatively recent focus </li></ul><ul><li>Some countries still attempting to abolish (Rwanda, Lesotho) </li></ul><ul><li>Mozambique - a policy framework to integrate </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology - a route to formalisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition in law of informally acquired rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition of rights to participate in management & administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal recording and registering of informal land rights, legally acquired through occupancy, formally recognised in law, but informally administered and ‘invisible’ to the formal systems of rights registration </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Land Policies <ul><li>Important to get right - process is important </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of ‘appropriate spaces’, where legitimate claims can be acknowledged </li></ul><ul><li>Consultation </li></ul><ul><li>Piloting </li></ul><ul><li>Iteration </li></ul>
  5. 5. Timeline of a land tenure reform process <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peace Agreement (1992) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elections (1994) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Return process (1993-1994 onwards) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ad hoc Land Commission (1993) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research (1992 – 2004) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land policy (1995) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inter-Ministerial Land Commission (1996 - 2003) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Participatory development process - Land Law (1996 - 1997 ) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land Campaign and land law dissemination (1998 -1999) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regulations to the Land Law ( 1998 ) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technical Annex for community land registration (1998 -1999) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Community land registration (1999 onwards) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provincial support to land policy implementation (Zambézia, Nampula, Sofala) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cadastral reform and decentralisation (2000 onwards) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training judiciary (2001 onwards) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-donor Community Land Use Fund (development from 2003 onwards), MCC support to land administration from 2008.a </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>1992 2008
  6. 6. Concepts in the 1997 Land Law <ul><li>Statutory rights of occupation awarded by operation of law ( customary and good faith occupation of land) </li></ul><ul><li>Protection in law of rights obtained through occupation without the need for their formalisation and registration </li></ul><ul><li>Single form of land tenure right, irrespective of the means through which it is acquired </li></ul><ul><li>Independent land rights for women </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible definition of local community as a rights-holding entity </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory methodology for spatially defining the acquired rights (land delimitation), access to the registration of group rights, the award of legal personality to local community groups </li></ul><ul><li>Right of local rights holders to participate in land and natural resources management and land rights allocation processes </li></ul>
  7. 7. Delimitation <ul><li>Technical Annex to the Law (legislated PRA process) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proves the existence of the right obtained by occupation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishes the spatial characteristics of the right </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also open to individuals: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>from within the customary realm - dismember their individual rights from a community-held right </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>good faith occupation of land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>State or community can invoke the registration mechanism </li></ul>
  8. 8. ‘ SENSITISATION’ These diagrams are adapted from CTC Consulting: Appraisal of the Potential for a Community Land Registration, Negotiation, and Planning Support Programme, Mozambique . A report for DfID Mozambique. The CTC diagram is based upon the Manual de Delimitacao de Terras das Comunidades ( Maputo, Comissao Inter-ministerial para a Revisao da Legislacao de Terras), which is a training manual for field staff showing them in detail how a delimitation exercise should be done. DELIMITATION – 1 Complete information Social organisation Cross-referencing History of the Community Land Use Land management Spatial occupation Cross-referencing and confirming information Participatory maps MEN WOMEN YOUTH GROUP consensus-based, composite participatory map Note the Rights of Way
  9. 9. DELIMITATION – 2 Validate information with neighbours FEEDBACK & AGREEMENT MAP AND DESCRIPTIVE RECORDS RECORDED IN CADASTRAL ATLAS Points Feature 1 - 2 River X 2 - 3 Straight line on map 3 - 4 Road to Pemba 4 - 5 Road between A & B 5 – 6 River Y 6 – 7 Straight line on map 7 – 1 Straight line on map LINE RECORD Point Coordinates 1 E X´yy” S a´bb” 2 3 4 5 etc POINT RECORD Identify known features on topographical maps (rivers, roads etc Geo-reference lines / features not observable on maps (GPS at key points) ‘ DUAT’ (land right) of the community Transfer information to 1:50.000 topographical maps Formal map A B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Y X Pemba
  10. 10. Representation & management - the ‘local community’ <ul><li>Applicable in numerous cultural and geographical contexts - different resources, land occupation and land uses </li></ul><ul><li>Policy: that which functions in reality - grounded in what exists presently, rather than on something new and unfamiliar </li></ul><ul><li>Collective entity - a large number of small, often shifting, customarily acquired rights, as well as common resources </li></ul><ul><li>Entity manages these small local rights according to own norms and practices & is the title holder of a single, collectively managed community right </li></ul>
  11. 11. Representation - some ‘realities’ <ul><li>Increased level of complexity - higher than the simplicity and freedom of choice implied in the formalisation of rights at an individual level </li></ul><ul><li>Involves responsibilities between citizens, members of groups and the institutions that represent them </li></ul><ul><li>Requires institutions that have local legitimacy and which are legally recognised </li></ul><ul><li>Risks, costs and time </li></ul><ul><li>Local people have low levels of trust in authorities - slow to take new institutional opportunities </li></ul>
  12. 12. Support <ul><li>1998 - piloting of methodology (FAO) </li></ul><ul><li>1999-2003 - further piloting in one province - through partnership between local government & an NGO to deliver ‘x’ delimitations </li></ul><ul><li>Post 2003 - Move to scale - demand rather than supply-driven </li></ul><ul><li>2006 - DFID, SIDA, Holland, SDC, Danida, Ireland - Community Land Fund ( Iniciativa das Terras Comunitárias - ITC) </li></ul><ul><li>3 provinces, ~$1m/year for 3 years </li></ul><ul><li>2008 - MCC Compact - matching contribution, additional 3 provinces </li></ul>
  13. 13. Forms of Support Support for Sustainable Local Economic Development Provision of business support service for local economic development Support for Natural Resource Assets - Identification and Documentation of resources and rights - Administrative/Judicial process for the declaration of rights of use and extraction of products for household consumption - Community Licensing and Concessions - Partnership Agreements – private and public agencies Support for Land Assets - Land Identification and Documentation - Land Delimitation and Certification - Land Demarcation and Titling - Administrative/Judicial process for the declaration of rights of passage and use (easements and servitudes, etc) - Partnership Agreements – private and public agencies Support to Asset-based Local Economic Development Capacity Building Training & Monitoring - consultation and negotiation techniques/methods - dispute resolution and mediation techniques/methods - monitoring of the community consultation and negotiation process Raise Awareness, Education & Training - technical and legal assistance Consultation and Negotiations Raise Awareness, Education & Training and Planning Organisational & Capacity Development Social Preparation & Planning Support
  14. 14. Progress & impact <ul><li>Nampula </li></ul><ul><ul><li>71 communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>500,000 ha </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200,000 people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Zambézia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>86 communities (+ 34 in progress) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2m ha </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>538,000 people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State unable to simply ignore rights </li></ul><ul><li>Strong legal and protective framework </li></ul><ul><li>Informed populations & increased awareness - change in attitudes, increased confidence, ability to engage more effectively with the outside world </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthens community organisation - a committee of elected representatives (neither necessarily traditional leaders nor community ‘authorities’ recognised by the State) </li></ul><ul><li>Better sense of the potential of land and resources </li></ul>
  15. 15. Challenges <ul><li>The stakes have risen: land even more valuable - constraint on the political will to recognize customary rights as property rights </li></ul><ul><li>Land as an asset vs. land as a livelihood base : meeting the security of investors or people? </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties in integrating customary tenure systems in national law - bureaucratic actors construct systems of rights and entitlements (policy), but also impede them (implementation) </li></ul><ul><li>New land laws often produce - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce unworkable statutory norms & procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are too costly to implement at scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliver frameworks that are focused on individualised tenure (still ignoring collective properties) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still structured around collateralization, not securitisation </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Challenges (2) <ul><li>Land administration services require serious reform, involving a change in attitude and capacity building </li></ul><ul><li>Community representation - blurring of public and private - inadequate regulations and arrangements post-delimitation </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging formalisation of collective property rights at a manageable scale (needs to be about management and not jurisdiction/patronage) </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating resource management with tenure security - participatory planning, zoning & regulation of use (collective pastures and forests) </li></ul><ul><li>Access to justice </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation depends on shared common identities and on a belief in democracy and the rule of law - “high theory and low practise” (McAuslan) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Conclusions <ul><li>Flexible routes to formalisation are needed </li></ul><ul><li>Formalisation involves more than mapping and registration of rights: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>civic education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>community capacity building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>showing things working in practice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutional and human capacity for implementation needed - the ‘cadre’ of land administrators, the NGOs and service providers, the key drivers for change </li></ul><ul><li>Need for resources to get legal but invisible rights on to official maps and records </li></ul><ul><li>Need to deal with the vested interests of social elites (inside and outside of communities) and “petty” corruption at national and local level </li></ul><ul><li>An enabling policy and legislative framework is not enough - strong political will and grass-roots mobilisation are key elements </li></ul>
  18. 18. Conclusions (2) <ul><li>Institutional reform and capacity building in government and civil society is essential </li></ul><ul><li>Balancing quality with quantity </li></ul><ul><li>Political resistance to recognizing customary rights is immense </li></ul><ul><li>The role of donors: can make or break </li></ul><ul><li>What is needed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong M&E systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fora for engagement - national government and consultative processes for reviewing and adjusting policy and legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical and social processes need to be balanced – avoid an overemphasis on either </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro-poor land reform requires large scale and long-term investments by governments, usually with targeted donor support </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Thank you! </li></ul>