Analyzing the state of science and technology in non hegemonic countries (2008)

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A brief review of issues about the state of scientific and technological development

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Analyzing the state of science and technology in non hegemonic countries (2008)

  1. 1. Analyzing the state of science and technology in non hegemonic countries Rigas Arvanitis “ Savoir et développement” IRD, France IRD/Savoirs et Développement FLACSO Marzo 2008
  2. 2. Un poco de publicidad... <ul><li>Revue d’Anthropologie des Connaissances http://www.ird.fr/socanco/ </li></ul><ul><li>www.cairn.info </li></ul>IRD/Savoirs et Développement
  3. 3. Un poco de publicidad... <ul><li>Dos otros “journals”: </li></ul><ul><li>Science, Technology and Society (Sage) </li></ul><ul><li>International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development </li></ul>IRD/Savoirs et Développement
  4. 4. Key areas of interest of IRD Team <ul><li>Scientific communities </li></ul><ul><li>The creation of scientific knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>The practice and policies toward scientific cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>The evaluation of research systems / The role of evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>The relation of research and production </li></ul><ul><li>Technological learning and innovation in entreprises </li></ul><ul><li>The social insertion of science </li></ul>IRD/Savoirs et Développement
  5. 5. Why review research and innovation systems ? <ul><li>Political decision makers are not keen on supporting research </li></ul><ul><li>University reform is always more important than research </li></ul><ul><li>Research policy in many countries is an outgrowth of international cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis are good for research </li></ul><ul><li>...and the context has changed ! </li></ul>IRD/Savoirs et Développement
  6. 6. Seven changes that affect research and innovation systems ? <ul><li>Science and technology get closer; You need science to develop technology and technology becomes an input of science (Frontier sciences, basic technological research, …) Basic/Applied no more applies. </li></ul><ul><li>The increasing role of private companies and private R&D. Structures are not fitted for this change. </li></ul><ul><li>The Environmental issues are at the forefront </li></ul><ul><li>Users demand more participation (NGOs, multiplication of funding sources and implicit policy-making bodies) </li></ul><ul><li>Information technologies (ICTs) contribute to a new economy and new collaborative practices </li></ul><ul><li>Governance of science is all the more international but national actors implement national directions. </li></ul><ul><li>Changing North–South relations. “Developing countries” have disappeared. </li></ul>IRD/Savoirs et Développement
  7. 7. Five stakes for research <ul><li>Access to resources (budgets, salaries, institutional position, status of researchers) </li></ul><ul><li>Access to researchers: Training for research </li></ul><ul><li>Access to infrastructure : Creation of laboratories and teams </li></ul><ul><li>Access to power structures : Recognition of research inside university structures and administrative levels </li></ul><ul><li>Access to data and the field </li></ul>IRD/Savoirs et Développement
  8. 8. Necessary studies <ul><li>Science in Africa (Roland Waast, IRD) 12 countries </li></ul><ul><li>Morocco : evaluation of research, national process (Waast) </li></ul><ul><li>ESTIME: S&T in Mediterranean countries (7 countries) </li></ul><ul><li>Meta-Study : UNESCO (Mouton & Waast) (52 countries all continents) </li></ul>IRD/Savoirs et Développement
  9. 9. The Meta-Study proposal <ul><li>Create the conditions for a mapping of research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Template </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bibliography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network of reference centers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduce the diversity to a typology of research systems. </li></ul>IRD/Savoirs et Développement
  10. 10. Template for country reviews 1/3 <ul><li>Necessary items that one has to take into account: </li></ul><ul><li>Context: history & context </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions (listing/narratives) </li></ul><ul><li>Governance of science (science policy.making level </li></ul><ul><li>Policies </li></ul>IRD/Savoirs et Développement
  11. 11. Template for country reviews 2/3 <ul><li>Knowledge producers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research institutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tech centres / Innovation units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R&D (productive) units </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scientific community structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Associations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International cooperation </li></ul></ul>IRD/Savoirs et Développement
  12. 12. Template for country reviews 3/3 <ul><li>Ressources (people+funding) </li></ul><ul><li>Significant outputs (publications) </li></ul><ul><li>Technology indicators + innovation surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific cooperation agreements </li></ul>IRD/Savoirs et Développement
  13. 13. The research systems reviews <ul><li>Support policy analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disciplines / areas / history </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Support in-depth case studies instead of simple indicators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social acceptance of science </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Field research and strategic evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insufficient info by stats / insufficient indicators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comparison (benchmarking?) is not a “panacea” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See pb. with the typology of countries  case studies </li></ul></ul>IRD/Savoirs et Développement
  14. 14. Some difficult issues 1/2 <ul><li>Innovation + research (should we add economic specialization, foreign R&D, FDIs?) </li></ul><ul><li>Do we have innovation systems ? Research systems ? No systems at all ? Social insertion of science? Elite knowledge vs lay knowledge (persons/ indigenous/local/users knowledge)? </li></ul><ul><li>What about sustainable development? Millenium objectives? Innovation systems? </li></ul>IRD/Savoirs et Développement
  15. 15. Some difficult issues 2/2 <ul><li>What about the special role that social sciences play in the research system ? </li></ul><ul><li>What about funding mechanisms? Institutes vs. Agencies </li></ul><ul><li>(the change of mechanisms is inducing changes in the evaluation and decisions about fields of research) </li></ul>IRD/Savoirs et Développement
  16. 16. IRD/Savoirs et Développement INSTITUT AGENCY Organisation Own research personnel Fund with no personnel Budget related to internal forces Budgets on call for offers Definition of research programmes By researchers (internal committees), strong steering by researchers By « donors », external funders, and programme mamangers
  17. 17. IRD/Savoirs et Développement INSTITUT AGENCY Evaluation Mainly by committees, and mainly individual (recrutement ; advancement). Mainly by “external” committees on projects by peers. Scientific community Participation depends on size of the institution Participation depends on the amounts of the funds
  18. 18. Some needs <ul><li>A more formal exercise of the research and innovation systems (eg. Amable, Barré, Boyer) </li></ul><ul><li>Create an exchange plateform / collaborative work with Unesco </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Including bibliometric data institutions+disciplines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Including narratives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(data not comments) </li></ul></ul>IRD/Savoirs et Développement
  19. 19. Additions on the long term <ul><li>Create reference centres in some countries and create teams </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See p.13 + examples like STEPI </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Networking of “observatories” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example of RICyT / example of MIRA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Promote training in policy related analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On a regional basis – Unesco offices + other organizations (ALECSO, Africa, EU DG research, OECD, Globelics network) </li></ul></ul>IRD/Savoirs et Développement
  20. 20. Future strategy : 4 orientations <ul><li>Strategic evaluation (country review) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on uses of research </li></ul><ul><li>Micro-bibliometric analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Specific surveys </li></ul><ul><li>seguido </li></ul>IRD/Savoirs et Développement
  21. 21. 1. Strategic Evaluation <ul><li>not only expert rounds </li></ul><ul><li>Deskwork (indicators) </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of survey results </li></ul><ul><li>Experts foreign/local by domain </li></ul><ul><li>Field work (case studies) </li></ul>IRD/Savoirs et Développement
  22. 22. 2. Uses of research <ul><li>Focus on uses of research and innovation through research (R&D) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ productive knowledge” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>areas that are interface </li></ul></ul>IRD/Savoirs et Développement
  23. 23. 3. Bibliometrics <ul><li>micro-bibliometric analysis at the level of disciplines and institutions  create a specific training on these issues (see example country/discipline ) </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually create specific databases ? </li></ul>IRD/Savoirs et Développement
  24. 24. 4. Future surveys <ul><li>Surveys on innovation : SMEs and technological learning </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys on cooperation + labs : A real need that has not been covered /EULAKS </li></ul><ul><li>Pay attention to the accumulation of narratives (case studies/local knowledge) /EULAKS again! </li></ul>IRD/Savoirs et Développement
  25. 25. Muchas gracias <ul><li>http://www.estime.ird.fr/ </li></ul><ul><li>Revue d’Anthropologie des Connaissances ( www.cairn.info ) </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ur105.ird.fr/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.stswiki.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://rigas.ouvaton.org/ </li></ul>IRD/Savoirs et Développement

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