Branding bangladesh

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Branding bangladesh

  1. 1. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh11.1Background of the Study:Interest in the concept and practice of nation branding has proliferated in recent years, as moreand more governments around the world attempt to attach the power of commercial brandingtechniques in order to improve their country‘s image and reputation across a wide range ofsectors. Bangladeshis have a persistent grievance that Bangladesh is not justly portrayed ininternational forums. It has become commonplace for the country to be associated with naturalcalamities, wavering political situation, corruption and other negative attributes. So, it isnecessary to remove the negative perception about Bangladesh & to spread out the positive newsto enhance the image of Bangladesh in the world.1.2Broad Objective:The main objective of the study is to understand the perceptions of foreigners & native peopleabout Bangladesh & to find the possible ways that will enhance the image of Bangladeshglobally.1.3 Specific Objectives:Under a broad objective the study focused on some several activities for comprehending anoverall review. To identify the problems that Bangladesh faces in tourism industry. To find the tourist spots those are renowned globally & domestically. To identify the solution that will lessen the problems in tourism industry. To find the awareness of people about the culture of Bangladesh. To understand the perception of native people and foreigners about the people ofBangladesh. To find which country of origin is more precious to people. To identify the factors that limits the investment decision. To understand the image of the government of Bangladesh around the world.
  2. 2. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh21.4 Research Design:I. Type of research design:Both the exploratory and descriptive research designs have been adopted for the study. The pilotsurvey is undertaken that is less structured & contained more open ended questions & samplesize is smaller.II. Information needs:The information needed for the study was to understand the perception of people aboutBangladesh and what are the problems regarding the field of tourism, export, investment andgovernance and the possible ways to solve those to enhance the image of Bangladesh globallyand domestically.III. Data collection from secondary sources:The secondary data is collected from various publications, books, internet browsing.IV. Data collection from primary sources:The primary data is collected by interviewing the foreigners and native people.V. Scaling techniques:For the purpose of the analysis, questions have been made using noncomparative scalingtechniques.Noncomparative scaling technique is a scaling technique in which each stimulusobject is scaled independently of the other objects in the stimulus set. Among noncomparativescaling techniques, itemized rating scale- nine point Likert scale is used.VI. Sampling techniques:The sample units have been selected by using convenience sampling from different parts theDhaka City.
  3. 3. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh3VII. Sample Size:For this study, the total number of respondents is 30. Among them 15 respondents are foreignersand rest of the respondents are native people. The respondents are chosen from variousoccupations like students, service holders, businessman, doctor, teacher, and tourist.1.5Methodology of the study:The study is dependent on both primary sources and secondary sources to collect information onvarious aspects of tourism, people, culture, export, FDI (foreign direct investment), andgovernance of Bangladesh.There are two types of method for data collection, survey and observation. For the study, the datahas collected through survey method. It is an efficient way of collecting information from a largenumber of respondents.Two types of survey questionnaire have used for the study. One questionnaire has used formeasuring the perceptions of foreigners‘ and the other has used for measuring the perceptions ofnative people of Bangladesh. Each survey questionnaire was divided into three parts for thepurpose of collectingBasic information,Classification information &Identification informationThe questionnaires include both Unstructured questions & Structured questions.Unstructured questions are open- ended questions that respondents answer in their own words.On the other hand, structures questions include multiple choice questions, dichotomous questionsand scales.
  4. 4. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh4The study is descriptive in nature that incorporates collection of primary data. The sample unitshave been selected according to the convenience from different parts the Dhaka City. The samplesize is 30 which include 15 foreigners & 15 native people. The basic structure of the model hasbeen adopted from the Anholt-GfK Roper Nation Brands IndexSM.
  5. 5. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh51.6Conceptual Model:TourismCulturePeopleExportIncreaseawareness &favorable imageaboutBangladeshGovernanceInvestmentBrandingBangladesh
  6. 6. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh61.7Limitation of the study:During the preparation of this report, several problems have been encountered that may betermed as the limitation of the study. Adequate efforts have been taken to accomplish thestudy according to the objectives. But as the research team is consisted of only one membertherefore it was not possible to cover more additional area, which would obviously givebetter results.Time Limitation:The survey method needs a sufficient time to communicate with the respondents. But it doesnot happen because people are always in rush. They do not make enough time for answeringthe questions. Therefore, a very limited period of time is found for conducting the survey.Financial Limitation:The survey method needs efficient fund for fulfilling it properly. As it is for the academicpurpose, money shortage is an obvious constrain. For data collection, the budget for printingand transportation costs is limited.Literature Review Limitation:This study has not done first time in Bangladesh. But the literature reviews were not easilyavailable. Moreover, there was very little information found in the perspective ofBangladesh.
  7. 7. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh72.1Branding:Marketing Guru Philip Kotler defined brand as ―a name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or acombination of them, intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellersand to differentiate them from those of competitors.‖He explains that a brand is basically a seller‘s promise to deliver a specific set of features,benefits, and services consistently to the buyers. The best brands convey a warranty of quality.Branding can convey up to six levels of meanings; attributes, benefits, values, culture,personality, and user. The branding challenge is to develop a set of positive associations for thebrand.Much of the definitions of branding focus directly and more on explaining what brandmeans.Cowking& Hankinson (1996) state―A brand is simply a product or service which can bedistinguished from its competitors‖. According to John Murphy in Hart & Murphy ed. (1998),such distinguishing aspects and brand features could be tangible and intangible.Nilson (2000) writes that a brand is really just a symbol with tremendous potential, and that thissymbol can be expressed in many different ways. This is particularly true as such symbols suchas the Nike swoosh, the Mercedes star and the McDonalds golden arches come to mind. Thebrand symbol can also become a distinctive feature from other competing brands.2.2Brand Equity:The term brand equity is a prominent one in the theory and practice of branding. Fundamentally,brand equity refers to the value of a brand. The notion of equity is borrowed from the field offinance. One approach may be characterized as the consumer perspective, wherein brand equitymay be evaluated in terms of consumer awareness of the brand in question, consumer judgmentsregarding brand quality, uniqueness, prestige and so on.
  8. 8. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh82.3Customer- Based Brand Equity:Aaker states that brand equity represents ‗a set of brand assets and liabilities linked to a brand, itsname and symbol that add to or subtract from the value provided by a product or service to afirm and that firm‘s customers‘.One of the leading proponents of the consumer perspective on brand equity, Kevin Lane Keller,uses the term CBBE (customer-based brand equity)which he defines as ‗the differential effectthat brand knowledge has on consumer response to the marketing of that brand‘. He proposed sixbuilding blocks for measuring brad equityResonanceJudgment FeelingsPerformance ImagerySalienceFigure: Customer –Based Brand Equity Pyramid
  9. 9. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh93.1 Nation Branding:Nation branding is a field of theory and practice which aims to measure, build and manage thereputation of countries.The concept of nation branding was elaborated by Simon Anholt in 1998through his article ―Nation Brands of the 21st Century‖ in the Journal of Brand Managementwhere he pointed out that ―brands create a value that is invisible‖. Anholt, a market researcherfrom the corporate sector, reckons that brand is a ―multiplier of value and as such represents asubstantial advantage for its owner; it is as good as money in the bank.‖Compared to products and services branding, country branding is the process whereby a countryactively seeks to create a unique and competitive identity for itself, with the aim of positioningthe country internally and internationally as a good destination for trade, tourism andinvestments.In this regard, countries such as South Africa, Wales, Spain, Colombia, and Ireland havesucceeded in attracting FDIs and tourists to their countries as a result of carefully managedcountry branding programs.It is said that a country cannot be sold like toothpaste. Thus, nation branding is not aboutpretending that everything is fine in a country, nor is it about discouraging investors and touristsfrom coming into the country. It is about letting others know about the talents and theopportunities that a country is endowed with. Accordingly, nation branding requires a broaderdefinition of the term ―branding‖ that includes a plan for earning reputation. Indeed, one needs toinspire and induce majority of the citizens to act in a way that helps the country to earn areputation and make sure that the world knows about it and believes in it.Nation branding aims to measure, build, and manage the reputation of countries. It applies someapproaches from commercial brand management practice to countries, in an effort to build,change, or protect their international reputations or external perception. It is based on theobservation that the ―brand images‖ of countries are just as important to their success in theglobal marketplace as those of products and services.
  10. 10. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh10With products, such tangible and intangible values are easily identifiable by the consumers, asthey can feel, touch, sample and judge the product before purchasing, however this becomes a bitdifficult with services, which the consumers can only judge after experiencing or based on theirprior knowledge and information about the service, a decision process which can be aided by astrong brand identity.With countries, the decision making process is even more difficult because the objectives andcosts are different, whereas a consumer could easily afford to spend money on a product withoutmuch considerations and with potentially less consequences as a result of dissatisfaction, it is notso simple with companies wishing to invest in a country or with tourists wishing to go onholidays in the country. Both the companies and the holidaymakers are influenced by a lot ofother factors; this is because of the huge sums of money involved. For holidaymakers this willrun into thousands of dollars or pounds, they will also consider the relative safety of the socialand political environment of the country.For companies, the figure becomes even higher, often running into hundreds of millions ofdollars or pounds, at the back of the minds of such potential investors will want the security oftheir investments as well as the rate of return on such investments compared to the rates of returnon investment in other competing countries, the investors decisions will also invariably beinfluenced by the political, social and economic stability of the country in question.This view is shared by Randall Frost (2004) who wrote that ‗Theres no arguing that the imagewe have of another country says a lot about how we view it as a tourist destination, a place toinvest or a source of consumer goods.3.2 Why countries engage in nation branding?The application of branding techniques to nations is a relatively new phenomenon, but one whichis growing in frequency given the increasingly global competition that nations now face in boththeir domestic & external markets. Nations are making increasingly conscious efforts to honetheir country branding in recognition of the need to fulfill three major objectives:
  11. 11. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh11 To attract tourists, To stimulate inward investment & To boost exports.A further objective for many nations is talent attraction, whereby countries compete to attracthigher education students, and skilled workers. A wider set of potential rewards to be gainedthrough nation branding has been proposed by Temporal (14), who suggests that in addition tothe key goals of attracting tourists, stimulating inward investment and boosting exports, nationbranding can also increase currency stability; help restore international credibility and investorconfidence; reserve international ratings downgrades; increase international political influence;stimulate stronger international partnerships and enhance nation building (by nourishingconfidence, pride, harmony, ambition, national resolve).The way a country is perceived can make a critical difference to the success of its business, tradeand tourism efforts, as well as its diplomatic and cultural relations with other nations. With therising trend of globalization and the breaking down of international barriers of trade, competitionfor consumers and inward investments, also known as Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) aregetting more intense amongst the countries of the world.Charles Braymer of Interbrand, in his paper Branding A Country (2003) writes that countrieswill compete daily with neighbors or block regions for tourism, inward investment and exportsales, Theres only so much business that can go around. Those countries that start with anunknown or poor reputation will be limited or marginalized. They cannot easily boost theircommercial success.3.3The need of nation branding for Bangladesh:Bangladeshis have a persistent grievance that Bangladesh is not justly portrayed in internationalforums. It has become commonplace for the country to be associated with natural calamities,wavering political situation, corruption and other negative attributes. In most cases, propagandais blown way out of proportion relative to other parts of the globe.
  12. 12. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh12It is unfortunate that the commitment and resilience of the people to enhance the image of thecountry goes unnoticed. There is a general tendency among the international community to drawparallels for Bangladesh with countries facing difficulties, completely overlooking the fact thatBangladesh, with its backwardness and structural deficiencies, has made significant progress infields that would make many emerging countries envious.We often come across slogans like: ―Malaysia: Truly Asia,‖―Dubai: The Jewel in theDesert,‖―China: The Factory of the World,‖―Sri Lanka: The Pearl of the Indian Ocean,‖etc.When we open Newsweek, Time, or The Economist, we see that some Latin American countriesare doing the same.Though ―Shining India‖ could not achieve enough votes for BJP, the respect for the ―India‖brand with its continuous institutional reforms, quality of education, industrial innovations, ITrevolution, and the ―Indian Knowledge Bank,‖ with its ability to deliver, reaches the intendedtarget markets.All the stakeholders in a transition economy like Bangladesh must be clear about the destination,in line with similar countries that have transitioned to the next growth trajectory. However, in theprocess of developing an energetic brand, we should not sideline critical issues such as the anti-corruption drive, generation of economic activities for poverty alleviation and gaining the trust ofthe citizens through actions.Micro-credit is invented in Bangladesh to fend off poverty, and is sharing it with the rest of theworld. Bangladesh is competing with the giants of the world in ready-made garments andsuccessfully growing each year. Our nation was created with the dream of justice and equalopportunity for everyone, and a commitment to change the fate of the deprived.Our ancestors made great sacrifices so that their descendants may enjoy these universalattributes. Thousand years of culture and civilization have given our people humility,perseverance and hope, which enable us to fight against adversities.
  13. 13. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh13We are truly a ―nation-state‖ with almost the same culture, religious tolerance, and social values.In developing a brand, we must believe in what we propose to deliver. We must be open to ourweaknesses and backwardness, and leverage on the strength of our achievements.We need to send a message to the international community that we mean business, there is policycontinuity despite change of the government, democracy means the same thing here aselsewhere, and that we are continuously striving to build respectable institutions. All these willbe a continuous battle, just as creating a vibrant brand for ―Bangladesh‖ is.As MaswoodAlam Khan states, A Bangladeshi who has been living abroad as an expatriateprofessional knows how humiliating it is when he does not find or remember anything of his owncountry to boast about that he can refer at least as a near comparison, if not better, withsomething similar people on the street, friends in a club or colleagues in the workplace in hishost country usually flaunt or talk about. Even worse, his heart sinks when he reads or viewsreports of news that tell horrible stories of avoidable human losses in natural and manmadedisasters and strange stories of chaos and corruption in Bangladesh. Thus it is necessary topromote positive things about Bangladesh so that not only the investors and tourists can rely onus but also the people of Bangladesh will find or remember anything of his or her own country toboast about that he or she can refer at least as a near comparison.
  14. 14. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh14Nation Branding is a timely report, but it is found that the literature review about nation brandingis not easily available.One of the reasons for lack of readily available resources in the field could be found in thecomments made by Wally Olins (1999), according to him; the popular assumption is thatnational branding is a novel concept. In another paper Branding the Nation - the historicalperspectives, Olins warns countries of the risks of ignoring Nation branding and predicts thatcountry branding will become normal practice in the coming decades. According to him, the lackof interest and belief in country branding by some skeptics is only as a result of snobbery,ignorance and semantics.As Van Ham (2001) has noted, ―Smart states are building their brands around reputations andattitudes in the same way smart companies do‖. This irruption of the vocabulary of branding intothe international affairs of nations is not universally welcomed and there is a widespread sense ofcynicism and suspicion regarding the appropriateness and relevance of such overtly commercialpractices.Mathias Akotia described that nation or country branding is about using strategic marketing topromote different aspects of a country‘s identity. Country branding implies that countries behavein many ways like commercial and corporate brands.Country branding is not about spin, neither is it about propaganda. It is about proactive andconscious husbandry of a nation‘s identity so as to enhance citizenship behaviors and nationhoodinternally, and to compete favorably internationally. It is about the recognition that image andreputation of a country as well as aggregate citizenship behavior are critical to a nation‘sstrategic development.Martin Roll has noted that differentiation has become a core element of any brand strategy.Central to differentiation is to demonstrate both points of parity and points of difference fromcompeting brands. One way brands achieve this is by associating themselves with either acategory or a place. The latter is usually referred to as country branding. French wine, Danish
  15. 15. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh15designs, Swiss watches, German engineering and Italian haute couture are results of veryaggressive country branding.Landor said that countries are difficult products. It is very difficult to modify a country so that itmeets target needs unless there are serious interventions in the countrys infrastructure. Onecannot add a chain of mountains or alter a countrys weather, for example. Building a new airportor highway is much more difficult than changing a flavor or package.According to Debapriya Bhattacharya, a country cannot be sold like toothpaste. Thus, nationbranding is not about pretending that everything is fine in a country, nor is it about discouraginginvestors and tourists from coming into the country. It is about letting others know about thetalents and the opportunities that a country is endowed with. Accordingly, nation brandingrequires a broader definition of the term ―branding‖ that includes a plan for earning reputation.Indeed, one needs to inspire and induce majority of the citizens to act in a way that helps thecountry to earn a reputation and make sure that the world knows about it and believes in it.The concept of nation branding was elaborated by Simon Anholt in 1998 through his article―Nation Brands of the 21st Century‖ in the Journal of Brand Management where he pointed outthat ―brands create a value that is invisible‖.He reckons that brand is a ―multiplier of value and assuch represents a substantial advantage for its owner; it is as good as money in the bank.‖He developed the concept of the Nation Brands Index® in 2005. Since 2005, when he coined theterm nation brand and gave birth to this important new field, Simon Anholt has been helpinggovernments plan the policies, strategies, investments and innovations which lead their countrytowards an improved profile and reputation.The Anholt-GfK Roper Nation Brands IndexSMmeasures the power and appeal of eachcountry‘s ‗brand image‘ by examining six dimensions of national competence. Together, thesedimensions make up the Nation Brand Hexagon®. Based on these six dimensions, each yearSimon Anholt and GfK Roper Public Affairs & Media rank the countries of the world in eachcriterion and in overall criteria. USA is ranked top in overall brand ranking in 2009 and France,
  16. 16. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh16Italy, Canada, Switzerland, Japan and Canada ranked first in culture, tourism, people,governance, export, investment criteria. (Appendix: Table 1 & 2)Younghye and her associates (2009) define country image specifically as a set of beliefsregarding the following five componentsof nation: its people, its products and companies, itsgovernment, its culture and the country as a place.These experiences come from direct interactions with a country and its people through travel andwork(Dinnie 2007), indirect observation of a country, its people and policies as well as activeand passive media exposure (Fan 2006).So it is important for Bangladesh to improve its global image. Although Bangladesh is notconsidered for Anholt‘s nation brand ranking but Bangladesh has always held a great promise.As Hasan(2009) said that there are only a few countriesthat got their freedom through war.Bangladesh is among those great nations. The people of Bangladesh fought a historic war ofLiberation in 1971- one of the bloodiest wars in the history of mankind. After its independence,since 1971, despite having positive achievements, the country has been labeled with manynegative images, either imaginary or genuine, by a group of ill-motivated people, both at homeand abroad. It is true that Bangladesh is a country with a huge population accompanied by
  17. 17. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh17increasing unemployment, population growth, corruption, and price inflation. Fromindependence Bangladesh was branded (positively and negatively) at different times. This can bepresented in the following table:But the negative aspects of Bangladesh arehighlighted morethan the positive aspects. That is whypromoting the positive aspects of Bangladesh to let the world know is the demand of the time.5.1Branding Bangladesh:Good1. Flood 1. War of Liberation(1971)2. Natural Calamities 2. Ekushe February3. Nobel Prize by Prof. Yunus(2007)4. National Fair Election (2008)5. National ID and Voter List6. Indicators on Health, Media,Agriculture, RMG, Remittance,Gender, Women empowerment etc.7. Energetic People8. Un Peace keeping Force9. Cox‘s Bazar, other natural beautyWeak Powerful1. TI corruption Ranking (2001-2006) 1. State of Emergency (2007-2008)2. Militant, terrorism etc.3. Killing of political leaders (1975-1981)4. BDR Violence (2009)Bad
  18. 18. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh18Nation branding is not yet given much attention in the middle and low income countries. But if acountry opts not to have a branding strategy, it does not mean that others will leave it alone.Rather, disadvantaged countries like Bangladesh will be left to the discretion of others and get―branded‖ based on limited and partial or biased information. Remaining cognizant of this,emerging economies are increasingly addressing the issue of nation branding in a pro-activemanner. For instance, in the region, India is recreating its image as the hub of IT based industriesand services as well as a major source of skilled manpower. Even small countries, like Bhutan,may use their image of being small, unique, and fragile that is envied by the developed world.Till date, Anholt Index does not include Bangladesh. But as Bangladesh progresses, it willdefinitely generate enhanced interest in the global community and the sponsors of the index willbe inclined to include the country in its exercise.It is not needed to make a replica of Disney World in Dhaka to attract foreign tourists to visit ourcountry with the whole lot of their families including their grandchildren. We dont need to offerloans worth billions of American dollars to allure foreign entrepreneurs to set up their shops andindustries on our soil. What we need to do is an assurance that we as a nation are hospitable andwe love nature. What the government has to do is do whatever is possible with our limitedresources to upgrade our capital citys present status of being the second least-livable city in theworld to a reasonably better rank tolerable to a foreign tourist for his enjoying a break for acouple of days and to make our investment climate attractive by offering durable infrastructures,quality labor forces and hassle-free utility services needed for industrial efficiency, safety,growth and sustenance in the longterm.Despite significant achievements made in reducing infant mortality rate, tree plantations,enrolment in primary education, standard education policy, stipends for female students, womenempowerment, freedom of press, sanitation, population control, innovation of micro-credit, gameof cricket, disaster management, export-oriented industries, remittance inflows, resilience inweathering global financial crises, ridding the nation of the image of fundamentalism, giving theidea on introducing the International Language Day and many more achievements like the recentconquering of Mount Everest, Bangladesh is yet to win a room in the hearts of global
  19. 19. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh19communities to convince tourists and investors to visit our home, the biggest deltaic land in theworld enlaced by the Earths longest mangrove forests and bestowed upon by cheap labor forces.Hence, the branding of Bangladesh is crucial for her development through trade, tourism,investment and international cooperation. And branding has to be done through amplification ofwhat we actually have achieved and what we naturally have but not through any fabrication ofwhat we dont have or by any jugglery of words in making tall promises that we can never fulfill.5.2SWOT Analysis:Strength: Bangladesh is in good geographic Location Important link between the economies of South Asia & South East Asian region Chittagong port emerges as a major Port Beautiful tourist location Distinctive Culture Hospitality The countrys vulnerability to natural disasters has significantly declined. Micro CreditWeakness: Political Instability Natural disaster Over population Poor Infrastructures Corruption Lack of available funds is another serious problem of our countryOpportunities:
  20. 20. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh20 Human capital The increasing participation of women in various important sectors will foster theeconomic growth of Bangladesh. Improvement in governance, infrastructure and investment climate can attract moreforeign Direct Investment. ICT sector can emerge as one of major contributing sectors of our country.Threats: Adverse global development. Rising inequality in income & wealth. Improper management of development may bring out encourage poverty and inequalityleading to social instability. Bangladesh is victim of increasing terrorism and sharp increase in commodity prices inglobal market.5.3 PEST Analysis:P Political Factors:Democracy in Bangladesh is young and fragile.During the first twenty yearsafter independence (1971–1990), Bangladesh was most ofthe time ruled by non-elected and military-backed governments.After a popular movement, a democratic parliamentary form of government was installedin 1991.
  21. 21. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh21The polarization and hostilitybetween two main political parties continue and theopposition frequently uses traditional―Hartals‖ (civil disobedience and general strikes) aspolitical weapons.Political instability and corruption hamper the economic growth of Bangladesh.The government policy is not considered as business friendly to do business inBangladesh.EEconomic Factors:The economy is predominantly agrarian, with two-thirds of the population engaged inagriculturally based activities.GDP at current price 6149.4 billion (Taka)GDP growth rate 5.88Per capita national income 42,638 (Taka) or 621 (US$)The amount of import is 1396 billion (Taka) & export 1072.1 billion (Taka) and tradebalance is -323.9 billon (Taka).Inflation rate 8.12% (September, 2010, Bangladesh Bank)(Source: Bangladesh economic review 2009-2010)SSociocultural Factors:
  22. 22. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh22The population of Bangladesh is 146.1 million in 2009-10.Population growth rate 1.32%Population density 990/Sq. KmOver 85% of the population are Muslims, less than 13% Hindus and the remaining areChristians, BuddhistsLiteracy rate of population 11 + years 49.1%The number of civilian labor force is 4.74 crore, among them 3.61 crore are male and1.13 crore are women.The general wage rate is 5026 taka(Source: Bangladesh economic review 2009-2010)TTechnological FactorsThe technological environment in Bangladesh is not up to date.The government of Bangladesh has chosen some priority sectors such as agriculture,power generation etc. to adopt latest technological trends.
  23. 23. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh236.1The perception of people about Bangladesh:Branding is a kind of creating imagery in peoples mind.As Kevin Lane Keller said that brandknowledge has two components: brand awareness and brand image. Brand awareness is relatedto the strength of the brand node or trace in memory. On the other hand brand image is peoples‘perceptions about a brand, as reflected by the brand associations held in peoples‘ memory. Brandawareness consists of brand recognition and recall performance. Brand recognition is thepeoples‘ ability to confirm prior exposure to the brand when given the brand as a cue. Brandrecall is peoples‘ ability to retrieve the brand from memory when given the category.So it is important to know what lies in the people‘s mind when they think of Bangladesh. AsAlRies and Jack Trout (1981) said, ―the perceptions of people in a place are often different fromthose visiting it.‖ That is why the study is aimed to find the similarities and differences betweenthe perceptions of native people and foreigners to understand the divergence of their perceptions.Chart 1 reveals that in terms of the TOM (Top of Mind), it is found that 26% of the nativerespondents say that over population comes to their when they think about Bangladesh. It isfollowed by rich in natural beauty (13.2%), corruption (13.2%). However, when all theperceptions are ranked based on the first four recognitions, Bangladesh is rich in natural beautyBrand KnowledgeBrandAwarenessBrand ImageBrandRecognitionBrand Recall
  24. 24. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh24(19.2%) is found at the top of the list followed by over population (15.4%), traffic congestion(9.6%) and load shedding (9.6%). (Appendix: Table.3)Chart 2 reveals that in terms of the TOM (Top of Mind), it is found that when foreigners thinkabout Bangladesh, they think it is the country of friendly people (20.0%), poverty (20.0%), overpopulation (20.0%) and pollution (20.0%). However, when all the perceptions are ranked basedon the first four recognitions, it is also found that they think Bangladesh is a country of friendlypeople (20.5%) followed by poverty (20%), over population (20%), load shedding (20%) andtraffic congestion (20%). (Appendix: Table.4)0%19%12%12%10%10%10%5%5%2%2%2%2%2%2%2%2%Chart 1:The Perception of native People about BangladeshRich in Natural BeautyOver CrowdedTraffic CongestionLoad SheddingCorruptionFriendly PeoplePollutionDistinctive CultureRiverineLiberation WarA Feeling of MotherlandPolitically DisturbedPovertyDustyAgriculturalHospitality
  25. 25. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh25So, it is found that Bangladesh is rich in natural beauty and is country of friendly people areranked first in the perceptions of native people and foreigners respectively. But there are severalnegative things like over population, poverty, traffic congestion, loadshedding are also in theminds of both foreigners‘ and native people.This can be shown by the following diagram:21%9%9%9%9%7%7%7%7%5%3% 3% 2% 2%Chart 2 : Perception of foreigners about BangladeshFriendly PeoplePovertyOver CrowdedLoad SheddingTraffic CongestionPollutionRich in NaturalBeautyRickshawPolitically DisturbedOver CrowdedHospitalityIlliteracyCorruptionWild Life
  26. 26. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh26But the real fact is Bangladesh has much to offer foreigners, but it does not have the right image.When people think of Bangladesh, they think of poverty, flood and micro credit. This is theimage most foreigners see on their television screens. The Bangladesh government hastraditionally pushed the sad image of Bangladesh in the media. Who wants to visit a poor, floodstricken and thereby depressing place? Thus it is the time to take initiatives to change theperceptions of people about Bangladesh.7.1Tourism:BangladeshFriendlyPeopleOverPopulationRich in NaturalBeautyPoliticallyDisturbedPovertyLoadsheddingCorruptionTrafficCongestion
  27. 27. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh27Tourism is often synonymous to traveling for pleasure and education. It is also a business ofattracting tourists and providing for their accommodation and entertainment. In many countries,tourism is an industry for earning Inland Revenue and foreign exchange. The many businessesthat grow along withdevelopment of tourism include airlines, shipping, hotels and restaurants,finance companies, tour operators, travel agents, car rental firms, caterers and retailestablishments and together, they contribute significantly to the overall development of acountrys economy and to its cultural diversification and assimilation. Bangladesh had alwaysattracted tourists. Travelers from different parts of the world had interest in this part of the worldsince very ancient times. They visited Bengal with varied purposes. Some came with missionaryobjectives, some with motives of exploring business opportunities; some came to attend seats oflearning and some for meeting curiosity.Bangladesh is one of the few countries in South Asia, which remains to be explored. Bangladeshhas a delicate and distinctive attraction of its own to offer. The traditional emphasis of the touristtrade has always been on the material facilities offered by a country rather than on its actualcharms. Its a land of enormous beauty, hundreds of serpentine rivers, crystal clear water lakessurrounded by ever green hills, luxuriant tropical rain forests, worlds largest mangrove forestpreserved as World Heritage, home of the Royal Bengal Tiger and the wild lives, wind in thepaddy fields, abundance of sunshine, worlds longest natural sea beach etc.Country branding means the earning of reputation for a country by utilizing its inner resourcesand opportunities, which are original and inspiring to the outer world. The official brand name ofour beloved country is ―Beautiful Bangladesh‖. The goal is to establish a positive image of ourcountry and attract foreign tourists to visit its panoramic landscapes, seascapes and the naturalbeauties. There is a great opportunity to brand this country, which can be done through attractingforeigners to the tourist spots -- Coxs Bazar, the Sundarbans, Jaflong, Kuakata, and historicalsites like Bagerhat, Sonargaon, Moynamoti, Mahasthangar etc.
  28. 28. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh28Tourism in Bangladesh is a slowly developing foreign currency earner. Since the year 2000tourists arriving in Bangladesh have been swelling in numbers. Not only is it internationalvisitors but locals are also taking their holidays. All these travelers require appropriateaccommodation and the demand in hotel beds and restaurants are now being met for every tasteand every budget. Many of the visitors are expatriate Bangladeshi coming to Bangladesh notonly to visit their families, but for a holiday and to experience the vibrant and culturally richcountry of their forbearers. Catering for all these people has seen an increase in the demand fornew hotels and restaurants in Dhaka and other tourist locations.7.2The tourist spots of Bangladesh that the native people and internationalvisitors have visited or want to visit in future:In terms of the TOM (Top of Mind), Cox‘s Bazar is found to take the first position by 11(73.3%)native people that they have visited or want to visit in future. It is followed by Saint Martin(13.3%), Bandarban (6.7%) and Kaptai (6.7%). (Appendix: Table.6). However, when all thetourist spots are ranked based on first three recognitions, it is also found that Cox‘s Bazar isobserved in first position by 34.1% of the native people followed by Saint Martin (19.5%),Sundarbans (9.8%), Kuakata (9.8%), Rangamati (7.3%), Bandarban (4.9%) and Mahasthangarh(4.9%). (Chart 3)34.119.59.8 9.8 7.3 4.9 4.92.4 2.4 2.4 2.4Chart 3 :Tourist spots that Native people of Bangladeshvisited or want to visit in future
  29. 29. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh29In terms of the TOM (Top of Mind), Cox‘s Bazar is found to take the first position by 12(80.0%)foreigners that they have visited or want to visit in future. It is followed by Sundarbans (6.7%),Sonargoan (6.7%) and Chittagong Hill Tracks (6.7%) (Appendix: Table.6)However, when all the tourist spots are ranked based on first four recognitions, it is also foundthat Cox‘s Bazar is observed in first position by 46.9% of the foreigners that is followed bySundarban (21.9%), Sonargoan (6.3%), Old Dhaka (6.3%), Chittagong Hill Tracks (6.3%),Rangamati (3.1%), Kuakata (3.1%), Sylhet (3.1%) and Bandarban (3.1%). (Chart 4)7.3 The important tourist spots of Bangladesh:When it is asked which of the tourist spots can be the face of Bangladesh, it is found that 60% ofthe native respondents said that Cox‘s Bazar could be the face of Bangladesh followed bySundarbans (33.3%) and Bandarbans (6.7%). (Chart 5 and appendix Table: 8).46.921.96.3 6.3 6.3 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1Chart 4:The Tourist Spots that the foreigners haveVisited or Wants to Visit
  30. 30. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh30The findings are almost same in the case of foreigners. When the question is asked to them theysaid that Cox‘s Bazar (81%) could be the face of Bangladesh followed by Sundarban (13%) andBagerhat (6%). (Chart 6 and appendix Table: 9)7.3.1Coxs Bazar:Total Area: 2491.86 sq. kmPopulation: About 2.2 millionCox‘s Bazar is Located at a distance of 152 km. to the south of Chittagong, Coxs Bazar isthe tourist capital of Bangladesh. Having the worlds longest unbroken (120 km.) beachsloping gently down to the blue waters of the Bay of Bengal against the picturesquebackground of a chain of hill covered with deep green forests, Coxs Bazar is one of the mostattractive tourist spots in the world. Miles of golden sands, towering cliffs surfing waves, rareconch shells, colorful pagodas, Buddhist temples and tribes, delightful seafood - these arespecialties of Coxs Bazar.81%13%6%Chart 6: Name of the Tourist Spotwhich can be the face of Bangladeshstated by foreignersCox’s BazarSundarbanBagerhatCox’s Bazar Sundarban Bandarban6033.36.7Chart 5:Name of the Tourist Spotwhich can be the face of Bangladeshstated by native people
  31. 31. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh31The beach is good for bathing, sunbathing and swimming. The breath-taking beauty of thesun-setting behind the waves of the sea is captivating. Attractive local variety of cigarsand handloom products of the Rakhyne tribal families are good buys. Their uniquecustoms and costumes attract visitors.7.3.2Sundarban:The Sundarbanis the largest single block of tidal mangrove forest in the world. The nameSundarbancan be literally translated as "beautiful jungle" or "beautiful forest" in the Bengalilanguage (Sundar, "beautiful" and ban, "forest" or "jungle"). The name may have been derivedfrom the Sundari trees that are found in Sundarbans in large numbers. Alternatively, it has beenproposed that the name is a corruption of Samudraban(Bengali: Shomudrobôn"SeaForest") or Chandra-bandhe (name of a primitive tribe). But the generally accepted view is theone associated with Sundari trees.The forest lies in the vast delta on the Bay of Bengal formed by the confluence of the Ganges,Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers across southern Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. Theseasonally-flooded Sundarbans freshwater swamp forests lie inland from the mangrove forestson the coastal fringe. The forest covers 10,000 sq.km. of which about 6,000 are in Bangladesh.Itbecame inscribed as a UNESCOworld heritage site in 1997, but while the Bangladeshi andIndian portions constitute the same continuous ecotope, these are separately listed in theUNESCOworld heritage list as the Sundarbans and Sundarbans National Park, respectively. TheSundarbans is intersected by a complex network of tidal waterways, mudflats and small islandsof salt-tolerant mangrove forests. The area is known for the eponymousRoyal BengalTiger(Pantheratigristigris), as well as numerous fauna including species of birds, spotted deer,crocodiles and snakes. The fertile soils of the delta have been subject to intensive human use forcenturies, and the ecoregion has been mostly converted to intensive agriculture, with fewenclaves of forest remaining. The remaining forests, together with the Sundarbans mangroves,are important habitat for the endangered tiger.
  32. 32. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh327.3.3Saint Martin:Saint Martin‘s island is situated in the southeast of Bangladesh on The Bay of Bengal. From themain land it is 9-10 km far. It is almost 7 km long including "CheraDweep". CheraDweep isanother attraction of this island. This a torn part of this island but exclusively beautiful. "Chera"means Torn and "Dweep" means Island. The underwater colorful fishes and live corals entertainthe tourist in CheraDweep.Local name of this island is "NarikelGingira" means Coconut Island. The total island issurrounded by thousands of coconut trees. The northern part of the island is the mostly populatedarea and all the hotels, motels and restaurants are there in the northern part. On the other handsouthern of the island is almost blank.It has become one of the most popular tourist places in Bangladesh. October to March isconsidered as tourists‘ season. Tourists are being attracted for its natural beauty.Black dead corals are all around the island in the beach. When the water level get down then thecorals come out and show its beauty. The coconut trees of this island made the island exclusivelybeautiful. These coconut trees save the island from cyclones.Tortoises are there in the island and lay eggs in the island. To protect those eggs from destructionthere is a research center in the middle of the island. Researchers come and stay there during theperiod when tortoises lay eggs.The people of the island are very hospitable. They are very simple and very well mannered. Theyare very cordial to the tourists. Most of the Italian restaurants and motels are being operated bythe people of the island. They do business during the tourists‘ season.In the island there are different souvenir shop there tourists get souvenirs made of corals andsnails. These souvenirs are very beautiful and tourists collect these souvenirs for their friends andhold it as memory of this island.During tourist season there is a kite festival arranged and different types of kite are made and flyin the sky. This kite festival is very colorful and it‘s a traditional festival of Bangladesh.
  33. 33. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh33Tourist enjoys the sunrise and the sunset in the island. At the most southern part of the island isthe best location to enjoy the sunset.7.3.4 Rangamati - the lake district:Rangamati, located 77 km. away from Chittagong, is a favorite holiday resort because of itsbeautiful landscape, lake, numerous colorful tribes, hanging bridge, homespun textile products,ivory jewellery, and tribal museum and so on. For tourists the attractions are fishing, speedboatcruising, water skiing, bathing and much more. It is a rare spot for ecotourism. The township islocated on the western bank of Kaptai Lake.7.3.5 Kaptai -The lake town:A pleasant and picturesque drive of 64 km. from Chittagong brings the tourists to a huge expanseof emerald and blue water ringed by tropical forests. It is the famous man-made Kaptai Lake(680 sq. km.). From Kaptai along the Chittagong road, lies the ancient Chit Morang Buddhisttemple having beautiful Buddhist statues.7.3.6Bandarban -The roof of Bangladesh:Bandarban, the district headquarters of the Bandarban Hill District, is situated ninety-two km.from Chittagong. Bandarban Hill District is the remotest and least populated district inBangladesh. The lure of the tallest peaks of Bangladesh, treks through virgin forests and chanceto meet more than 15 tribes of the region up close is growing both among Bangladeshis andtourists from other countries. Since the insurgency ceased in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (a clusterthat includes all three hill districts of Bangladesh) it has opened up for tourists more than adecade back, though some of the western tourist guides may still describe the area as a majorsecurity risk.
  34. 34. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh34The three highest peak of Bangladesh - Tahjindong (1280 meters, also known as bijoy),MowdokMual (1052 meters), and Keokradong (883 metres) - are located in Bandarban district,as well as Raikhiang Lake, the highest lake in Bangladesh. Chimbuk peak and Boga Lake aretwo more highly noted features of the district. Though most Bangladesh sources cite Keokradongas the highest peak in the country, but Tazing Dong (sometimes spelled as Tahjingdong, and alsoknown as Bijoy) lying further east is recognized both by government and expert sources as ataller peak.7.3.7Kuakata:Kuakata, situated in the district of Patuakhali, is a wonderful picturesque spot. The 25 KM longsea beach situated at the periphery of the southern part of Patuakhali is a potential tourist resort.It provides aunique opportunity to witness both sun rise and sun set.The local Rakhainpopulation has rich cultural tradition and their hospitality is well known. The200 acres dense forest gives the beach a pleasant look and it serves as a wall against tidal bore. ABuddhist pagoda is located at the sea-shore and a Buddhist statue weighing over 1.5 metric tonsis preserved inside the Pagoda.Kuakata, locally known as SagarKannya (Daughter of the Sea) is a rare scenic beauty spot on thesouthernmost tip of Bangladesh. Kuakata in Latachapli union under Kalapara Police Station ofPatuakhali district is about 30 km in length and 6 km in breadth. It is 70 km from Patuakhalidistrict headquarters and 320 km from Dhaka. At Kuakata excellent combination of thepicturesque natural beauty, sandy beach, blue sky, huge expanse of water of the Bay andevergreen forest in really eye-catching.Kuakata is one of the rarest places which have the unique beauty of offering the full view of therising and setting of crimson sun in the water of the Bay of Bengal in a calm environment. Thatperhaps makes kuakata one of the worlds unique beaches. The long and wide beach at Kuakatahas a typical natural setting. This sandy beach has gentle slopes into the Bay of Bengal andbathing there is as pleasant as is walking or diving. Kuakata is truly a virgin beach-a sanctuaryfor migratory winter birds, a series of coconut trees, sandy beach of blue Bay, a feast for the eye.
  35. 35. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh35Forest, boats plying in the Bay of Bengal with colourful sails, fishing, towering cliffs, surfingwaves everything here touches every visitors heart. The unique customs and costumes of theRakhyne tribal families and Buddhist Temple of about hundred years old indicate the ancienttradition and cultural heritage, which are objects of great pleasure Kuakata is the place ofpilgrimage of the Hindus and Buddhist communities. Innumerable devotees arrive here at thefestival of Rush Purnima and MaghiPurnima. On these two days they take holy bath andtraditional fairs are held here. All these additional offers to panoramic beauty make the beachmore attractive to the visitors.7.3.8Tamabil&Jaflong:Situated amidst splendid panorama, Tamabil is a border outpost on Sylhet-Shilong road,about 55 km. away from Sylhet town. Beside enchanting views of the area one can also havea glimpse of the waterfall across the border from Tamabil. Jaflong is also a scenic spotnearby amidst tea gardens and rare beauty of rolling stones from hills.7.3.9Mainamati:An isolated low, dimpled range of hills, dotted -with more than 50 ancient Buddhistsettlements of the 8th to 12th century A.D. known as Mainamati-Laimai range are extendedthrough the centre of the district of Comilla.The Mainamati site Museum has a rich and varied collection of copper plates, gold and silvercoins and 86 bronze objects. Over 150 bronze statues have been recovered mostly from themonastic cells, bronze stupas, stone sculptures and hundreds of terracotta plaques eachmeasuring on an average of 9" higli and 8" to 12" wide. Mairiamati is only 114 km. fromDhaka City and is just a days trip by road on way to Chittagong.
  36. 36. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh367.3.10Teknaf:Southernmost tip of Bangladesh, Teknaf situated on the NaafRiver and just at the end of thehilly regions of the district. Mayanmar is on the opposite bank of NaafRiver. Wild animalsand birds are available but the most interesting thing is a journey on the river. Wide sandybeach in the backdrop of high hills with green forests is an enchanting scene never to beforgotten.7.3.11Mahasthangarh:Located at a distance of 18 km. to the north of Bogra town.Mahasthangarh is the oldestarchaeological site of Bangladesh on the western bank of river Karotoa. The spectacular siteis an imposing landmark in the area having a fortified long enclosure. Beyond the fortifiedarea, other ancient ruins fan out within a semi-circle of about 8-km. radius. Several isolatedmounds, the local names of which are GovindaBhita Temple, KhodaiPathar Mound,MankalirKunda, ParasuramerBedi, JiyatKunda etc. surround the fortified city.Besides, there are several attractive tourist spots in the various parts of Bangladesh. In thenorthern part, comprising of the Rajshahi division, there are archaeological sites, including thetemple city Puthia in Rajshahi; the largest and most ancient archaeological site, Mahasthangarhin Bogra; the single largest Buddhist monastery, Paharpur in Naogaon; the most ornamentalterracota Hindu temple in Bangladesh Kantaji Temple, and many rajbaris or palaces of oldzamindars.In the south-western part, mainly the Khulna Division, there is the historically and architecturallyimportant sixty domed mosque in Bagerhat is a notable site.In the south-eastern part, which is the Chittagong division, there are mainly natural and hillyscenarios like Chittagong Hill Tracts, along with sandy sea beaches.
  37. 37. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh37In the north-eastern part, Sylhet division, there is a green carpet of tea plants on small hillocks.Natural reserved forests are great attractions. Migratory birds in winter, particularly in the haorareas, are also very attractive in this area.7.4Tourism Word Associations:Chart 7 shows the adjectives that are most commonly associated with the experience of visitingBangladesh. Bangladesh is most associated with the positive attributes of fascinating (42.0%),exciting (31.0%). Although some view the visit in Bangladesh are stressful (15.0%) and Risky(12.5%). But overall Bangladesh is not seen as a stressful or depressing destination and most ofthe respondents described the visit as fascinating and exciting. (Appendix: Table 10)7.5Total Tourist Arrivals in Bangladesh:The following table shows the tourist arrivals in Bangladesh in different years and the rate ofgrowth of the same:42%31%15%12%Chart 7: Adjective that best describes thevisit in BangladeshFascinatingExcitingStressfulRisky
  38. 38. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh38Table: Year-Wise Total Tourist Arrivals in BangladeshYear Tourist ArrivalsNumber Growth Rate (%)1991 1132421992 110475 (-) 2.441993 126785 (+) 14.761994 140122 (+) 10.521995 156231 (+) 11.501996 165887 (+) 6.181997 182420 (+) 9.971998 171961 (-) 5.731999 172781 (+) 0.482000 199211 (+) 15.302001 207199 (+) 4.012002 207246 (+) 0.022003 244509 (+) 17.982004 271270 (+) 10.94Average Growth Rate +8.73 %Source: Bangladesh Parjatan CorporationThe table shows that the number of tourist arrivals in Bangladesh has increased to 271,270 in2004 from 113,242 in 1991 which shows an average annual growth rate of 7.79 percent. Thetourist arrivals increased in 2003 by 17.98 percent and 10.94 percent in 2004 over its precedingyear. In general, the statistics shows a very good and positive trend.7.6Steps should be taken to improve tourism in Bangladesh:Chart 8 reveals that improvement of hotel and transportation system is ranked first by 31.0% ofthe native respondents followed by increase security (28%), promotional activity (28%) andmake tourist friendly environment (8.0%). (Appendix: Table 11)
  39. 39. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh39On the other hand Chart 9 reveals that increase promotional activities to create awareness aboutthe tourist spots of Bangladesh and increase security are ranked first by 29.4% of the foreignersrespectively that are followed by improvement of hotel and transportation systems (14.7%)religious and cultural liberty (11.8%) , ensuring neatness (8.8%) and create tourist friendlyenvironment (5.9%). (Appendix: Table 12)31%28%28%8%2% 3%Chart 8 : Steps should be taken to improve tourism inBangladeshaccording to the opinions of Native PeopleImprove Hotel &Transportation SystemIncrease SecurityPromotional ActivityMake Tourist FriendlyEnvironmentEco Tourism29.4 29.414.78.8 11.85.9Chart 9: Steps should be taken to improve tourism inBangladesh according to the opinions of Foreigners
  40. 40. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh407.7Recommendation:As tourism is one of the main possible sectors to enhance the image of Bangladesh. So, toimprove the tourism of Bangladesh the following steps should be implemented.Improvement in the security systems of the tourist spots is given the most importance byboth the native people and foreigners.Improvement in the hotel and transportation systems should givenpriority for theimprovement of the tourism sector.One of the main obstacles for the improvement of tourism sector is that the foreigners arenot aware of the tourist spots of Bangladesh. Promotional activities can improve thesituation by creating awareness of the tourist spots. For this reason, like India,internationally famous celebrities and spokespersons should use in the promotionalcampaign. Cricket World Cup 2011 will be inaugurated in Bangladesh. T-20 will be heldin Bangladesh in 2013. On these occasions, many foreigners will come here. We shouldutilize these opportunities and these can be the platform for promoting the tourism ofBangladesh.The website of the Bangladesh Porjatan Corporation should be developed and up to date.As the website promotes the slogan of ―discover Beautiful Bangladesh‖, the informationprovided in this website is not sufficient. It should narrate all the important informationas well the low cost of travelling in Bangladesh.Having an international airport in Cox‘s Bazar will ensure that foreigners can fly theredirectly without having to go through Dhaka. Besides, hotel and transportation systemsshould be developed to meet the taste and income ofevery tourist. Cox‘s Bazar can bebranded as other international cities such as like Bali, Goa etc. Separate entertainmentpolicy may be formulated so that a strong PPP can be implemented.The religious and cultural liberty should be ensured for the foreigner tourists.Ecotourism in Bangladesh should be introduced. Ecotourism refers to tourism that isbased on the natural environment but that seeks to minimise the harmful impacts andbetter still, seeks to promote conservation. It focuses on local cultures, wildernessadventures, volunteering, personal growth and learning new ways to live on our
  41. 41. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh41vulnerable planet. Responsible ecotourism includes programs that minimize the adverseeffects of traditional tourism on the natural environment, and enhance the culturalintegrity of local people. Therefore, in addition to evaluating environmental and culturalfactors, initiatives by hospitality providers to promote recycling, energy efficiency, waterre-use, and the creation of economic opportunities for local communities are an integralpart of ecotourism.Participate in international tourism fairs.Govt support to the private tour operators is necessary for the development of this sector.
  42. 42. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh428.1Culture & Heritage:Culture refers to the cumulative deposit of knowledge, experience, beliefs, values, attitudes,meanings, hierarchies, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relations, concepts of the universe,and material objects and possessions acquired by a group of people in the course of generationsthrough individual and group striving.Each living life is attached in culture whether humans or animals. Culture is natural developmentduring birth process {what we call is behavior, that changes from individual to individualbroadened when lives in family that family is part of a society (group or community), behaviorof the group is culture} and its evolution is based on intelligence reaction to experiences andneeds.Culture is process to live in group. Each society has norms to follow by individuals in order toretain society strong and intact.Culture is a process for identity of living creatures and culturalevolution raises the identity of society, benefit goes to its individuals. Culture differentiates fromgroup to group (as behavior changes) though major part remains same as human culture todifferentiate from other species. This gives different identity.For society‘s culture there is one individual behind who broadens or establishes the culturalstatus. Culture developed by beliefs, faith, practices, customs, way to live, art, intelligence,language, food habits, and economyetc; Cultural growth gave identity to the societies thatnamed, Muslim or Christian or Hindu or Jewish or Buddhist etc; have different cultures. Sowhen we come across art, customs etc; we identify what is their culture or which religion theybelong.Culture influences many aspects of our life, private and public, from foreign affairs to loveaffairs. It certainly influences various factors that on various levels and through separatemechanisms contribute to create a phenomenon known as nation branding.
  43. 43. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh43Anholt regards culture in triple role: Source of value, Communicator of value and Revenue earner.He argues that culture provides or even constitutes the ―third dimension‖. In other words, heclaims nation branding is all about the culture as without it the arena shrinks and fades toresemble merely a ‗normal‘ commercial branding. He also calls for focusing on culture incountry promotion and opposes the relegated status of culture as ‗not-for-profit activity, kind ofcharitable obligation within the overall promotion of a country‘.Cultural aspects measured are perceptions of a country‘s heritage, its contemporary cultural―vibes‖ from music, films, art and literature, as well as the country‘s excellence in sports.Various cultural activities are presented to respondents to gauge their strongest images of acountry‘s cultural ―product.‖8.2 Culture of Bangladesh:Bangladesh has a rich, diverse culture. Its deeply rooted heritage is thoroughly reflected in itsarchitecture, dance, literature, music, painting and clothing. The three primary religions ofBangladesh (Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism) have had a great influence on its culture andhistory.The people of Bangladesh have a rich fictional legacy, with the first available form of literaturebeing over a thousand years old. Bengali literature developed considerably during the medievalperiod with the rise of popular poets such as Chandi Das, DaulatKazi an Alaol.The traditional music of Bangladesh is very much the same as that of the Indian sub-continent.The music in Bangladesh can be divided into three main categories: classical, modern and folk.Most prevalent of folk songs and music traditions include Bhatiali, Baul, Marfati, Murshidi and
  44. 44. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh44Bhawaiya. Lyricists like Lalon Shah, Hason Raja, KangalHarinath, Romesh Shill, Abbas Uddinand many unknown anonymous lyrists have enriched the tradition of folk songs of Bangladesh.In relatively modern context, RabindraSangeet and Nazrulgeeti form precious cultural heritage ofBangladesh.Both vocal and instrumental classical music is enjoyed in Bangladesh. UstadAyetAli Khan and UstadAlauddin are two famous classical instrumental players that areinternationally known. Modern music is becoming more popular and is practiced widely.Contemporary, pop songs and bands are also enjoying more widespread fame.Several musical instruments, some of them of indigenous origin, are used in Bangladesh, andmajor musical instruments used are bamboo flute (banshi), drums (dole), a single stringedinstrument named ektara, a four stringed instrument called dotara, a pair of metal bawls used forrhythm effect called mandira. Currently, several musical instruments of western origin likeguitar, drums, and saxophone are also used, sometimes alongside the traditional instruments.Tribal dances are very popular among the Bangladeshis. The countryside girls are in the habit ofdancing to popular folk music. Their dances require no regulations as such, just a small amountof courage and a big amount of rhythm. Popular songs like Shari and Jari are presented with theaccompanying dance of both male and female performers.Drama and theatre is an old tradition that is very popular in Bangladesh. More than a dozentheater groups in Dhaka City have been regularly staging locally written plays for hundreds ofyears. Many have also started adopted some plays from European writers. Baily Road in Dhakais known as ―Natak Para‖ and this is one location where drama shows are regularly held. Manyshows are also held at the Dhaka University.Another important aspect of the culture of Bangladesh is clothing. Bangladeshi woman usuallywear Saris, made of the world famous and expensive, finely embroidered quilted patchworkcloth produced by the village woman. Woman will traditionally wear their hair in a twisted bun,which is called the ―Beni style‖. Hindus will traditionally wear Dhuty for religious purposes.These days most men of Bangladesh wear shirts and pants.
  45. 45. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh45Bangladeshhas a history. The land, the rivers and the lives of the common people formed a richheritage with marked differences from neighboring regions. It has evolved over the centuries andencompasses the cultural diversity of several social groups of Bangladesh.8.3Festivals and celebrations:Festivals and celebrations are integral part of the culture of Bangladesh. Prominent and widelycelebrated festivals are PohelaBaishakh,Language Movement Day, Independence day, NationalMourning Day, Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-ul-Azha, Muharram, and Durga puja.8.3.1 PohelaBoishakh:PohelaBoishakh is the first day of the Bangla Calendar. It is the festival that is celebrated by thepeople of all religions. In todays Bangladesh, the festival is gaining prominence, which is notrelated to religion. It is observed with great enthusiasm on the first day of Baisakh. Its maincharacteristic is that it is a social festival and its appeal is universal.It is usually celebrated on the 14th of April. PohelaBoishakh marks the start day of the cropseason. The most colorful New Years Day festival takes place in Dhaka. Large numbers ofpeople gather early in the morning under the banyan tree at Ramna Park where Chhayanat artistsopen the day with Rabindranath Tagores famous song, Esho, he Boishakh, EshoEsho.Social and cultural organizations celebrate the day with cultural programs. Newspapers bring outspecial supplements. There are also special programs on radio and television.Prior to this day,special discounts on clothes, furniture, electronics and various deals and shopping discounts areavailable. Special line of sarees, usually cottons, and white sarees with red print/embroidery issold before this day as everyone dresses up for this day. Jasmine flowers are also a huge sale forthis event which adorns the womens hair.Most colorful daylong gatherings along with arrangement of cultural program and traditionalPantaat Ramna Park, Dhaka are a special feature of PahelaBaishakh. Tournaments, boat racesetc. are held in cities and villages amidst great jubilation. Many fairs are held in Dhaka andother towns and villages.
  46. 46. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh46The Halkhata function, observed mainly by the merchant community, is still in vogue on theoccasion of PahelaBaisakh. The merchants complete their accounts of the previous year on theeve or New Years Day. On this day, the customers pay some advance and the merchants treatthem with sweetmeats. There are some who prepare better quality food, including sweetmeats,on the occasion of the New Years Day.8.3.2Language Movement Day:Language Movement Day is a unique part of the culture of Bangladesh. Every year on February21 this day is observed to pay tribute to the martyrs who sacrificed their lives to establishBengali as the official language of then East Pakistan in 1952. The mood of the day is sad andhumble.The celebration of Language Movement Day goes on the entire month of February. EkusheyBook Fair is a book fair arranged to mark this occasion every year. The fair has also become anintegral part of the culture of Bangladesh. Authors and readers in Bangladesh eagerly await thefair each year.To honor this movement, ShaheedMinar, a symbolic sculpture, was erected in the place of themassacre. Today the ShaheedMinar is the centre of cultural activities in Dhaka. On the morningof February 21 each year, people from all walks of life including the national leaders pay tributeto the martyrs by leaving flowers at ShaheedMinar. A very melodious and melancholy song,Amar BhaierRokteRangano, written by Abdul GaffarChoudhury and composed by AltafMahmud, is played repeatedly in electronic media and cultural gatherings throughout the month,and especially on February 21. This song, too, has become a symbolic mark of culture ofBangladesh. In 1999, UNESCO declared the day as ‗International Mother Language Day‘ and isobserved the day though out the world.8.3.3 Independence Day:One of the main state festivals in Bangladesh is ‗Independence Day.‘ The day is observed on 26March in every year. In this day in 1971,Bangabandhu Sheikh MujiburRahman declared theindependence of Bangladesh. In this day,the country wears a celebratory look especially in
  47. 47. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh47capital city and other major cities of the country. People from all corners of the society includinggovernment leaders, socio-political organizations and freedom fighters place, culturalorganizations, students, intellectuals, journalists, Head of the foreign missions, floral wreaths atthe National Martyrs Monument at Savar. Bangla Academy, Bangladesh Shilpakala Academyand other socio-cultural organizations hold cultural functions, discussions, meetings,tournaments all over the country. For a dazzling look, all public and private buildings andestablishments are illuminated.8.3.4Victory Day:Another important state-festival is observed on 16 December in every year as the ‗Victory Day‘of the country. Different programs are initiated on this day like the ‗Independence Day‘ throughout the country. The commander of the Pakistani occupation forces surrendered on 16 December1971 at SuhrawardyUddayan formerly known as the Race Course Maiden in Dhaka andBangladesh became as an independent country.8.3.5Eidul-Fitr:As the most important religious festival for the majority Muslims, the celebration of Eidul-Fitrhas become a part of the culture of Bangladesh. The government of Bangladesh declares holidayfor three days on Eid-ulFitr. People living in towns having their families or parents in villages goto their villages to meet relatives and celebrate the festival together.Adult Muslim males in Bangladesh assemble at the EidGhah for prayer in the morning of the Eidday. On Eid day, Eid prayers are held all over the country, in open areas like fields or else insidemosques. In Dhaka, the largest Eid prayer is held at the national Eidgah. The biggestcongregation of Bangladesh is held at Sholakia in Kishoreganj, where about half a million peoplejoin the Eid prayer. After the Eid prayers, people return home, visit each others home and eatsweet dishes called Shirni. Throughout the day gentlemen embrace each other. It is alsocustomary for junior members of the society to touch the feet of the seniors, and seniorsreturning blessings (sometimes with a small sum of money as a gift).Eidul-Azha:
  48. 48. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh48The celebration of Eidul-Adha is similar to Eidul-Fitar in many ways. The only big difference isthe Qurbanior sacrifice of domestic animals on Eidul-Azha. Numerous temporary marketplacesof different sizes called Haatoperate in the big cities for sale of Qurbani animals (usually cowsand goats).In the morning on the Eid day, immediately after the prayer, those who can afford to slaughtertheir animal of choice. Less affluent people also take part in the festivity by visiting houses of theaffluent who are taking part in Qurbani. After the Qurbani a large portion of the meat is given tothe poor people.8.3.6Eid-e-Miladunnabi:Eid-e-Miladunnabi is the birth and death anniversary of the great Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (s)which is very important day to the Muslim community. He was born and died the same day on12th RabiulAwal (Lunar Month). The Muslim community offers special prayers, miladmahfils,munajats and the discussions are arranged on the Islamic ideals, way of life and teaching of theprophet (s). The day is national a holiday.8.3.7Muharram:The Day is observed through a ceremonial mournful procession of Muslim community which isobserved in 10th Muharram in (Arabic month) in memory of the awful martyrdom of ImamHussain (RA) on this day at Karbala in Iraq.8.3.8BishwaIstima:A three-day long biggest congregation during December-January is held in every year at Tongi,Gazipur near the capital city Dhaka. It is the second biggest Muslim gathering in the worldfollowed by the Holy Hazz at Mecca. About 15 to 20 lakh Muslim devotees from the differentpart of the world gather there and hold the discussion on the ideal of Muslim, the way of lifedirected by the great Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (s), offer a special prayer for the peace ofMuslim Ummah as well as for the well-being of the world at the end of the congregation.
  49. 49. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh498.3.9Rabindra and NazrulJayanti:Birth anniversary of the noble laureate Rabindranath Tagore on 25th Baishakh (7 May) and sameof the National Poet KaziNazrul Islam on 11th Jaystha (25 May) are observed throughout thecountry. Different cultural programs are arranged and discussions are held on those occasions.8.3.10Durga Puja:The Hindu community observe their biggest religious festival popularly known as Durga Pujathrough out the country for ten days and the last three days being culmination with the idolimmersed in rivers. Another very attractive festival of Hindu community which is known asLangalbandhMela is observed by them every year near Sonargaon on the last day of Chaittra(last Bengali month).8.3.11Christmas:The main festival of Christmas community popularly known as "Bara Din (Christmas Day)‖ iscelebrated in 25thDecember including illumination of churches, decorating Christmas tree andother Christian festivities and it is also a govt holiday. Several day-long large gatherings are heldat St. Marys Cathedral at Ramna, Portuguese Church at Tejgaon, Church of Bangladesh(Protestant) on Johnson Road and Bangladesh Baptist Sangha at Sadarghat Dhaka.8.3.12Buddha Purnima:The main and important religious festival of Buddhist community is observed through out thecountry. They also celebrate BaishakhiPurnima and MaghiPurnimathrough out the country. Inaddition to that, various other festivals are habitually observed by Bangalees all the year round.8.3.13 PohelaFalgun and Valentine Day:Thousands of young people, both male and female, are taking part in the twin celebrations ofPahelaFalgun[The first day of Spring according to Bangla calender] and Valentine‘sDaywelcoming the advent of spring and sharing the great day of love.The youngsters celebrate the occasions wearing colorful dresses, carrying flowers in their handsand singing love songs as well as spring songs.
  50. 50. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh50People of the country wait eagerly all the year for spring festival with new hopes and aspirations.Spring is the most attractive season of the year and girls welcome the arrival of spring inPahelaFalgunwearing yellow saris.PahelaFalgun, the first day of the Bangla month of Falgun, marks the beginning of ‗Bashanta‘,the spring season in the country and it has special significance in the Bangladeshi culture.The ‗BashantaUtshab‘ attracts a section of urban people, particularly university students with itsvibrant colors.Around 50,000 visitors come to enjoy this colorful event each year. Folk dances, folk music,recitations and rallies throughout the premises of the University of Dhaka are carried out as partof the BashantaUtshab. The surrounding area turned into Bashanti (yellow) color with almosteveryone turning up in yellow sarees, kameezes, or panjabees. Some of them even painted theirfaces to make the day yet more colorful.8.3.14LalonMela:FokirLalon Shah, a prominent philosopher poet in the cultural history of Bangladesh, establisheda distinctive tradition of philosophical thoughts through his thousands of songs andcompositions. This legendary figure was born on 1774 CE and died on 1890, leavingcontroversial issues regarding his identity. He lived in the village Cheuria at Nodia of British-India era and Kushtia district of present Bangladesh. He is called as the BaulShamrat (theEmperor of Bauls) for his distinctive views about life which denies the concrete affairs of thesearch of ecstasy of human soul. His own vision on human life has become the fundamental indeveloping Baul thoughts among the Bauls in this arena of the world.Every year, on the first week of April, a fair is organized on the eve of his birth anniversary atKushtia. The akhra (the place where Lalon lived) is decorated colorfully during this occasion andthousands of his devotees from different places of the country gather here to celebrate the day.Singers of Lalon Academy with ektara and other musical instrument, perform Lalon‘s song allthrough the night for three days. Several crowds of Baul sit at different places of the Akhra.
  51. 51. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh51Among the Bauls, Fakir Humayun Shah is the prominent one. Lots of people join the crowd toenjoy the song of Lalon from Humayun‘s and his devotees‘ voice. On this day, the placebecomes a gathering of Lalon‘s devotees who remember him practicing his philosophicalthoughts and performing his thousands of compositions.8.3.15Weddings:Bengali weddings are traditionally in five parts: first it is the bride and groomsMehendiShondha,the brides Gaye Holud, the grooms Gaye Holud, the Beeya and the BouBhaat.These often take place on separate days. The first event in a wedding is an informal one: thegroom presents the bride with a ring marking the "engagement" which is gaining popularity.For the mehendishondha the brides side apply henna to each other as well as the bride For thebrides Gaye Holud, the grooms family - except the groom himself - go in procession to thebrides home. Brides friends and family apply turmeric paste to her body as a part of GayeHoludof bride, and they are traditionally all in matching clothes, mostly orange in color.The actual wedding ceremony "Beeye" follows the Gaye Holud ceremonies. The weddingceremony is arranged by the brides family. On the day, the younger members of the bridesfamily barricade the entrance to the venue, and demand a sort of admission charge from thegroom in return for allowing him to enter. The bride and groom are seated separately, and a Kazi(authorized person by the govt. to perform the wedding), accompanied by the parents and aWakil(witness) from each side formally asks the bride for her consent to the union, and then thegroom for his consent.The reception, also known as Bou-Bhaat (reception), is a party given by the grooms family inreturn for the wedding party. It is typically a much more relaxed affair, with only the second-bestwedding outfit being worn.8.3.16JabbarerBoliKhela:
  52. 52. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh52Boli is a traditional form of wrestling in Bangladesh, particularly popular in the Chittagong area.Boli means a powerful person in Bengali, while Khela denotes a game. It is particularly played inthe month of Chaitra (March-April) of the Bangla CalendarThe present-day bolikhela wasintroduced in 1909 by Abdul JabbarSaodagar.8.3.17NobannoUtsab:Nobanno is the festival of harvest in Bengal. The word translates as "New Rice". The festivaltakes place in the month of Agrohayon or Aghranof the Bangla Calendar. Festivities includemaking traditional cakes named "pitha".Nabanno, the traditional annual event marking the harvest of new crops, was celebrated withmuch fanfare across the country. In the capital, the University of Dhaka celebrations are held atBakultala at the Institute of Fine Arts on November 15. TheJatiyaNabannoUtshobUdjapanParishad has been taking steps to encourage NabannoUtshob inDhaka for the last twelve years. They arranged the daylong celebrations.The festival included recitations, dance and folk songs, especially Jari and Sari with members ofseveral cultural organisations performing traditional dances. The countrys leading artistes andcultural organisations, including Udichi, KachiKancharMela, Khelaghar also took part.8.4Cuisine of Bangladesh:PantaIlish - a traditional platter of Pantabhat with fried Hilsa slice, supplemented with dried fish(Shutki), pickles (Achar), dal, green chillies and onion - is a popular serving for thePohelaBoishakh festival.Bangladesh is famous for its distinctive culinary tradition, and delicious food, snacks andsavories. Boiled rice constitutes the staple food, and is served with a variety of vegetables, friedas well as curries, thick lentil soups, and fish and meat preparations of beef, mutton and chicken.
  53. 53. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh53Sweetmeats of Bangladesh are mostly milk based, and consist of several delights includingRoshgulla, Sandesh, Rasamalai, GulapJamun, KaloJamun, ChomChom. Several other sweetpreparations are also available.Bengali cuisine is rich and varied with the use of many specialized spices and flavors.Fish is thedominant source of protein. More than forty types of mostly freshwaterfish are common,including carp varieties like rui (rohu), katla, magur (catfish), chingŗi(prawn or shrimp), as wellasshuţki (dried sea fish). Salt water fish (not sea fish though) Ilish (hilsailisha) is very popularamong Bengalis, can be called an icon of Bengali cuisine.8.5Sports:Football, cricketare most popular games in Bangladesh.Kabaddi is the national sport ofBangladesh. Cricket is a game which has a massive and passionate following in Bangladesh.Bangladesh has joined the elite group of countries eligible to play Test cricket since 2000. TheBangladesh national cricket team goes by the nickname of the Tigers—after the Royal BengalTiger.The cricketing culture is not a new phenomenon in Bangladesh. Following the liberation warwhich ended in Bangladesh gaining independence in 1971, cricketing popularity has continued togrow. Bangladesh most recently enjoyed a good run of form, defeating New Zealand 4-0 in a 5match ODI series held in Mirpur, Dhaka. Bangladesh will also be one of the hosts of the 2011Cricket World Cup. They currently hold 8thspot in the ODI and 9thspot in the Test ICC worldrankings.8.6Culture Word Associations:Chart 10 demonstrates that 63.6% of the native respondents associate Bangladesh withfestivalswhile 31.8% of the respondents associate it with sports. Besides, 4.5% of the respondentsassociate Bangladesh with music. (Appendix: Table 13)
  54. 54. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh54On the other hand, Chart 11 reveals that 83.3% of the foreigners associate Bangladesh withfestivals while 11.1% of the respondents associate it with music. Besides, 5.6% of therespondents associate Bangladesh with films. (Appendix: Table 14)8.7Awareness of the cultural events celebrated in Bangladesh:Chart 12 shows that 34% of the native respondentsstate that PohelaBaishakh is the cultural eventthey have celebrated in Bangladesh followed by Amor Ekushe (32%), Eid (13%), andPohelaFalgun (13%). (Appendix: Table 15).FestivalsSportsMusic63.631.84.5Chart 10 :Perception of native people when theythink of the culture of BangladeshFestivals Music Films83.311.1 5.6Chart 11:Perception of foreigners when they think ofthe culture of Bangladesh
  55. 55. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh55On the other hand, Chart 13 revealsthat 63.6% of the foreigners state that PohelaBaishakh is thecultural event thay have celebrated in Bangladesh followed by Amor Ekushe (18.2%), Eid(9.1%), and LalonMela (9.1%). (Appendix: Table 16).34%32%13%13%2% 3% 3%Chart 12:Cultural Events Celebrated in Bangladesh asrecognozed by native peoplePohela BaishakhAmor Ekushe(InternationalMother Language Day)EidPohela FalgunDurga PujaValentine DayPohelaBaishakhAmor Ekushe(InternationalMotherLanguage Day)Eid Lalon Mela63.618.29.1 9.1Chart 13:Cultural Events Celebrated in Bangladeshas recognized by foreigners
  56. 56. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh568.8Top three cultural events ranked by native people and foreigners:When the respondents are asked to rank the top three cultural festivals of Bangladesh 33.3% ofthe native respondents rank PohelaBaishakh as the top cultural festival of Bangladesh followedby Amor Ekushe (26.7%) and PohelaFalgun (17.8%). (Chart 14 and Appendix: Table 17).On the other hand, when the respondents are asked to rank the top three cultural festivals ofBangladesh, 28% of the foreigner respondents rankPohelaBaishakh and International MotherLanguage Day as the top cultural festivals of Bangladesh followed byChobiMela (17%) and Eid(11%) and NobannoUtsab (11%). (Chart 15 and Appendix: Table 18).33.326.717.86.74.4 4.4 4.4 2.2Chart 14 :Top Three Cultural Festival of Bangladesh asranked by native people
  57. 57. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh578.9Recommendations:The study found that foreigners were not much aware of the culture of Bangladesh. Most of therespondents said that culture of Bangladesh was meant to them festivals and among all thefestivals most of them knew about PohelaBaishakh and Amor Ekushe (International MotherLanguage Day). To create awareness about the culture of Bangladesh the following steps shouldbe taken: A special website can be launched that will contain the cultural information aboutBangladesh. Besides, the electronic and print media of Bangladesh can play a vital role topromote the cultural events of Bangladesh. 2011 world cup cricket can be a platform to promote the cultural events of Bangladesh.As India positioned them as a cricket lover country in the world of cricket playingcountry, Bangladesh can also position itself as the cricket loving nation. Bangladesh is a multi-faith religious country, or Bangladesh as a moderate Muslimcountry with incredible communal harmony. All of the native respondents (100%) agreethat Bangladesh is a non-communal country (Chart 16 and Appendix: Table 19).Although some foreigners believe that Bangladesh is not a non- communal country(33%). (Chart 17 and Appendix: Table 20).28%28%17%11%11%5%Chart 15:Top three Cultural Festival of Bangladesh asranked by foreignersPohela BaishakhInternational MotherLanguage DayChobi MelaEidNobanno UtsabEkushe Boi Mela
  58. 58. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh58And it must not miss opportunities to present to the world the beauties of Islam andcommunal harmony in our country while planning nation branding with an eye on 1.8billion Muslims in the world. The TongiJamat, the second largest annual Islamiccongregation in the world, may also attract many millions of Muslims to visit our countryif only we could turn the whole area on the bank of the River Turag in Tongi into anexclusive pilgrimage city with permanent facilities and amenities that are essential forholding such a grand international congregation on yearly basis. A shopping mallshowcasing our prides and products may also be constructed at Tongi to attract Muslimand non-Muslim tourists alike round the year.67%33%Chart 17:Bangladesh is a Non -Communal Country as stated byforeignersYesNoYes No1000Chart 16 :Bangladesh is a Non -Communal Country as statedby native people
  59. 59. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh59According to Anholt, The general assessment of a people‘s friendliness is measured by whetherrespondents would feel welcome when visiting the country. Additionally, the study measure theappeal of the people on a personal level – whether respondents want to have a close friend fromthe country – as well as human resources on a professional level, that is, how willing respondentswould be to hire a well-qualified person from that country.The population of Bangladesh is 144.2 million in 2008-09. Population growth rate is 1.26%Over 85% of the population is Muslims, less than 13% Hindus and the remaining are Christians,Buddhists.The literacy rate of population 11 + years is 49.1 %.( Source: Bangladesh EconomicReview 2008-09). The population of our country has been regarded as a problem but we fail tosee that it is a country with 144.2 million consumers and 10 million more consumers comingahead in next five years. This is a positive indication to the business community. Currently 77%of the population of our country is born after Liberation War and a significant number of themare computer literate and educated which is definitely a good sign. They have high aspiration andstrong purchasing power. A large number of them can speak English as well. (Hasan, 2010)Besides, vocational training can create opportunities for the self employment in Bangladesh.Bangladesh has a huge number of unskilled or semi skilled labor. Effective training of them canopen the door of earning foreign remittance, as the foreign remittance is one of the major sourcesof earning of Bangladesh. In 2009-2010 the wage earners remittance inflows was 10987.40million US dollar or 760109.59 million taka. (Table 21)
  60. 60. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh60Table 21: Wage Earners Remittance Inflows (Yearly)Year/Month RemittancesIn million US dollar In million Taka2010-2011* 2658.94 184760.402009-2010 10987.40 760109.592008-2009 9689.26 666758.502007-2008 7914.78 542951.402006-2007 5998.47 412985.292005-2006 4802.41 322756.802004-2005 3848.29 236469.702003-2004 3371.97 198698.002002-2003 3061.97 177288.202001-2002 2501.13 143770.302000-2001 1882.10 101700.101999-2000 1949.32 98070.301998-1999 1705.74 81977.801997-1998 1525.43 69346.001996-1997 1475.42 63000.401995-1996 1217.06 49704.001994-1995 1197.63 48144.701993-1994 1088.72 43549.001992-1993 944.57 36970.401991-1992 849.66 32414.50Data upto the month of September of financial year 2010-2011.Source : Foreign Exchange Policy Department, Bangladesh Bank
  61. 61. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh619.1Friendliness and Hospitality of the people of Bangladesh:The people of Bangladesh are hospitable which indicatethe perceptions of a country‘s overallfriendliness and manners. When the foreigners were asked that what comes to their mind whenthey think of Bangladesh. Highest 20.5% of the respondents said that the friendliness of thepeople of Bangladesh.Chart 18 reveals that 60.0% of the native respondents strongly agree with the statement that thepeople of Bangladesh are friendly. And 13.3% of the respondents extremely agree and somewhatagree with the statement respectively. (Appendix: Table 22).On the other hand, Chart 19 revealsthat 40 % of the foreigner respondents strongly agree with the statement that the people ofBangladesh are friendly. And 20.0% of the respondents agree and with the statement. (Appendix:Table 23)9.2Women empowerment:Over the past few years the women are becoming much more productive in terms of growingparticipation in the economic activities. They are becoming more independent in decisionmaking as their economic condition is developing. Research shows that more than 80% of the6.713.32013.3406.7Chart 19: the people ofBangladesh are friendly statedby foreigners6.7 13.36.76013.3Chart 18 :The People ofBangladesh are friendly statedby native people
  62. 62. Measuring Perceptions of people and identifying constraints of Branding Bangladesh62population of women is working in the RMG sector. This is a very positive factor for Bangladeshin the coming days. Chart 20 shows that 60.0% of the native respondentsagree with the statementthat increasing participation of women in various sectors is the indicator of womenempowerment in Bangladesh. And 26.7%strongly agrees with it and13.3% somewhat agrees.Andchart 21 shows that 53.0% of the foreign respondents agree with the statement that increasingparticipation of women in various sectors is the indicator of women empowerment inBangladesh. And 27.0% neither agree nor disagree with it and13.0% disagrees. This is a verypositive indicator for Bangladesh as it helps to increase both economic and image capital.9.3Word Associations about the people of Bangladesh:Chart 22 shows that nearly all of the native respondents use positive adjectives to describe thepeople of Bangladesh who are seen most associated with hard-working, honest and fun loving.38.1% of the native respondents say that the people of Bangladesh are hard working. 23.8% sayhonest and 14.3% say that the people of Bangladesh are fun loving. (Appendix: Table 26).On theother hand, chart 23 also shows that nearly all of the foreigners use positive adjectives todescribe the people of Bangladesh who are seen most associated with hard-working, honest andfun loving. 36.0% of the respondents say that the people of Bangladesh are hard working. 20.0%say hospitable, 20% say honest and 12% say skillful. (Appendix: Table 27)13%27%7%53%Chart 21:The increasing participationof women in various importantsectors is the indicator of womenempowerment in Bangladesh statedby foreignersDisagreeNeither AgreeNor DisagreeSomewhatAgreeAgreeSomewhatAgreeAgree StronglyAgree13.36026.7Chart 20 :The increasing participation ofwomen in various important sectors isthe indicator of Women Empowermentin Bangladesh stated by native people

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