Forest science and forestry education  for a carbon, water, energy and nutrient-constrained world   Andrew Campbell   Rese...
Personal declarations <ul><li>Farming background south-western Victoria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family farming in the distri...
<ul><li>A new Tier One Research Institute </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidating CDU environmental research in one place </li></u...
<ul><li>Natural Resources-based Livelihoods </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal and Marine ecology and management </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>The ANU and CDU have a high level partnership </li></ul><ul><li>NARU – the North Australia Research Unit gives the...
Key Points <ul><li>The age of cheap, abundant fossil fuel energy is coming to an end </li></ul><ul><li>The age of carbon a...
Drivers for change  <ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul>...
Climate The core problem:  population & carbon emissions Source:  WBCSD & IUCN 2008;  Harvard Medical School 2008
Water <ul><li>Each calorie takes one litre of water to produce, on average </li></ul><ul><li>Like the Murray Darling Basin...
Feeding the world <ul><li>The world needs to increase food production by about 70% by  2050, & improve distribution </li><...
But maybe we ain’t seen nothin yet….
Energy & nutrients <ul><li>The era of abundant, cheap fossil fuels is coming to a close </li></ul><ul><li>Rising oil costs...
Energy (2) <ul><li>“  a significant risk of a peak in conventional oil production before 2020.  The risks presented by glo...
Water, energy, and GDP from Proust, Dovers, Foran, Newell, Steffen & Troy (2007)  Energy  & GDP Water   & GDP Water and en...
Climate-energy-water feedbacks from Proust, Dovers, Foran, Newell, Steffen & Troy (LWA 2007)  <ul><li>Saving water often u...
Profound technical challenges <ul><li>To decouple economic growth from carbon emissions </li></ul><ul><li>To adapt to an i...
We need a third agricultural revolution <ul><li>High level goals:  e.g. 50% increase in food & fibre production while doub...
Woody biomass energy <ul><li>Learning from the Vikings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finland:  same area and population as Victor...
CRC Future Farm Industries energy trees <ul><li>Developing an efficient supply chain for woody energy crops integrated int...
Biocarbon/energy integrated into agricultural systems vs replacing them <ul><li>Mallees occupy 8-10% of farms </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>SE Australia is already “post-agricultural” in several regions </li></ul><ul><li>We have some elements of a new pa...
“ Carbon plus” wool, beef and sheep meat
Forestry integrated with farming  vs replacing farming
Transition to carbon-neutral,  energy-positive rural landscapes
The integration imperative <ul><li>Managing  whole  landscapes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ where nature meets culture”  (Simon...
Scales for response to climate change <ul><li>Many of the main drivers of biodiversity loss operate at the landscape-scale...
Forest Science and Forestry Education <ul><li>Extremely relevant and useful — more now than ever </li></ul><ul><li>Looming...
Forest Science and Forestry Education (2) <ul><li>Main challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attracting top talent — profession...
Changes in environmental thinking Source, Thompson & Flanigan May 2011 unpub Issue Focus Existing approaches Landscape and...
Sustainability and Resilience <ul><li>Complementary concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability remains relevant and desirab...
Resilience – the new kid on the block <ul><li>Basically refers to  the capacity of a system to absorb shocks, reorganise a...
Rebranding Forestry & Agriculture <ul><li>As brands, Forestry and  Ag riculture are tired and faded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Rebranding Forestry & Agriculture (2) <ul><li>Forestry (like agriculture) can be seen as core to the food system, the ener...
Take home messages <ul><li>Rural landscapes are more contested and squeezed between major drivers:  climate, water, energy...
For more information   www.cdu.edu.au/riel www.triplehelix.com.au
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Forest science & forestry education anu 12.5.11

450 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
1 Comment
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
450
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
1
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • The world needs to double food production over the next forty years, using less land and water, and paying much higher real prices for energy and nutrients. At the same time, we have to deal with climate change — the biggest market failure of all time — by undertaking radical economic reform in decoupling carbon emissions from economic growth. Australia is one of the countries most affected by climate change, Victoria is one of the most affected parts of Australia, and agriculture is among the most affected sectors of the economy. There will be intense pressures to change Victorian farming systems: to cope with a warming, drying, less reliable climate; to respond to greenhouse policy changes; to meet market demands and community expectations; and to adapt to demographic change. There is a grave risk that rural landscapes will be caught in a dreadful squeeze between a drying climate, and stressed farming systems and rural communities undergoing rapid reform. The habitat fragmentation, the death of paddock trees, the loss of wetlands and the consequent pressures on wildlife that we have seen in recent decades are likely to accelerate, desolating rural landscapes. Unless � Unless we find much more effective ways of reconnecting native vegetation across rural landscapes, and of securing water to maintain ecological function. This means finding ways of working landscape restoration into and around farming systems, and making it pay for people to do so. This presentation will explore the likely drivers of change in Victorian rural landscapes over coming decades and the most prospective options for large scale and rapid landscape restoration and buffering. The future is not some place we are going to, but one we are creating. Paths to it are made, not found.
  • Forest science & forestry education anu 12.5.11

    1. 1. Forest science and forestry education for a carbon, water, energy and nutrient-constrained world Andrew Campbell Research Institute for the Environment and Livelihoods Charles Darwin University www.cdu.edu.au/riel
    2. 2. Personal declarations <ul><li>Farming background south-western Victoria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family farming in the district since 1860s, own farm managed since 1987 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>450ha near Cavendish: 30% farm forestry, 10% environmental reserves, 60% leased to a neighbour for prime lambs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forestry & rural sociology: Creswick, Melbourne & Wageningen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Last cohort to graduate from Creswick 1980 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forester Victorian government </li></ul><ul><li>First National Landcare Facilitator ‘89-92 </li></ul><ul><li>Environment Australia SES 1995-2000 </li></ul><ul><li>CEO Land & Water Australia 2000-06 </li></ul><ul><li>Triple Helix Consulting 2007-10 </li></ul><ul><li>Director, Research Institute for the Environment & Livelihoods, CDU 2011— </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>A new Tier One Research Institute </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidating CDU environmental research in one place </li></ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinary across the natural and social sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on northern Australia and the region to its north </li></ul><ul><li>Strong emphasis on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>collaborative research partnerships (including ANU) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indigenous engagement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>working with research end-users to ensure relevance and adoptability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research Institute for the Environment & Livelihoods (RIEL) </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Natural Resources-based Livelihoods </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal and Marine ecology and management </li></ul><ul><li>Freshwater ecology and management </li></ul><ul><li>Savanna Management and Wildlife Conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical Resource Futures </li></ul><ul><li>RIEL Research Themes </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>The ANU and CDU have a high level partnership </li></ul><ul><li>NARU – the North Australia Research Unit gives the ANU a footprint (& accommodation) on the Darwin campus of CDU </li></ul><ul><li>We can offer jointly-badged PhDs </li></ul><ul><li>We have both overlapping and complementary capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>And both directors are long-term Queanbeyan residents… </li></ul><ul><li>So have a think about doing RIEL fieldwork or post-grad studies </li></ul><ul><li>RIEL & the Fenner School – natural partners </li></ul>
    6. 6. Key Points <ul><li>The age of cheap, abundant fossil fuel energy is coming to an end </li></ul><ul><li>The age of carbon accounting and pricing is beginning </li></ul><ul><li>Rural landscapes will be more contested and more multifunctional </li></ul><ul><li>Australia needs a third agricultural revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Well-planned woody perennials have an important role </li></ul><ul><li>New opportunities for forest science and forestry education </li></ul><ul><li>Reflections on the value of forestry training </li></ul><ul><li>In a world where carbon is valued, forestry should be a cool profession, attracting top talent </li></ul>
    7. 7. Drivers for change <ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><li>Population, demography, consumption and development pressures </li></ul><ul><li>Competition for land & water resources </li></ul><ul><li>Resource depletion & degradation </li></ul>
    8. 8. Climate The core problem: population & carbon emissions Source: WBCSD & IUCN 2008; Harvard Medical School 2008
    9. 9. Water <ul><li>Each calorie takes one litre of water to produce, on average </li></ul><ul><li>Like the Murray Darling Basin, all the world’s major food producing basins are effectively ‘closed’ or already over-committed </li></ul>
    10. 10. Feeding the world <ul><li>The world needs to increase food production by about 70% by 2050, & improve distribution </li></ul><ul><li>We have done this in the past, mainly through clearing, cultivating and irrigating more land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>and intensification, better varieties, more fertiliser, pesticides </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climate change and oil depletion is narrowing those options, with limits to water, land, energy & nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Rich consumers have major concerns about modern industrial food systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>human health, animal welfare, environment, fair trade </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11.
    12. 12. But maybe we ain’t seen nothin yet….
    13. 13. Energy & nutrients <ul><li>The era of abundant, cheap fossil fuels is coming to a close </li></ul><ul><li>Rising oil costs = rising costs for fertiliser, agri-chemicals, transport and food </li></ul>Australia World
    14. 14. Energy (2) <ul><li>“ a significant risk of a peak in conventional oil production before 2020. The risks presented by global oil depletion deserve much more serious attention by the research and policy communities.” </li></ul><ul><li>UK Energy Research Centre, An assessment of the evidence for a near-term peak in global oil production , August 2009 </li></ul>“ we have to leave oil before oil leaves us, and we have to prepare ourselves for that day” Dr Fatih Birol, Chief Economist IEA, 3 August 2009 “ The challenge of feeding 7 or 8 billion people while oil supplies are falling is stupefying. It’ll be even greater if governments keep pretending that it isn’t going to happen.” George Monbiot, The Guardian 16.11.09
    15. 15. Water, energy, and GDP from Proust, Dovers, Foran, Newell, Steffen & Troy (2007) Energy & GDP Water & GDP Water and energy have historically been closely coupled with GDP in Australia Our challenge now is to radically reduce the energy, carbon and water-intensity of our economy
    16. 16. Climate-energy-water feedbacks from Proust, Dovers, Foran, Newell, Steffen & Troy (LWA 2007) <ul><li>Saving water often uses more energy, and vice-versa </li></ul><ul><li>Efforts to moderate climate often use more energy +/or water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. coal-fired power stations with CCS will be 25-33% more water-intensive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Using more fossil energy exacerbates climate chaos </li></ul>
    17. 17. Profound technical challenges <ul><li>To decouple economic growth from carbon emissions </li></ul><ul><li>To adapt to an increasingly difficult climate </li></ul><ul><li>To increase water productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>— decoupling the 1 litre per calorie relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To increase energy productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more food energy out per unit of energy in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>while shifting from fossil fuels to renewable energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To develop more sustainable food systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>while conserving biodiversity and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improving landscape amenity, soil health, animal welfare & human health </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TO DO ALL OF THE ABOVE SIMULTANEOUSLY! — improving sustainability and resilience </li></ul>
    18. 18. We need a third agricultural revolution <ul><li>High level goals: e.g. 50% increase in food & fibre production while doubling water productivity, reducing net emissions to zero and becoming a net energy producer from agricultural and pastoral lands </li></ul><ul><li>How to get there? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed loop farming systems, not leaking: (water, energy, nutrients, carbon, biodiversity, human talent) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart metering, sensing, telemetry, robotics, guidance, biotech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better understanding of soil carbon & microbial activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radically reducing waste in all parts of the food chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farming systems producing renewable ( 2 nd gen ) bioenergy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiverse carbon sinks to offset unavoidable emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attracting young talent back into agriculture, forestry and rural communities </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Woody biomass energy <ul><li>Learning from the Vikings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finland: same area and population as Victoria, tougher climate, shorter growing season, slower growth rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private forestry thinnings etc produce 23% of Finland’s primary energy, over 75% of thermal energy needs, and 20% of Finland’s electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Sweden it is 20% (already higher than oil) with a target of 40% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foran et al suggest woody biomass energy can fuel Australia </li></ul><ul><li>WA already in the lead </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd Gen biofuels (mallees) 40-50 times more energetically efficient than ethanol </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. CRC Future Farm Industries energy trees <ul><li>Developing an efficient supply chain for woody energy crops integrated into wheatbelt farming systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Solving a bottleneck with the invention of a new harvesting head that can handle tough mallee species </li></ul>
    21. 21. Biocarbon/energy integrated into agricultural systems vs replacing them <ul><li>Mallees occupy 8-10% of farms </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal food production trade-off </li></ul><ul><li>48 times more energetically efficient than ethanol </li></ul><ul><li>300-550mm rainfall zone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>— minimal water yield loss and low opportunity cost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Salinity, erosion control and biodiversity benefits </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>SE Australia is already “post-agricultural” in several regions </li></ul><ul><li>We have some elements of a new paradigm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecoservices etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon offsets market (Greenfleet et al) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New corporate players — e.g. VicSuper, energy companies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We know areas that need to expand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water conservation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Habitat restoration and reconnection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Residential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renewable energy (biomass, biogas, wind, solar) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>and we know how not to do it — MIS! </li></ul>
    23. 23. “ Carbon plus” wool, beef and sheep meat
    24. 24.
    25. 25. Forestry integrated with farming vs replacing farming
    26. 26.
    27. 27. Transition to carbon-neutral, energy-positive rural landscapes
    28. 28. The integration imperative <ul><li>Managing whole landscapes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ where nature meets culture” (Simon Schama) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>landscapes are socially constructed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>beyond ‘ecological apartheid’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NRM means people management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>engage values, perceptions, aspirations, behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>across issues — e.g climate, energy, water, food, biodiversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>across scales — agencies, governments, short-term, long-term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>across the triple helix —  landscapes, lifestyles & livelihoods </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Scales for response to climate change <ul><li>Many of the main drivers of biodiversity loss operate at the landscape-scale e.g. habitat fragmentation, invasive species and changed fire regimes. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the scale which lends itself to integrated, whole of ecosystem and cross tenure solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>In Australia the most threatened components of biodiversity are in the intensive zones and </li></ul>CSIRO 2010
    30. 30. Forest Science and Forestry Education <ul><li>Extremely relevant and useful — more now than ever </li></ul><ul><li>Looming gap between supply and demand for graduates </li></ul><ul><li>Key attributes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breadth across the physical, chemical and biological sciences & ecology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant doses of applied economics and management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important toolkit for a carbon economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Just enough social science to be dangerous (room for improvement) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicitly embracing a wide range of scales in space and time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comfortable with dynamic systems, uncertainty & non-linear processes </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Forest Science and Forestry Education (2) <ul><li>Main challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attracting top talent — professional image needs a makeover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moving beyond polarised forest policy debates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offering practical, enticing ways to ‘sharpen the saw’ (e.g. Master Tree Grower) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Forestry Masters Program (NFMP) an important framework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs to complement national R,D&E strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry support and investment in education is critical </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Changes in environmental thinking Source, Thompson & Flanigan May 2011 unpub Issue Focus Existing approaches Landscape and resilience based approaches Biodiversity conservation <ul><li>threatened species & habitats </li></ul><ul><li>protected areas priority </li></ul><ul><li>limited private land involvement </li></ul><ul><li>ecosystem functions </li></ul><ul><li>critical/keystone species </li></ul><ul><li>linked whole-of-system </li></ul>Science input <ul><li>distribution & abundance of species </li></ul><ul><li>static ecosystem structures </li></ul><ul><li>models of predictable change </li></ul><ul><li>optimization and economic tools </li></ul><ul><li>non-linear dynamics and complex systems </li></ul><ul><li>shocks, feedbacks, thresholds </li></ul><ul><li>cross-scale interactions </li></ul><ul><li>complex social-ecological systems </li></ul>Policy tools <ul><li>mix of approaches </li></ul><ul><li>short term objectives </li></ul><ul><li>fixed targets </li></ul><ul><li>changed mix of approaches ? </li></ul><ul><li>long-term objectives ? </li></ul><ul><li>adaptive/flexible targets ? </li></ul><ul><li>management at multiple temporal and temporal scales ? </li></ul>Governance models <ul><li>rigid institutional structures </li></ul><ul><li>whole-of-government coordination </li></ul><ul><li>community engagement </li></ul><ul><li>integration across institutions ? </li></ul><ul><li>integrated planning across multiple scales ? </li></ul><ul><li>adaptive governance structures ? </li></ul><ul><li>devolved/shared decision-making ? </li></ul>
    33. 33. Sustainability and Resilience <ul><li>Complementary concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability remains relevant and desirable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Living within our means </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking long term (inter-generational equity) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinguishing between depletable and renewable resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoiding or limiting actions that degrade, pollute, over-use or compromise ecosystem function </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BUT: Sustainability is less instructive around: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social and economic dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating in contexts with inherent variability </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Resilience – the new kid on the block <ul><li>Basically refers to the capacity of a system to absorb shocks, reorganise and retain the same functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As resilience declines, it takes a progressively smaller shock to push a system across a threshold </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adds value in explicitly embracing change and variability </li></ul><ul><li>Introduces the useful concept of thresholds or tipping points </li></ul><ul><li>Also embraces scale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resilience at a given scale requires an understanding of at least one scale up & down </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Rebranding Forestry & Agriculture <ul><li>As brands, Forestry and Ag riculture are tired and faded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>negative connotations in terms of profitability, lifestyle, ‘old economy’ and environmental virtue —  tend to be judged by worst practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>very low levels of professional training (7% with a degree in 2004, c/f 17% for mining and 24% for services) * </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We have to re-think, re-tool, re-skill and re-brand </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon pricing and energy insecurity presents a huge opportunity for farm & agroforestry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vis Reid & Wilson 1985, Campbell 1990, Alexandra & Hall 1998, Youl 2001, Garnaut 2007, Lang 2008, Wentworth Group 2009 </li></ul></ul>* Source: Bull & Kanowski IFA presentation 2009
    36. 36. Rebranding Forestry & Agriculture (2) <ul><li>Forestry (like agriculture) can be seen as core to the food system, the energy system and even the health system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>with a new story around carbon, water, energy, fibre, biodiversity and survival: ‘keepers of the long view’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High quality Australian forestry — a key to responsible living </li></ul>
    37. 37. Take home messages <ul><li>Rural landscapes are more contested and squeezed between major drivers: climate, water, energy, food </li></ul><ul><li>Australia needs a third agricultural revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Well-planned woody perennials have an important role </li></ul><ul><li>This creates exciting new opportunities for forest science and forestry education </li></ul><ul><li>Our professional image and approach must change </li></ul><ul><li>Multifunctional rural landscapes offer a fertile seedbed </li></ul>
    38. 38. For more information www.cdu.edu.au/riel www.triplehelix.com.au

    ×