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  2. 2. What is a realism? • Realism is an interest in or concern for the actual or re al, as distinguished from the abstract and speculative. • Realism refers to any effort to offer an accurate and d etailed of actual life. • There are three different types of a realism. (fine arts, literature, and philosophy)
  3. 3. Fine Arts Treatment of forms, colors, and space in such a m anner as to emphasize their correspondence to act uality or to ordinary visual experience Literature A manner of treating subject matter that presents a c areful description of everyday life, usually of the lower and middle classes.
  4. 4. Philosophy • The doctrine that universals have a real objecti ve existence. • The doctrine that objects of sense perception have an existence independent of the act of pe rception.
  5. 5. Alexander Posey (1873-1908) • Posey was born into a bicultural and bilingu al family. • His mother was a Creek Indian and his fat her was a white man who had been raised in the Creek community. • He grew up learning to appreciate both N ative American and Euro-American traditio ns and benefited from a traditional wester n education at the Bacone Indian Universi ty in Muskogee. • It was at Bacone that Posey began compo sing poetry, most of which is heavily influ enced by the British and American Roman tic tradition.
  6. 6. The Fus Fixico letters • Which translates as either "Warrior Bird" or "Heartless Bird“. • The letters offer humorous political and cultural comm entary written from the perspective and in the dialect of Indian speakers. • The letter is about revolving around the conversations of four men--and usually centering on the monologue s of Hotgun Harjo, a medicine man--the letters narrate Indian responses to political issues and lampoon the c orruption that was rampant in Indian Territory.
  7. 7. Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens) (1835-1910) •Samuel L. Clemens, better known by his pen name "Mark Twain“. •He continues to enjoy a reputation, already a ttained by the end of his lifetime, as an icon of American literature. •Twain's life provided subjects and sources for many of his works. •Born in Missouri, he grew up in the Mississip pi river town of Hannibal, which, thinly disguis ed as St. Petersburg, became the boyhood ho me of his most famous characters, Tom Sawy er and Huck Finn. Clemens himself did not en joy a long childhood.
  8. 8. Huckleberry Finn • This is his greatest work, is remarkable above all for c onjuring up a vivid sense of a time and place, for usin g humor and pathos to pose crucial questions about r ace relations and the legacy of slavery, and for experi menting with narration and dialect. • Through the naive perspective of Huck, a first-person boy narrator who speaks is slang and dialect, Twain ex poses social inhibitions and injustices, the gaps betwe en what the American people are supposed to be and what they are.
  9. 9. Kate Chopin (1851-1904) • She was born in St. Luis, Missouri and her family was a socially pro minent and financially secure. • Her mother was descended form French Creole ancestors • Her father was an Irish immigrant who had made his fortune as a m erchant in St. Luis. • Chopin learned to speak both Fre nch and English in her home and was sent to Catholic school.
  10. 10. The Awakening • It was published in 1899 and one of her masterpiece. • It’s a story of a woman who gradually awakens to her own dissatisfaction with her identity as a wife and mot her. • She flouts social conventions by moving out of her hu sband’s house and entering into an adulterous affair. • The novel provoked hostile reviews from critics who di smissed it as “trite and sordid” and “vulgar”.