Tuan 14 3 2010

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Tuan 14 3 2010

  1. 1. Fish nutrition and feeding technology VU -ANH TUAN, PhD Minh Hai Sub-Institute For Fisheries Research 21-24 Phan Ngoc Hien – Ca Mau City – Vietnam Tel: +84 989 575 087 Fax: +84 780 383 8722 Email: tuan_v_a@yahoo.com.vn http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  2. 2. FISH NUTRITION <ul><li>Scope </li></ul><ul><li>Fish habits </li></ul><ul><li>Fish digestion </li></ul><ul><li>Where feed is used? </li></ul><ul><li>Principles of feed formulation </li></ul><ul><li>Good ingredients selection </li></ul><ul><li>Essential nutrient requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Feed additives </li></ul><ul><li>Feed formulation and manufacture </li></ul>http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  3. 3. Sourced from Stephen Goddard (1997) Feeding habits of some fish species http://www.ridzalmersing.com Common carp, channel catfish, some tilapias Omnivores Grass carp, silver carp, some tilapias, milkfish Herbivores Japanese eel, Sea bass, Sea bream, Rainbow trout, Atlantic salmon, Yellow tail Carnivores Examples of farmed species Group
  4. 4. Fish digestion http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  5. 5. Where artificial feed is used? <ul><li>As a general principle, when farming carnivorous species, increasing density and yield requires more compounded feed. </li></ul>http://www.ridzalmersing.com Fish/shrimp stocking density feeding Exogenous or artificial Natural/pond food organisms Level of management Capital and recurring cost Susceptibility of disease Extensive Semi-intensive Intensive The diagram was modified after De Silva and Anderson (1995)
  6. 6. Principles of feed formulation <ul><li>Selection of right ingredients: quality (high digestibility and stability) , quantity, and price </li></ul><ul><li>Essential nutrient balance and requirements are known: EAA, protein, energy </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin and mineral pre-mixture </li></ul><ul><li>Feed additives: attractants, binders </li></ul><ul><li>Formulating a test diet for small scale then modify prior to producing a large amount </li></ul>http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  7. 7. Good ingredient selection <ul><li>Common method is in vivo using inert markers such as chromic oxide, cholestane, and yttrium oxide </li></ul>Apparent digestibility http://www.ridzalmersing.com Chromic oxide Ethanolphenoxyl Stripping Sea bass
  8. 8. Example: AD for dry matters
  9. 9. Example: AD for energy
  10. 10. Example: AD for protein
  11. 11. Some common feed ingredients http://www.ridzalmersing.com Vung Tau fish meal (VN) Clam meat meal Ca Mau fish meal (VN)
  12. 12. Common feed ingredients http://www.ridzalmersing.com Corn meal Poultry by product meal Feather meal Meat and bone meal Rice bran Casava meal
  13. 13. http://www.ridzalmersing.com Different oils Fish oil Wheat flour Whole soy bean
  14. 14. Essential Amino Acid Index Essential amino acid index (EAAI) (Panaflorida (1989)) aa n : A/E ratio of a particular amino acid in the feed (A/E is a ratio of an essential amino acid by weight divide total essential amino acids plus tyrosine and cystine by weight and multiplying with 1000) AA n : A/E ratio in the whole shrimp tissue. http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  15. 15. Example 1. EAA composition of feed ingredients (g/kg in DM) Sourced from Tacon (1990) 1.33 1.13 1.97 Tyrosine 0.71 0.39 0.61 Cystine 44.4 49.1 61.3 Crude Protein 0.61 0.29 0.68 Tryptophan 1.62 1.72 2.43 Threonine 0.59 0.64 1.77 Methionine 2.00 1.79 2.4 Phenylalanine 2.76 2.72 4.70 Lysine 2.27 2.39 3.27 Valine 3.12 3.21 4.64 Leucine 2.14 1.63 2.81 Isoleucine 1.12 1.1 1.44 Histidine 3.48 3.49 3.58 Arginine Soybean meal Meat and bone meal Menhaden fish meal EAAs
  16. 16. Example 2. EAA composition of whole body tissue 1 from Wilson & Cowey. 1985; 2 from Millamena et al 1998) 1.56 6.6 Tyrosine 0.41 2.0 Cystine 0.40 1.7 Tryptophan 1.56 9.2 Threonine 1.0 5.5 Methionine 1.66 8.3 Phenylalanine 3.0 16.9 Lysine 2.04 9.5 Valine 2.91 14.6 Leucine 1.76 8.0 Isoleucine 0.98 5.25 Histidine 3.16 12.3 Arginine Black tiger shrimp 2 Channel catfish 1 EAAs
  17. 17. 0.1 ≤ EAAI ≤ 1.0 => Good ingredients having EAAI ≥ 0.9 <ul><li>Examples: selecting ingredients for black tiger shrimp : </li></ul>http://www.ridzalmersing.com Shrimp meal: 0.98 Squid meal: 0.98 Chilean fishmeal: 0.92 Soybean meal: 0.87
  18. 18. Essential nutrient requirements <ul><li>Optimal protein requirement is the minimum amount of dietary protein needed to produce maximum growth in a certain period (Tacon 1990). </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Prior to determining protein requirement, EAAs in diet MUST be balanced to match the EAA in target animal tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical techniques to determine optimal protein requirement: </li></ul><ul><li>ANOVA </li></ul><ul><li>Broken line </li></ul><ul><li>Polynomial regression </li></ul><ul><li>Surface graph </li></ul>Protein and energy requirement http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  19. 19. Example 1: Using broken-line to predict optimal protein for fish (Kim et al. 2002)
  20. 20. Example 2: using polynomial regression to estimate optimal protein for mud crab (Tuan 2007)
  21. 21. Example 3: Total balanced essential amino acids for mud crab (Tuan 2007)
  22. 22. Example 4: Optimal ratio of protein and energy for fish (unpublished)
  23. 23. Essential fatty acid requirements <ul><li>There are 5 fatty acids to be considered as essential fatty acids fish species including: </li></ul><ul><li>Linoleic acid (18:2n-6. LOA). </li></ul><ul><li>Linolenic acid (18:3n-3. LNA). </li></ul><ul><li>Arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6. ARA). </li></ul><ul><li>Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3. EPA). and </li></ul><ul><li>Decosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3. DHA) </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical techniques to determine optimal protein requirement: </li></ul><ul><li>ANOVA </li></ul><ul><li>Surface graph (recently) </li></ul>http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  24. 24. Example 1: Determine optimal LOA and LNA requirement Sourced from Tuan (2007) Sourced from Tuan (2007)
  25. 25. Example 2: Optimal ratio between lipid and EFA in diet (Glencross et al. 2002)
  26. 26. Example: EFAs sources (Modified after Tacon 1990)
  27. 27. Example: EFA requirements for warmed fish species http://www.ridzalmersing.com Source from De Silva and Anderson (1995) 0.5 18:2(n-6) Tilapias 1% 20:5(n-3) and 22:6(n-3) Sea bass 0.5% 20:5(n-3) and 22:6(n-3) or 0.5% 18:2(n-6) Red dream 0.5% 18:2(n-6) and 0.5 18:3(n-3) Japanese eel 1% 18:2(n-6) and 1% 18:3(n-3) Common carp 1% 18:3 or 0.5-0.75% 20:5(n-3) and 22:6(n-3) Channel catfish Optimal levels Species
  28. 28. Vitamin requirements 100-500 R NR hoặc 100 Vitamin 200-500 200-440 NR Inositol 50-3000 500-4000 400 Choline 0.02 NR 0.02 Vitamin B12 5-10 NR NR hoặc 5 Folic acid 1-150 29 14 Niacin 10-50 25 10-50 Pentothenic acid 1-15 4 3-20 Pyridoxine 3-30 4-10 9-20 Riboflavin 1-12 NR 1-20 Thiamin 10 NR 10 Vitamin K 30-50 80-300 50-100 Vitamin E 2400 NR 500-4000 Vitamin D (UI) 2000-15 000 1000-20 000 5500 Vitamin A (UI) Rain bow trout Common carp Channel catfish Vitamin
  29. 29. Mineral requirements <ul><li>Aquatic animals may utilise some dissolved minerals. </li></ul><ul><li>When use animal protein above 5%. micro mineral is not needed. </li></ul>R: requirement Sourced from De Silva and Anderson (1995) R R 0.25 0.15-0.38 Selenium (mg/kg) 15.0-30.0 20.0 13.0-15.0 Zinc (mg/kg) 13.0 2.4 13.0 Manganese (mg/kg) 3.0 5.0 3.0 Copper (mg/kg) 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.05 Magnesium(%) 0.3 0.7 0.4 0.7 Phosphorus (%) 0.27 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 Calcium (%) Japanese eel Common carp Channel catfish Rainbow trout Name
  30. 30. Feed additives <ul><li>Attractants: </li></ul><ul><li>Purified substances such as mixture L-amino acids glycine, alanine, proline, histidine, or betaine </li></ul><ul><li>Others: trash fish, squid meal, mussel flesh, shrimp meal and waste, short-neck clam flesh, marine worms. </li></ul><ul><li>Binders </li></ul><ul><li>Starch, alginate, plant gum, agar, high-gluten wheat flour, and urea-formaldehyde are used </li></ul>
  31. 31. Feed formulation
  32. 32. Feed manufacture
  33. 33. FEEDING TECHNOLOGY <ul><li>Scope </li></ul><ul><li>Aims of using feeding technology </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional feeding method </li></ul><ul><li>Modern feeding method </li></ul>http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  34. 34. Aims of feeding technology <ul><li>Uneaten feed causes pollution in aquatic environments and increasing cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Sound management of the feeding regime to increase feed utilization and minimise food wastage. </li></ul>http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  35. 35. Traditional feeding method <ul><li>Using feed tray at shrimp farms in Vietnam </li></ul>http://www.ridzalmersing.com Feed tray Feed checking Commercial feed
  36. 36. Using home made fish for catfish in Mekong delta, VN http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  37. 37. Using different types of feed Suitable sizes Feed diameter of 4 mm Feed diameter of 8 mm Feed diameter of 2 mm Feed types Slow sinking feed Sinking feed Floating feed
  38. 38. Based on wet body weight for Rainbow trout (New 1987) 1.6 1.3 1.1 1.0 0.9 500.0 1.9 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.1 200.0 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 100.0 2.4 2.0 1.7 1.5 1.3 66.7 2.5 2.1 1.8 1.6 1.4 50.0 2.9 2.2 1.9 1.8 1.6 33.3 3.2 2.6 2.1 1.9 1.7 25.0 3.8 3.2 2.9 2.4 2.0 11.1 4.1 3.9 3.6 2.8 2.3 7.7 4.7 4.5 3.8 3.0 2.6 5.0 5.1 4.9 4.0 3.2 2.8 2.5 5.8 5.1 4.5 3.6 3.0 1.43 6.1 5.6 4.7 3.8 3.3 0.77 6.4 5.8 4.8 3.9 3.4 0.38 15 o C 13 o C 11 o C 9 o C 7 o C Feed amount (% of body weight) Fish sizes (g)
  39. 39. Using Auto feeder for Juvenile Sea bass (DAC, NT, Australia) Modern feeding technology
  40. 40. Using camera system to manage feed consumption http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  41. 41. Feeding system in Japan http://www.ridzalmersing.com
  42. 42. Feeding system in Japan
  43. 43. Using electrical spreader with adjustable speed and sensor control http://www.ridzalmersing.com Sources from ARVOTEC
  44. 44. Using electrical spreader http://www.ridzalmersing.com Sources from ARVOTEC
  45. 45. Centralised pipe feeding system from ARVOTEC
  46. 46. Feed monitoring
  47. 47. Thank you for your attention! http://www.ridzalmersing.com

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