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Tendency Of Organic Aquaculture Development


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Tendency Of Organic Aquaculture Development

  1. 1. Tendency of organic aquaculture development Nguyen Duy Hoa, Ph.D. Email: [email_address] National Breeding Center for Southern Marine Aquaculture
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>General information </li></ul><ul><li>Organic aquaculture – Case studies </li></ul><ul><li>Problem identifications </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency </li></ul>
  3. 3. General information <ul><li>Organic production system </li></ul><ul><li>Thanks to the United States’s Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) National Organic Standard Board, the word “Organic” has an official definition in the United States: </li></ul><ul><li>An ecological production management system that promotes and enhances biodiversity, biological cycles, and soil biological activities . It is based on minimal use of off-farm inputs and on management practices that restore, maintain and enhance ecological harmony. </li></ul>1. Definition
  4. 4. Why go to organic production <ul><li>Safe the soil, water and nature </li></ul><ul><li>Help property reduction in remote areas </li></ul><ul><li>Improve health for both producers and consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Value added for export products </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid to sink our land </li></ul><ul><li>… . </li></ul>Consumer expectation for food quality and safety and environmental, social, and economic benefits for farmers and for society.
  5. 5. Organic aquaculture <ul><li>The variety of species produced in aquacultural systems and vast differences in cultural requirements for finfish, shellfish, mollusks, and aquatic plants add to the complexity of defining “organic” for this sector. Some species and some production systems may prove quite difficult to adapt to a traditional “organic” system. </li></ul><ul><li>Organic aquaculture also aims to provide fish and other products that are ecologically, economically and socially sound. </li></ul>
  6. 6. 2. History of organic aquaculture <ul><li>Rooted in the organic agriculture movement </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive ‘organic’ Carp production in early nineties by Organic Farmers and Organic Farming Association in Austria and Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of organic salmon project in Ireland, in 1995 based on IFOAM organic farming principles with the involvement of Naturland, then </li></ul><ul><li>Successful organic salmon, first in Germany, later in the United Kingdom and France, followed by seabass, seabream, freshwater salmonids, and carp </li></ul><ul><li>Organic shrimp started in Ecuador, in 1998, then in Peru and Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>In China most are carp in polyculture, crab, shrimp, turtle or sea cucumbers </li></ul><ul><li>Black tiger shrimp in Bangladesh, Thailand and Vietnam </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>In 2000, IFOAM published a draft standards for organic aquaculture </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Association setting the standards for organic salmon in 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of detailed production rules for organic aquaculture as part of EU organic regulation in 2009 </li></ul>
  8. 8. 3. Common principles for organic aquaculture <ul><li>The production systems must correspond to the species-specific physiological and behavioral needs of animals </li></ul><ul><li>Feedstuffs must be either from certified organic agriculture or from suitable fisheries products. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of chemical and synthesis pesticides and similar substances on the farm is prohibited. Net cages may not be treated anti-fouling agents to regulate algal growth </li></ul><ul><li>Prophylactic use of antibiotics and other conventional treatment is prohibited. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Aquaculture operations may not yield any negative impact on neighbouring eco-systems </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute prohibition of GMOs (genetically modified organicsm), reffering not only to feed and other inputs, but to animal stock being cultivated. </li></ul><ul><li>Processing takes place according to organic principles (use of sodium metabisulfate in shrimp processing, application of liquid smoke in salmon smokeries is not allowed…) </li></ul><ul><li>Social sustainability is an increasing important aspect of organic aquaculture </li></ul>
  10. 10. Organic carp <ul><li>A multi-species farming system </li></ul><ul><li>Organic origin </li></ul><ul><li>Production system and husbandry practices </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental impact </li></ul><ul><li>Slaughter </li></ul><ul><li>Feed </li></ul><ul><li>Medical treatment </li></ul>Organic aquaculture - case studies
  11. 11. Organic salmoniadae <ul><li>Origin of broodstock </li></ul><ul><li>Husbandry practices </li></ul><ul><li>Environmetal impact </li></ul><ul><li>Slaughter </li></ul><ul><li>Predators </li></ul><ul><li>Feed </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
  12. 12. Penaeid shrimp <ul><li>Mangrove protection </li></ul><ul><li>Use of conventional medicine and antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Density and intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Feed </li></ul><ul><li>… . </li></ul>
  13. 13. Case studies in Vietnam Organic black tiger shrimp project
  14. 14.
  15. 15. <ul><li>Site selection and protection of mangrove: the mangrove forest at least 70% of the farm area </li></ul><ul><li>Protection ecosystem in the farm and surroundings: destruction of mangrove is not permited, water quality is monitored </li></ul><ul><li>Only native species are stocked </li></ul><ul><li>Breeding: naturally redcommened but eyestalk-ablation still accepted for black tiger shrimp </li></ul><ul><li>Heating or aeration of pond is not allowed </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Tidal flow used for water exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilization of the ponds: the use of organic waste as raw materials or compost produced by the farm itself is authorized </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding in pond: use of external feed is not allowed </li></ul><ul><li>Stocking density: < 2 inds/m 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Safeguarding health and hygiene: rely on probiotics for disease control, not antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Harvesting and processing: care must be taken to maintain shrimp quality, processing follow organic principles </li></ul>
  17. 18. Organic catfish project (Binca seafood, Naturland and local producers) -Fish fries must be free from antibiotic residue (pass nursing period 40-60 days -Feeds include 50% rice bran, 25% soybean, 25% fishmeal (organic certified materials) - The culture procedure and requirements are stricly inspected by IMO (Institute for Market Ecology) to be ceritified by Naturland
  18. 19. Problem identifications <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul>
  19. 20. Advantages <ul><li>Healthy and tasty products </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental protection </li></ul><ul><li>Social sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Valued added products </li></ul><ul><li>… . </li></ul>
  20. 21. Dis-advantages <ul><li>Strictly farming regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Low yield, low income </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow market </li></ul><ul><li>Limited services for organic aquaculture (especially organic materials) </li></ul><ul><li>Complex procedures for implementing rules and strictly regulation </li></ul>
  21. 22. Polictical process of preparing the implementing rules for organic aquaculture
  22. 23. Overview of the organic regulation for aquaculture production
  23. 25. Tendency of organic aquaculture development <ul><li>Organic aquaculture species </li></ul><ul><li>Organic aquaculture production and markets </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer behavior and outlook </li></ul><ul><li>Labelling of organic aquaculture products under New EC Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Reseach and development </li></ul>
  24. 26. Organic aquaculture sepeceis <ul><li>Today, organic aquaculture production takes place primarily in Europe, where certified organic salmon, carp, and trout are grown and sold. Certified organic mussels, Tiger shrimp, white shrimp, and tilapia also are cultured in such diverse places as Vietnam, Peru, Ecuador, Chile, New Zealand, and Israel. </li></ul>
  25. 27. Organic aquaculture sepeceis <ul><li>Organic carp (carp family, perch, pike, catfish, coregonids, sturgeon). Pike, Perch, eel ar ommitted from Regulation No. 889/2008 (EC). </li></ul><ul><li>Salmonidae: </li></ul><ul><li>Freshwater : Brout trout ( Salmon trutta ), Rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ), American Brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis ), Salmon ( Salmo sala ) – Charr ( Salvelinus alpinus ), Grayling ( Thymalus thymalus ), American Lake trout or Grey trout ( Salvelinus namaycush ), Huchen ( Hucho hucho ) </li></ul><ul><li>Seawater : Salmon ( Salmon sala ), Brown trout ( Salmon trutta ), Rainbow trout ( Onchorhynchus mykiss ). </li></ul><ul><li>Tropica fish: Tilapia (Oreochromis spp.), Pangasius or Siamense catfish (Pangasius spp.) </li></ul><ul><li>Penaeid shrimp and freshwater prawn, molluscs, seaweed </li></ul>
  26. 28. Organic aquaculture production and markets Available products from certified organic aquaculture (2007)
  27. 29. Organic aquaculture in 2009 <ul><li>240 operations in 29 differrent countries </li></ul><ul><li>53,500 tons ~ 230 millions Euros: 70% of organic aquaculture production is sold under an organic label </li></ul><ul><li>Annual growth in the next three years: 40-60% </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated value in 2011: 500 millions Euros </li></ul><ul><li>Maket growth is ocurring in limited countries (France, Germany, Switzerland, United Kingdom) </li></ul>
  28. 30. Number of operation wordwide in 2009
  29. 31. Consumer behaviors
  30. 32. Outlook of organic aquaculture (FAO) 10 2021-2030 20 2011-2020 30 2001-2010 Annual growth (%) Period 1,200,000 By 2030 5,000 2000 Estimated organic aquaculture production (tons) Year
  31. 33. Labelling of organic fish products <ul><li>Both the organic aquaculture implementing rules and labelling requirements in the new Organic Regulation take place in July 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>The labelling requirements introduce some new elements into the labelling regime: </li></ul><ul><li>+ Mandatory indication of organic ingredients in the ingredient list </li></ul><ul><li>+ Mandatory display of the EU organic logo </li></ul><ul><li>+ Mandatory indication of product origin </li></ul><ul><li>+ Mandatory display of new-EU standardised code number </li></ul>
  32. 34. Organic products – ‘’the 95 percent rules’’
  33. 35. Labelling the products with less than 95% organic ingredients <ul><li>For products with less than 95% organic ingredients, the ingredient rules ( IR ) applies. </li></ul>
  34. 36. Labelling the products derived from hunting and fishing <ul><li>The new organic regulation have established specific labelling requirements for products derived from hungting and fishing </li></ul>
  35. 37. Research and development <ul><li>Alternative feeds, especially protein sources from grain and oilseed plants; </li></ul><ul><li>Culture of low-trophic aquatic species; </li></ul><ul><li>Disease management and use of natural and alternative medicines; </li></ul><ul><li>Polyculture and multi-species systems; </li></ul><ul><li>Self-filtering systems; </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques for expanded recovery of fishery by-catch and waste for use in organic systems; </li></ul><ul><li>Implications of using closed containment systems; environmentally sound effluent management systems; </li></ul><ul><li>And consumer studies related to food preferences and purchasing habits. </li></ul>
  36. 38. Speed up organic products <ul><li>Organic standards for production and processing has been enacted and need to be fully implemented </li></ul><ul><li>Government will very soon have policy supports </li></ul><ul><li>NGOs, private sectors and stakeholders work together to speed up current development process </li></ul>
  37. 39. <ul><li>Thank you for your attention ! </li></ul>