Technique Of Shrimp Culture (Final) Vuong

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Technique Of Shrimp Culture (Final) Vuong

  1. 1. TECHNIQUES ON BLACK TIGER SHRIMP AND LOBSTER CULTURE DO QUANG TIEN VUONG, MSc. Email: [email_address] SOUTHERN MONITORING CENTER FOR AQUACULTURE ENVIRONMENT AND EPIDEMIC (MCE)
  2. 2. BLACK TIGER SHRIMP <ul><li>IN MEKONG DELTA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TOTAL SHRIMP CULTURED AREA ~550,000ha </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IMPROVED EXTENSIVE, RICE-SHRIMP AREA 90% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SEMI-INTENSIVE, INTENSIVE AREA 10% </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. IMPROVED EXTENSIVE Yield: <500kg/ha/year Multiple stocks and harvests Water exchange by tidal fluctuation No Feeding Other economical species at harvest: white shrimps, mud crab
  4. 4. IMPROVED EXTENSIVE <ul><li>Pond structure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Area: >2ha </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With or without mangrove forest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ditch area (10-30%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water depth: >0.8m in ditch, >0.2m in trench </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sluice-gate: harvest and water exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pond cleaning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drainage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sediment removing from the ditch bottom: 1-2 times/year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kill predator (fish) by Derris root or tea-seed cake </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Stocking: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seed quality: poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple stocking: 1-2 month interval </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stocking density: <2pls/m 2 /stock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With or without nursing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nursing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve survival rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1-4 weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nursing density up to 100 pls/m 2 </li></ul></ul>IMPROVED EXTENSIVE
  6. 6. <ul><li>Water management: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water exchange by tidal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harvest: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trap net </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sluice-gate net </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cash net </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20-40 kg/ha/month </li></ul></ul>IMPROVED EXTENSIVE
  7. 7. RICE-SHRIMP ROTATION Yield: <1,500 kg/ha/crop Aeration: not application Feeding: pellet or homemade feed Rice cultivation in freshwater duration (>4 months) Suitable in sea water intrusion zone
  8. 8. <ul><li>Pond structure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Area: <1 ha </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ditch area (20-50%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water depth: >0.8m in ditch, >0.3m in rice-field </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pond preparation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drying for a week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove the wet mud in the ditch bottom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leave or burn straw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liming </li></ul></ul>RICE-SHRIMP ROTATION
  9. 9. <ul><li>Stocking: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seed should be acclimated at ~ 5ppt salinity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check mortality of postlarvae after 1 day in hapa (mortality should be less than 10%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stocking density: <10 pls/m 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nursing: 3-6 weeks </li></ul></ul>RICE-SHRIMP ROTATION
  10. 10. <ul><li>Water management: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Screen the water to control predators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control the benthic algae and alkalinity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secchi disc < 25 cm  exchange water </li></ul></ul>RICE-SHRIMP ROTATION
  11. 11. <ul><li>Environmental friendly practice: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interrupt disease cycle due to rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural food abundance in rice-field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce amount of fertilizer and insecticide in rice cultivation </li></ul></ul>RICE-SHRIMP ROTATION
  12. 12. SEMI-INTENSIVE AND INTENSIVE Yield: 1,500-3,000kg/ha/crop (semi-intensive); >3,000kg/ha/crop (intensive) Pond culture Aeration Feeding: pellet feed
  13. 13. <ul><li>Pond structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water depth: >1-1.5 m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control seepage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not suitable in acid sulfate soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reservoir pond 20-30% </li></ul></ul>SEMI-INTENSIVE AND INTENSIVE
  14. 14. <ul><li>Pond preparation: </li></ul>SEMI-INTENSIVE AND INTENSIVE
  15. 15. <ul><li>Water preparation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salinity >5ppt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Washing pond in case of soil acid leaking or overdose of hydrate lime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chloride disinfection more efficient in low water pH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alkalinity 80-120 ppm: 15kg of CaCO 3 or CaMg(CO 3 ) 2 are usually needed to increase 10ppm alkalinity in 1,000m 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secchi disc 30-40cm: fertilization to stabilize algae bloom, inorganic fertilizer need to be applied in 5-7 day interval until 1-1.5 month of culture </li></ul></ul>SEMI-INTENSIVE AND INTENSIVE
  16. 16. <ul><li>Seed quality control: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation: uniform size, active, no deformity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress test: salinity stress (salinity different >15ppt in 2 hours), formalin stress (300 ppm in 30 minutes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Screening pathogen by PCR and histopathology </li></ul></ul>SEMI-INTENSIVE AND INTENSIVE
  17. 17. <ul><li>Algae bloom management: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control benthic algae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep water pH in 7.5-8.5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secchi disc >30cm: fertilization in 5-7 day interval but <4kg N + 4kg P per application for 10,000 m 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secchi disc <25cm: reduce algae density by algicide or water exchange </li></ul></ul>SEMI-INTENSIVE AND INTENSIVE
  18. 18. <ul><li>Aeration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 paddle wheel in long arm aeration can serve for 2,000-3,000 pls </li></ul></ul>SEMI-INTENSIVE AND INTENSIVE
  19. 19. <ul><li>Paddle wheel: practical experience </li></ul>SEMI-INTENSIVE AND INTENSIVE
  20. 20. <ul><li>Feed management: </li></ul>SEMI-INTENSIVE AND INTENSIVE  <1 month of culture : natural food  Enhance algae bloom  Salinity > 40‰  Less algae diversity  1-2.5 month of culture: promote weigh gain  Overfeeding could be accepted  At least 2 feed sizes depend on shrimp size variation  >2,5 month of culture: high biomass  Avoid overfeeding  less pollution, save feed cost.
  21. 21. <ul><li>Estimation of survival rate and shrimp biomass based on daily feed consumption </li></ul>SEMI-INTENSIVE AND INTENSIVE   Day of culture Shrimp weigh (g)     Feeding rate (% BW) 01-30 <2 30-40 2-3 6-8 40-50 3-5 5-6 50-60 5-8 4.5-5.5 60-70 8-13 3.8-4.3 70-80 13-18 2.8-3.3 80-90 18-23 2.5-2.8 90-100 23-28 2.2-2.5 100-120 28-35 2.1-2.3
  22. 22. <ul><li>World lobster production ~300,000 tons/year almost from capture </li></ul><ul><li>Lobster is cultured in: America, Canada, England, Japan, Australia, Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam … </li></ul><ul><li>In Vietnam: >2,000tons/year </li></ul>LOBSTER CULTURE
  23. 23. CULTURE SPECIES <ul><ul><li>Panulirus ornatus, P. homarus, P. stimpsoni and P. longipes belong to spiny lobsters group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P. ornatus is the most preferable species for culture due to: high value, high tolerance and high growth rate </li></ul></ul>P. ornatus
  24. 24. <ul><ul><li>Wild seed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No hatchery: larvae metamorphosis takes 9-11 months </li></ul></ul>STOCKING Wild seed
  25. 25. <ul><ul><li>Fixed net: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10-15m deep </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mesh size 5mm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 pm – 5 am </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Check after 4-5 hours </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light attraction 1,000-2,000W </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seed size 7-8 mm Carapace Length (CL) (0.25-0.35 g) </li></ul></ul></ul>WILD SEED COLLECTION
  26. 26. <ul><ul><li>Trap: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4-5m deep </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trap materials: net, coral, wood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Checking trap in 4 – 8 am </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seed size 7-10 mm CL (0.3-1 g) </li></ul></ul></ul>WILD SEED COLLECTION 2-2.5 cm diameter 10-15 cm distance
  27. 27. <ul><ul><li>Dive: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reef near the coast </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.5-3m deep </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seed size 12-15 mm CL (7-9 g) </li></ul></ul></ul>WILD SEED COLLECTION
  28. 28. <ul><ul><li>Dry transfer: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seed size: 30-100g </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cold box: 30x40x25 cm or 60x70x45 cm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unconsciousness: seawater 20 o C in 30 minutes then seawater 18 o C in 20 minutes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Density: 150-300 ind./box </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Duration: 3-7 hours </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature: 21-22 o C </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Survival rate: 90-95% </li></ul></ul></ul>SEED TRANSFER
  29. 29. <ul><ul><li>Wet transfer: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seed size: 0.25-1g/ind. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cold box: 30x50x25 cm or 45x60x35 cm; moisture materials 0.5-1 cm thick, sea water submerge 5-7 cm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Density: 300-400 ind./small box; 700-1,000 ind./large box </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Duration: 5-15 hours </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature: 21-22 o C </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Survival rate: 90-95% </li></ul></ul></ul>SEED TRANSFER
  30. 30. <ul><li>Steel fixed cage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nursing: (0.7x0.8x0.8) m, (1x1x1) m, (1.5x1.5x1) m, (2x2x1.2) m; steel ø 8-12 mm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth-out: (3x3x1.5) m, (2x3x1.2) m, (3x2.5.1.2) m; steel ø 12-14 mm </li></ul></ul>CULTURE MODELS
  31. 31. <ul><li>Wooden fixed cage </li></ul><ul><li>(4x5x5) m, (5x5x5) m, 6x6x5) m </li></ul>CULTURE MODELS
  32. 32. <ul><li>Floating cage </li></ul><ul><li>Wood frame </li></ul><ul><li>(4x4x7) m, (4x5x7) m </li></ul>CULTURE MODELS
  33. 33. STOCKING DENSITY Shrimp size (g) Stocking density (ind./m 2 ) Duration (month) 0.6-8 25-50 3 8-100 25 5 100-200 10 4 200-400 5-7 5 400-1,400 3-4 8-10
  34. 34. <ul><ul><li>Capture size regulation of mature lobster. Example recommend minimum capture size: P. ornatus 110 mm CL , P. homarus 67 mm CL , P. stimpsoni 57 mm CL and P. longipes 55 mm CL. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation zones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture lobster >4 years (community agreement) to release the egg to the sea during culture condition. </li></ul></ul>WILD SEED CONSERVATION
  35. 35. THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION YOUR EXPERIENCE EXCHANGING IS APPRECIATED
  36. 36. <ul><ul><li>Fresh feed: Fish, mollusc, crustacean (recommend combine formula: 2 fish + 1 mollusc + 1 crustacean) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeding rate: 2 times/day and 70% in the afternoon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li><200g/ind. 20-30% BW/day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>> 200g/ind. 15-17% BW/day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FCR (feed conversion ratio): 14-32 </li></ul></ul>FEED MANAGEMENT

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