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Biological Characteristics Of Cultured Species Thanh Asean Training

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Biological Characteristics Of Cultured Species Thanh Asean Training

  1. 1. Cultured related biological characteristics of major cultured species & species selection Nguyen Minh Thanh, Ph.D < [email_address] >
  2. 2. OUTLINE <ul><li>OVERVIEW OF AQUACULTURE </li></ul><ul><li>BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME MAJOR AQUACULTURE SPECIES </li></ul><ul><li>SPECIES SELECTION for AQUACULTURE </li></ul>
  3. 3. OVERVIEW OF AQUACULTURE IN THE WORLD & VIETNAM
  4. 4. World fisheries & aquaculture production 143.6 142.7 140.5 133.2 133.6 TOTAL WORLD FISHERIES 51.7 48.5 45.9 42.7 40.4 TOTAL AQUACULTURE 92.0 94.2 94.6 90.5 93.2 TOTAL CAPTURE 102.0 103.4 103.8 98.7 100.9 Total marine 20.1 18.9 18.1 17.2 16.4 Aquaculture 81.9 84.5 85.7 81.5 84.5 Capture MARINE 41.7 39.3 36.7 34.4 32.7 Total inland 31.6 29.6 27.8 25.5 24.0 Aquaculture 10.1 9.7 8.9 9.0 8.7 Capture INLAND (Million tonnes) 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002
  5. 5. World aquaculture species in 2002 264 Total 13 Aquatic plants 4 Amphibians & reptiles 1 Ascidians 59 Molluscs 36 Crustaceans 151 Finfish In terms of quantity (species) Group
  6. 6. World aquaculture production: major species groups in 2006 Quantity Value
  7. 7. Major aquaculture species in 2007 White shrimp, Black tiger shrimp, Chinese river crab, Red swamp crayfish Crustaceans (4) Pacific oyster, Yesso scallop, Blood cockle, Green mussel, Japanese carpet shell, Constricted tagelus Molluscs (6) Japanese eel Diadromous fish Salmon, Rainbow trout, Milk fish, Japanese sea perch, Flathead grey mullet, Marine fishes Nile tilapia, catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus , Silurus asotus ), White amur bream, snakehead, Freshwater fishes Chinese carps (3), Common carp, Indian carps (3), Crucian carp, Black carp, Carps Finfish (20) Species Groups
  8. 8. Fisheries production in Vietnam
  9. 9. Aquaculture area in Vietnam
  10. 10. Major cultured freshwater species in Vietnam ‘ Tra’ catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus ‘ Basa’ catfish, Pangasius bocourti Snakehead, Channa micropeltes Snakehead, Channa striatus
  11. 11. Major cultured freshwater species in Vietnam (cont.) Climbing perch, Anabas testudineus Snakeskin gouramy, Trichogaster pectoralis Marbled goby, Oxyeleotris marmoratus Freshwater eel, Fluta alba
  12. 12. Major cultured freshwater species in Vietnam (cont.) Walking catfish, Clarias macrocephalus Hybrid catfish Giant gouramy, Osphronemus gouramy Common carp, Cyprinus carpio
  13. 13. Major cultured freshwater species in Vietnam (cont.) Silver barb, Barbonymus gonionotus Kissing gouramy, Helostoma temmincki Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Red tilapia
  14. 14. Major cultured freshwater species in Vietnam (cont.) Bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis Grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus Silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix
  15. 15. Major cultured freshwater species in Vietnam (cont.) Roho labeo, Labeo rohita Mrigal carp, Cirrhinus mrigala Catla, Catla Catla Giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii
  16. 16. Major cultured brackish & marine species in Vietnam Lobster, Parnulinus ornatus Whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, Black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Mud crab, Scylla paramamosain
  17. 17. Major cultured brackish & marine species in Vietnam (cont.) Cobia, Rachycentron canadum Grouper, Epinephelus coioides Seabass, Lates calcarifer
  18. 18. Major cultured brackish & marine species in Vietnam (cont.) Blood cockle, Anadara granosa Clam, Meretrix lyrata
  19. 19. BIOLOGY OF RIVER CATFISH (‘Tra’) Pangasianodon hypophthalmus
  20. 20. Reproduction <ul><li>A migratory species moving upstream of the Mekong (the Khone Falls, Lao & Cambodia border) to spawn in May-July </li></ul><ul><li>No secondary sexual dimorphism </li></ul><ul><li>Age & size at first maturity: 3-4 yrs, 3-4 kg </li></ul><ul><li>High fecundity: 100,000-200,000 eggs/kg females </li></ul><ul><li>Spawn 1-3 times/season </li></ul>
  21. 21. Feeding habit <ul><li>Omnivorous, benthos, plant matters </li></ul><ul><li>In culture, fish accept trash fish, pellets, home-made feed formulated from agro- & fishery by-products, aquatic plants </li></ul>
  22. 22. Growth <ul><li>0.8-1.5 kg after 8-10 months culture </li></ul><ul><li>High productivity: 400-500 tonnes/ha/crop. Key culture technique: high stocking density, pellet feeding, deep ponds, high water exchange. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Environmental requirements <ul><li>Freshwater, but likely tolerate in brackish water (7-10 o / oo salinity) </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature: 15-39 o C </li></ul><ul><li>pH > 4 </li></ul><ul><li>An air-breathing species can withstand low levels of dissolved oxygen, but prefer deep & flowing water </li></ul>
  24. 24. BIOLOGY OF TILAPIAS
  25. 25. Major cultured tilapias Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Red tilapia Mozambique tilapia, O. mossambicus Blue tilapia, O.aureus
  26. 26. Genetic background of red tilapia <ul><li>Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus </li></ul><ul><li>Common red tilapia </li></ul><ul><li>O. niloticus x O. mossambicus x O. aureus x O. urolepis-horonum </li></ul><ul><li>Florida red tilapia </li></ul>
  27. 27. Reproduction <ul><li>Age & size at maturity & breeding vary with environmental conditions: 5-6 months in hatcheries (even 2-3 months when only 30g), 2-3 yrs in nature, </li></ul><ul><li>Spawn 4-6 times per year, 100-500 eggs per brood </li></ul><ul><li>Morphological & color changes during breeding </li></ul><ul><li>Parental care: males construct the nest, females rear the fry until free-swimming </li></ul>
  28. 28. Feeding habit <ul><li>Generally herbivorous/omnivorous </li></ul><ul><li>O. niloticus : phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic detritus </li></ul><ul><li>O. mossambicus : phytoplankton, zooplankton, detritus, vascular plant residues </li></ul><ul><li>O. aureus : phytoplankton, zooplankton, macrophytes, benthic algae, detritus, periphyton, fish larvae </li></ul>
  29. 29. Feeding habit (cont.) <ul><li>O. mossambicus x O. niloticus : periphytic detritus, filamentous, colonial algae </li></ul><ul><li>Florida red tilapia: macroalgae, phytoplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular feeding patterns depend on fish species & size, season of the year, time of the day, photoperiod, water depth, geographical location, type of habitat </li></ul>
  30. 30. Growth <ul><li>O. niloticus grow faster than O. mossambicus </li></ul><ul><li>Males grow faster than females </li></ul><ul><li>GIFT tilapia reach 600-700 g after 5-6 months culture </li></ul>
  31. 31. Environmental requirements <ul><li>Temperature: </li></ul><ul><li>Growth between 20 & 35 o C, maximum growth between 28 & 30 o C </li></ul><ul><li>O. aureus : most cold-tolerant; O. mossambicus & O. niloticus : most heat-tolerant </li></ul><ul><li>Fry and fingerlings prefer warmer temperatures than adults </li></ul>
  32. 32. Environmental requirements (cont.) <ul><li>Salinity: tolerate a wide range of salinities and depend on acclimations </li></ul><ul><li>O. niloticus : not naturally widely occur in salt water conditions, but can survive direct transfer to 20 o / oo if acclimated </li></ul><ul><li>O. mossambicus : occur naturally in brackish & hypersaline </li></ul><ul><li>O. aureus : can survive up to 18-20 o / oo if acclimated </li></ul>
  33. 33. BIOLOGY OF GIANT FRESHWATER PRAWN Macrobrachium rosenbergii
  34. 34. Habitat & Life cycle
  35. 35. Reproduction <ul><li>Females become mature when reaching 15-20g, even 6.5g </li></ul><ul><li>Females lay 80,000-100,000 eggs, first broods produce 5,000-20,000 eggs </li></ul>
  36. 36. Moulting (ecdysis) <ul><li>Growth through several moulting: </li></ul><ul><li>Premoult: ‘old’ exoskeleton degraded, ‘new’ exoskeleton formed. Hours – 3 or 5 days. </li></ul><ul><li>Moult: emerge from the ‘old’ exoskeleton, rapid uptake of water lead to increase size. 10 mins </li></ul><ul><li>Postmoult: hardness of exoskeleton. Hours – 3 or 5 days. </li></ul><ul><li>Intermoult: absorbed water replaced by tissue growth; organic & mineral reserves stored. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Feeding habit <ul><li>Larvae: eat continuously, zooplankton (mainly minute crustaceans), very small worms, larval stages of other aquatic invertebrates </li></ul><ul><li>Postlarvae & adults: omnivorous, aquatic insects & their larvae, algae, nuts, grain, seeds, fruits, small molluscs & crustaceans, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Cannibalistic behavior </li></ul>
  38. 38. Growth <ul><li>Sexual dimorphism with males growing larger than females </li></ul><ul><li>Female growth retarded at maturity </li></ul><ul><li>Male growth influenced by behavioral or ‘social’ interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Typical male population structure: blue claw, orange claw, small males </li></ul>
  39. 39. Environmental requirements <ul><li>Temperature: 26-31 o C, best 28-30 o C </li></ul><ul><li>Salinity: larvae 6-16 o / oo & best 10-12 o / oo , fingerlings & adults live in freshwater but can tolerate up to 25 o / oo </li></ul>
  40. 40. BIOLOGY OF BLACK TIGER SHRIMP Penaeus monodon
  41. 41. Habitat & Life cycle
  42. 42. Reproduction <ul><li>Spawn throughout the year, peak from May-August </li></ul><ul><li>Females produce 800,000-1,200,000 nauplii </li></ul><ul><li>Eye ablation to stimulate maturity & induce re-spawning. </li></ul><ul><li>Domesticated breeders: 80-100 g at 1 yr, produce 100-600,000 eggs, hatching rate around 30% </li></ul>
  43. 43. Feeding habit <ul><li>Newly hatched nauplii: not feed </li></ul><ul><li>Zoea: phytoplankton/fine suspended organic matters </li></ul><ul><li>Mysis: small zooplankton (rotifer, artermia) </li></ul><ul><li>Postlarvae: small zooplankton, detritus </li></ul><ul><li>Juveniles & Adults: omnivorous (molluscs, small crustaceans & fish, benthic invertebrates, organic debris) </li></ul>
  44. 44. Growth <ul><li>Fast growth, reach 25-40g in 4 months & 70g in 6 months culture </li></ul>
  45. 45. Environmental requirements <ul><li>Larvae & postlarvae: </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature: 29-31 o C </li></ul><ul><li>Salinity: larvae 30-33 o / oo </li></ul><ul><li>DO: > 5 mg/L </li></ul><ul><li>Juveniles & adults: </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature: 25-30 o C </li></ul><ul><li>Salinity: larvae 20-30 o / oo </li></ul><ul><li>DO: 3-5 mg/L </li></ul>
  46. 46. SPECIES SELECTION for AQUACUTLURE
  47. 47. Objectives of culture <ul><li>Increase protein supplies to the poor </li></ul><ul><li>Export to earn foreign money </li></ul><ul><li>Recycle wastes in a polyculture system </li></ul>
  48. 48. Biological characteristics <ul><li>Growth rate: fast or slow? </li></ul><ul><li>Size & age at first maturity </li></ul><ul><li>Breed easily under captive conditions </li></ul><ul><li>High fecundity can be an advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Accept artificial feeds at early development stages </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivorous or omnivorous preferred than carnivorous </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerate or better resistance to unfavorable conditions </li></ul>
  49. 49. Economic & market considerations <ul><li>Consumer acceptance & availability of markets (domestic consumption or export) </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of cheap artificial propagation or culture techniques. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Introduction of exotic species based on criteria <ul><li>Fill a need due to absence of a similar desirable species </li></ul><ul><li>Not compete with valuable native species </li></ul><ul><li>Not be associated with diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Live & reproduce in a new environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Predict ecological effects based on controlled experiments. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Freshwater species for pond culture (mono- or polyculture) Giant freshwater prawn Marbled goby Giant gouramy Walking catfish Snakeskin gouramy Snakehead Climbing perch Snakehead Silver barb ‘ Tra’ catfish
  52. 52. Freshwater species for pond culture (mono- or polyculture) (cont.) Roho labeo Bighead carp Mrigal carp Grass carp Catla Silver carp Red tilapia Nile tilapia
  53. 53. Marine species for pond culture Seabass Whiteleg shrimp Mud crab Black tiger shrimp
  54. 54. Freshwater species for cage culture Marbled goby Snakehead Red tilapia Snakehead Nile tilapia ‘ Basa’ catfish
  55. 55. Marine species for cage culture Grouper Cephalopholis miniata Cobia Grouper Plectropomus maculatus Lobster Grouper Epinephelus coioides Seabass
  56. 56. Rice-fish/prawn culture (mono- or polyculture) Giant freshwater prawn Climbing perch Snakeskin gouramy Silver barb Common carp
  57. 57. <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>

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