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PBM PROJECT 
DOVE 
GROUP 18 
1. KRISHNAN DM15230 
2. ALLEN RAJESH SANDERS DM15206 
3. LAKSHMIKSHATRIYA DM15268 
4. RIDHIMA...
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 
The objective of the project is to measure the brand value for the brand “DOVE”. The market was aware o...
History and Evolution of dove 
Introduction: Dove is a personal care brand owned by Unilever. Dove products are manufactur...
trademark and brand name is currently owned by Unilever. Dove's logo is a silhouette profile of the brand's namesake bird....
The "Real Curves" campaign led to the "Campaign for Real Beauty". It aims to change the status quo and offer in its place ...
EVOLUTION 
Over 50 years ago Dove was a product (beauty bar) with a revolutionary new formulation contained ¼ cleansing cr...
Brand asset valuator model: 
The Brand asset valuator model was developed by Y&R (Young & Rubicam). This model measure the...
unstructured approach with the aim of getting into the mind of the interviewee and finally come up with reasons as to why ...
What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ?-Dove 
Total 
Age 
<20 
1 
1 
21-30 
48 
48 
3...
Thus, we find that 25 respondents out of a total of 70 people aged between 21 and 30, purchased Dove which was the evidenc...
Thus from the figure, we find that out of 78 people, who are aware of the Dove being established in the soap category, 67 ...
Thus, we find that people are more aware of the taglines of Nivea and Pears rather than Dove, which is not a good sign. 
....
Thus we find that 26 people out of 56 people who are aware of Dove purchase it. Thus, we find that there is a convertion r...
Thus we find that of those who are Aware of dove, the frequency of buy of 26 people is once a month. 14 people out of the ...
our competitors. We also asked questions which factored out our brand as a unique one in the Luxury soap category. 
Thus, ...
Dove soap serves the purpose of not only a soap but also a moisturizer 
Total 
Strongly agree 
Agree 
Neither Agree nor Di...
Thus, we find that, out of 56 people who are aware of Dove, 26 people agree that Dove serves the purpose of both the Soap ...
soaps ?-Dove 
Total 
41 
11 
4 
56 
Thus, we find that 41 people, out of 56, who are aware of the brand, have ranked Dove ...
Which of the following brands of soap do you associate with 'Confidence' ? 
Total 
Nivea 
Dove 
Camay 
Pears 
Age 
<20 
2 ...
Thus, we find that 15 respondents have given a rating of 5 on a scale of 5 for Dove, meeting its brand promise and 26 resp...
Thus, we find that, out of 56 people who are aware of Dove, 21 associate Dove with ‘Confidence’, which is the highest when...
Thus we find that, out of 56 people who are aware of Dove, 12 people have rated Dove 5 on a scale of 5, for meeting the Br...
Thus, we find that of 81 respondents, 39 of them would recommend Dove to others. i.e., close to 50% respondents would reco...
Thus, we find that, in the age group of 21-30, 15 respondents have purchased Dove once in the last 5 purchases, 12 people ...
Thus, we find that 29 people out of 81 respondents, will look for Dove in another store if it is not available in the stor...
Thus, we find that out of the respondents who are aware of Dove, 9 people have purchased all 5 times in the last 5 purchas...
What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ?- Dove 
1 
29 
21 
6 
Total 
29 
21 
6 
Thus, ...
Which is the Luxury soap you would recommend others ? 
Dove 
Nivea 
Camay 
Pears 
What are the brands which come to your m...
underlying consumer motivations behind buying the product, brand health and how the product makes the consumer feel. 
S.No...
 In the current world where people are becoming more fitness and health oriented they expect their soaps to be in line wi...
Methods to measure a Brand’s Value 
Financial methods assign a numeric value for brand and brand image tracking provides b...
 Focus on strategic business outcomes 
 Weighs relevance to customer and business 
 Focus on audiences through segmenta...
Methodology of study : By using Questionnaire 
Sample size : 45 
BRAND EQUITY 
We have used the Colombo-Morrison model to ...
FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS - STUDY OF BRAND EQUITY 
From the above figure, we find that 15 respondents out of 45, perceive t...
From the above figure, 21 respondents perceive Dove to be a great buy for the money if it is priced at Rs. 35. 16 people f...
From this figure, we find that our perceptions about the price change with time. 27 respondents (15 likely & 12 very likel...
From the above figure, most of our respondents are price inelastic and they would purchase the brand irrespective of price...
From the above figures. we find that 34 out of 45 respondents feel that the Price of Dove is affordable for Good quality, ...
Thus, we find that 24 people feel that The price of Pears is affordable, but 25 feel that they have to sacrifice to pay th...
QUALITY-PRICE RELATIONSHIP- NIVEA 
Thus, we find that 32 respondents feel that price of Nivea is affordable, 31 feel that ...
QUALITY-PRICE RELATIONSHIP-CAMAY 
0 
10 
20 
30 
40 
Superior Quality 
Good Quality 
Poor Quality 
Quality vs Price is Aff...
Thus, we find that the statistics for Camay are almost similar to that of those obtained for Nivea. 32 respondents feel th...
The leveragability of Pears is slightly higher compared to that of Dove. 20 feel that it cannot be extended to any categor...
From the figure, we can surely say that Camay can never be extended to other categories; based on respondents' opinion. 31...
2. Which brand of luxury soap do you purchase ? 
a. Dove 
b. Nivea 
c. Camay 
d. Pears 
e. I don't prefer Luxury Soaps 
3....
6. Identify brands using their taglines 
a. You are more beautiful than you think 
b. Leave him wanting more with your sof...
e. Strongly Disagree 
10. Out of the last 5 purchases, how many times you have purchased the following brands ? 
BRAND 
NO...
a. Dove 
b. Nivea 
c. Camay 
d. Pears 
14. Which brand delivers their promise the most (on a scale of 1-5) ? 
1 2 3 4 5 
D...
 Interviewer: Why is it important to for your skin to be fresh? 
 Respondent: So that my skin is as flawless and attract...
 Respondent: Who doesn’t want to have clean skin? My answer will be the same as pretty much anyone else to make my skin a...
Generally prefer luxury brands or differentiated normal brands (flavor). 
Not loyal to any brand. look for a soap which is...
Attribute : mild, fresh 
Prefer to use luxury soaps. 
No. purchased : 3-4 
shampoo : not good - too oily, consumes a lot o...
why do u feel u need a soft skin ? 
Feel better of urself. gives Confidence. 
No. of soaps purchased at one go : 1-2. 
Pre...
Brand Equity of Dove
Brand Equity of Dove
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Brand Equity of Dove

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Evaluated Brand Equity of the product dove on the basis of brand asset valuator model (BAV) and Colombo Morrison Model

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Brand Equity of Dove

  1. 1. PBM PROJECT DOVE GROUP 18 1. KRISHNAN DM15230 2. ALLEN RAJESH SANDERS DM15206 3. LAKSHMIKSHATRIYA DM15268 4. RIDHIMA ARORA DM15245
  2. 2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The objective of the project is to measure the brand value for the brand “DOVE”. The market was aware of intangibles, but their specific value remained unclear and was not quantified specifically. Evaluation of profitability and performance was the focus for the business on indicators as return on investment, assets or equity. Apart from this brand is a special intangible asset which influences the choice of customers, investors and government authorities. Brand Value is the quantity that a brand is worth in terms of income, reputation, prestige and market value. Brands with high value are considered as an asset to a company, so that when a company is sold a brand with high value is worth more than any other factor taken as consideration. Brands must be linked to a wider business strategy and their identity may change as the business focus of a company. Brand image is a perception which a buyer has, based on harder evidence and almost certainly will influence the purchasing decision. High levels of brand awareness and a positive image increase the probability of a product being chosen and decrease the vulnerability to competitive forces. Brand image will command larger margins and product will be demanded. Brand which is well known and well regarded becomes a platform for adding new products as some aspects of the positive imagery will cross and help in the launch of new products. Five categories can be highlighted for intangibles to be linked to a brand like user profiles,purchase situation, usage situation, personality and values and history, heritage and experiences. Attention to a brand’s image is very important for long term success. There are a number of techniques to measure the value of a brand qualitative and quantitative. DOVE’s success stands itself because of the differentiation process it followed to increase its brand equity in 2004 .This campaign gave woman a feeling of identification and association with the brand and the products without even being tried them. Women could identify with images they were seeing in the advertising campaigns which resulted in willingness to pay high price as a brand. Organization brand equity was made using the financial accounts of the company as a basis of brand equity evaluation where as Consumers brand equity the brand loyal it acquired over years is what that distinguishes from other brands.
  3. 3. History and Evolution of dove Introduction: Dove is a personal care brand owned by Unilever. Dove products are manufactured in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Germany, India, Indonesia,Ireland, Mexico, Netherlands, Pakistan, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, Turkey and United States. The products are sold in more than 80 countries and are offered for both women and men. The Dove
  4. 4. trademark and brand name is currently owned by Unilever. Dove's logo is a silhouette profile of the brand's namesake bird. Products include: antiperspirants/deodorants, body washes, beauty bars, lotions/moisturizers, hair care, and facial care products. Dove is primarily made from synthetic surfactants, soaps (derived from vegetable oils such as palm kernel) and salts of animal fats (tallow). In some countries Dove is derived from tallow and for this reason it is not considered vegan, unlike vegetable oil based soaps. 50 years ago, it was a beauty bar offering a revolutionary new formula containing 1/4 cleansing cream. It went beyond mere "soap" to enhance the American woman's beauty. Today it is a global masterbrand with products ranging from the original beauty bar to facial foam, to deodorant to shampoo. Its latest campaign sets out to widen and redefine the perception of beauty, to make a positive contribution to women's self-esteem all over the world. Dubbed "Product X" in early 1953, the Dove beauty bar was a new product in a trifecta of Lever Brothers accounts hard-won by David Ogilvy, then a young ad executive for Hewitt, Ogilvy, Benson & Mather, Inc. While Lever Bros. announced HOB&M's appointment as the agency for their new product in June of '53, it wasn't until 1955 that the first advertising ran and the message: "1/4 Cleansing Cream" along with Dove's other standard messaging was developed. And, even though beauty trends and the representation of women have changed throughout the decades, the consistency of Dove's and David Ogilvy's original messages: "1/4 Cleansing Cream"; "Dove Won't Dry Your Skin Like Soap Can"; "Dove is Good for Your Skin" is still selling the brand today. So in 2005, they started with the campaign like “celebrating 50 years of dove’s relationship with women” FACE TESTS Late in the 1950s, research was conducted which concluded Late in the 1950s, research was conducted which concluded the face was the gold standard in skin care. So from 1959-1968, Dove advertising focused on the face and introduced the use of the "Dove Face Test", still using the original strategic focus of "Doesn't Dry Like Soap" and "1/4 Cleansing Cream". In the late '60s, "real" women testimonials were used for the first time to advertise Dove. More women heard Dove's promise, more women tried it -- and were converted. 1970s TESTIMONIALS The use of real women proved to be so strong it was decided the vehicle of the Face Test wasn't needed. The use of real women, with their stories, continued the strategic focus on Dove's non-drying benefit. LATE 1970's - "7 DAY TEST" The communication of Dove's non-drying effect on skin was further strengthened by a return to real women and the introduction of the "7 Day Test" in the late '70s. THE CAMPAIGN FOR REAL BEAUTY
  5. 5. The "Real Curves" campaign led to the "Campaign for Real Beauty". It aims to change the status quo and offer in its place a broader, healthier, more democratic view of beauty. Built around the web, print and outdoor, the campaign offers no product placement, just Dove's philosophy behind women, beauty and self-esteem. CATEGORY SEGMENTATION washing and bathing hand and body lotion Deodorant men+care hair care
  6. 6. EVOLUTION Over 50 years ago Dove was a product (beauty bar) with a revolutionary new formulation contained ¼ cleansing cream. Today it is a global brand with products ranging from soaps to deodorants. The evolution of the brand image of Dove can be divided into the following  1950s: DOVE primary message  1960s: Appearance of spokespeople, Face tests  1970s: Testimonials, 7day test  1980s: single woman testimonial for 7 days  1990s Litmus test  2000s: Real beauty campaign The primary message DOVE tried to convey to the customers was the fact stearic acid i.e. cleansing cream was the main ingredient in the soap. This immediately helped DOVE differentiate itself from the rest and set itself a strong foundation on which to build. The initial part of DOVE’s advertising campaign unlike today was done by celebrities. It was by everyone and anyone they could get their hand on and this also made them find many hidden gems in terms of advertising. Research in the 1950s stated that the face was the measuring stick for all beauty bars/soaps as a result from that point on DOVE’s advertising focused on only the face and as such introduced the concept of DOVE face tests. The theme remained the same only the area of focus changed. Testimonials of real women using the product along with their stories were a goldmine for dove in terms of their branding strategy. This made Dove seem like a very friendly soap. Dove expanded its product range due to the continued success of the product not just in the US and Europe but in Asia as well with the sales of DOVE Facial Foam achieving 16% market share immediately after rollout. The real beauty campaign was started in 2002 which is by far Doves most successful campaign and is what defines the image the company portrays even up to this point. This centered on women, beauty and most importantly self-esteem which struck a chord with the audience.
  7. 7. Brand asset valuator model: The Brand asset valuator model was developed by Y&R (Young & Rubicam). This model measure the health based on four components  Differentiation  Relevance  Esteem  Knowledge Differentiation: This highlights the ability of a brand to distinguish itself from the rest. This requires the brand to have a unique quality which the other brands do not have. The more unique a brand is, greater the brand value. Relevance: It gives us a better understanding of how well the consumers relate or connect to the brand. It helps in determining whether the product has a mass or a niche appeal. It helps determining the segment the companies should concentrate on and also gives us more details about the household penetration rate. Esteem: It tells us what the consumer thinks of the brand or perceives the brand to be. It also gives us indications about the trend the brand is following in terms of the increasing or decreasing popularity of the brand. Knowledge: Tells us about how intimate the customer is with brand. This is measured through his awareness of the brand. Methodology: The survey is conducted among a mixed/ heterogeneous group with different (age, regions, socio-economic status, preference etc.) Sample size: 81 Laddering: It is a one-on-one interview technique. The main goal of this technique to uncover the underlying values a user/consumer has in the initial stages of his research. It is an
  8. 8. unstructured approach with the aim of getting into the mind of the interviewee and finally come up with reasons as to why the product is important to him/her. Using this we can come up with motivating factors that are responsible for the consumer purchasing the product. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS The analysis is to study the Differentiation, Relevance, Esteem and Knowledge of Dove. The competitor brands for are study are Pears, Nivea and Camay. 1. BRAND KNOWLEDGE Knowledge is the extent of the consumer’s awareness of the brand and understanding its identity. The awareness levels about the brand, shows the intimacy that consumers share with the brand. True knowledge comes through building of the brand. Thus, from the figure, we find that 56 respondents out of 81 totally are aware of Dove Soap. 48 respondents out of the 56 fall in the age category between 21-30. Questions were posed to respondents on the logo of brands ( Dove and its competitors), and taglines of the brands. Awareness about Dove was studied using the question asked regarding the consumer awareness of various categories of Dove. The attitude of respondents was studied by posing questions on their frequency of buy. We did a Crosstab operation with Age and Awareness of respondents and then, Awareness and various other parameters considered for the study.
  9. 9. What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ?-Dove Total Age <20 1 1 21-30 48 48 31-40 3 3 41-50 1 1 50+ 3 3 Total 56 56 Thus we find that 48 respondents out of the 56 who are Aware of Dove, belong to the age bracket of 21-30. Thus, it is by all probability, the ideal target audience for the Luxury Soap. . Which brand of luxury soap do you purchase ? Total Dove Nivea Camay Pears I don't prefer Luxury soaps Age <20 1 0 0 0 1 2 21-30 25 6 1 18 20 70 31-40 1 0 0 1 3 5 41-50 0 0 1 0 0 1 50+ 3 0 0 0 0 3 Total 30 6 2 19 24 81 0 20 40 60 <20 21-30 31-40 41-50 50+ Age What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ?-Dove What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ?-Dove 1
  10. 10. Thus, we find that 25 respondents out of a total of 70 people aged between 21 and 30, purchased Dove which was the evidence behind Dove holding a high market share. What are the products offered by Dove, that you are aware of ?-Soap Total 1 Age <20 2 2 21-30 67 67 31-40 5 5 41-50 1 1 50+ 3 3 Total 78 78
  11. 11. Thus from the figure, we find that out of 78 people, who are aware of the Dove being established in the soap category, 67 people fall in the age category between 21 and 30. Identify the brands with their taglines Age Dove Nivea Pears Camay Not aware <20 0 0 0 0 0 21- 30 0 4 4 1 0 31- 40 0 0 0 0 0 41- 50 0 0 0 1 0 50+ 1 0 1 0 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 <20 21-30 31-40 41-50 50+ Age What are the products offered by Dove, that you are aware of ?-Soap What are the products offered by Dove, that you are aware of ?-Soap 1
  12. 12. Thus, we find that people are more aware of the taglines of Nivea and Pears rather than Dove, which is not a good sign. . Which brand of luxury soap do you purchase ? Total Dove Nivea Camay Pears I don't prefer Luxury soaps What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ? – Dove 1 26 2 1 14 13 56 Total 26 2 1 14 13 56
  13. 13. Thus we find that 26 people out of 56 people who are aware of Dove purchase it. Thus, we find that there is a convertion ratio of almost 50% from Awareness to product buy. How often do you purchase Luxury Soaps ? Total > Once in 2 months Once in 2 months Once a Month Once in 2 weeks What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ?-Dove 1 14 9 26 7 56 Total 14 9 26 7 56 0 10 20 30 Dove Nivea Camay Pears I don't prefer Luxury soaps . Which brand of luxury soap do you purchase ? What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ?- Dove What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ?-Dove 1
  14. 14. Thus we find that of those who are Aware of dove, the frequency of buy of 26 people is once a month. 14 people out of the 56 prefer to buy at a frequency greater than 2 months. Thus, we find that out of 56 people who are aware of Dove, 33 are aware of their tagline. This statistic is encouraging, but at the same time, the 23 people who were aware of the brand must be made sure that they are aware of the tagline too. 2. BRAND DIFFERENTIATION Differentiation is the ability of the brand to distinguish from its competitors. Brand health is maintained, by offering a set of differentiating promises to consumers. Various questions were asked to respondents to measure differentiation, a set of images related to our brand (Dove) was given and respondents were asked to choose the option they fill suits the images, options being our brand and those of 0 10 20 30 > Once in 2 months Once in 2 months Once a Month Once in 2 weeks How often do you purchase Luxury Soaps ? What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ?-Dove What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ?-Dove 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Dove Camay Not aware Identify the brands with their taglines- You are more beautiful than you think What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ?-Dove
  15. 15. our competitors. We also asked questions which factored out our brand as a unique one in the Luxury soap category. Thus, we find that 34 respondents out of 81 agree that Dove soap serves the purpose of a soap as well as a moisturizer. 21 respondents strongly agree for the same. Thus, Dove is a highly differentiated brand. Thus, we find that 56 respondents out of 81, rank Dove as the no.1 soap in terms of Softness and of those 56, 48 belong to the age category of 21-30. Thus, Dove scores very high on the Differentiation Quotient. 0 10 20 30 40 50 <20 21-30 31-40 41-50 50+ Age Rank the following brands based on Softness-Dove 3.00 Rank the following brands based on Softness-Dove 2.00 Rank the following brands based on Softness-Dove 1.00
  16. 16. Dove soap serves the purpose of not only a soap but also a moisturizer Total Strongly agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ?- Dove 1 16 26 10 3 1 56 Total 16 26 10 3 1 56
  17. 17. Thus, we find that, out of 56 people who are aware of Dove, 26 people agree that Dove serves the purpose of both the Soap and a Moisturizer. 16 people strongly agree for the same. Thus, 42 people (out of 56 – who are aware of Dove ) have given an extremely high score for Dove in terms of Differentiation. Rank based on Softness- Dove Total 1.00 2.00 3.00 What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury 1 41 11 4 56 0 10 20 30 Strongly agree Agree Neither Agree nor … Disagree Strongly Disagree Dove soap serves the purpose of not only a soap but also a moisturizer What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ?-Dove What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ?-Dove 1
  18. 18. soaps ?-Dove Total 41 11 4 56 Thus, we find that 41 people, out of 56, who are aware of the brand, have ranked Dove as the No. 1 soap in terms of Softness. This explains the degree of differentiation achieved by the brand. 3. BRAND ESTEEM Esteem is the perceived quality and growing perceptions about the growing or declining popularity of a brand. For measuring esteem, we posed questions which studied respondents’ opinion in terms of the Brand Promise made and a specific Value which is marketed to be earned by people on using the product. We measured it by posing questions related to ‘Confidence’ which can be associated to a Luxury Soap brand as felt by the respondent; we measured this to prove that Dove is associated with ‘Confidence’. We also posed a question asking respondents to rate the brand – Dove on the basis of meeting the Brand Promise. 0 20 40 60 1.00 2.00 3.00 Rank the following brands based on Softness-Dove What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ?-Dove What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ?-Dove 1
  19. 19. Which of the following brands of soap do you associate with 'Confidence' ? Total Nivea Dove Camay Pears Age <20 2 0 0 0 2 21-30 18 26 6 20 70 31-40 0 0 0 5 5 41-50 0 0 0 1 1 50+ 0 3 0 0 3 Total 20 29 6 26 81 Thus, we find that, out of 81 respondents, 29 people associate ‘Confidence’ with Dove which is the highest when compared to its competitors’ figures of 26 and 20 for Pears and Nivea respectively. It is interesting to note that, of 29 people who associated ‘Confidence’ with Dove, 26 people fell in the age bracket of 21-30. Dove delivers their promise the most ? (Rate from 1-5) Total 1 2 3 4 5 Age <20 0 0 0 2 0 2 21-30 12 7 16 21 14 70 31-40 1 0 3 1 0 5 41-50 0 1 0 0 0 1 50+ 0 0 0 2 1 3 0 10 20 30 <20 21-30 31-40 41-50 50+ Age Which of the following brands of soap do you associate with 'Confidence' ? Pears Which of the following brands of soap do you associate with 'Confidence' ? Camay Which of the following brands of soap do you associate with 'Confidence' ? Dove
  20. 20. Thus, we find that 15 respondents have given a rating of 5 on a scale of 5 for Dove, meeting its brand promise and 26 respondents have given a rating of 4 on 5 for the same brand. Thus, we find that Dove scores very well on the Brand Esteem factor. Which of the following brands of soap do you associate with 'Confidence' ? Total Nivea Dove Camay Pears What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ?-Dove 1 14 21 4 17 56 Total 14 21 4 17 56 0 5 10 15 20 25 1 2 3 4 5 Which brand delivers their promise the most ?-Dove Age 50+ Age 41-50 Age 31-40 Age 21-30 Age <20
  21. 21. Thus, we find that, out of 56 people who are aware of Dove, 21 associate Dove with ‘Confidence’, which is the highest when compared to its competitors. Thus, Dove is an excellent brand having high Brand Esteem. Which brand delivers their promise the most ?-Dove Total 1 2 3 4 5 What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ?-Dove 1 12 6 9 17 12 56 Total 12 6 9 17 12 56 0 10 20 30 Nivea Dove Camay Pears Which of the following brands of soap do you associate with 'Confidence' ? What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ?-Dove What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ?-Dove 1
  22. 22. Thus we find that, out of 56 people who are aware of Dove, 12 people have rated Dove 5 on a scale of 5, for meeting the Brand Promise and 17 people have rated Dove 4 on a scale of 5. Thus, Dove has scored extremely well in the Brand Esteem factor. 4. BRAND RELEVANCE Relevance is the actual and perceived importance of the brand to a large consumer market segment. It gauges the personal appropriateness of a brand to consumers and is strongly tied to household penetration. We posed questions related to Brand Loyalty of respondents in terms of the purchasing behavior, repeat purchase, attitude of respondentswhen product is not available, attitude of respondents in terms of recommending the brand to others. Which is the Luxury soap you would recommend others ? Total Dove Nivea Camay Pears Age <20 2 0 0 0 2 21-30 32 11 4 23 70 31-40 2 0 0 3 5 41-50 1 0 0 0 1 50+ 2 0 0 1 3 Total 39 11 4 27 81 0 5 10 15 20 1 2 3 4 5 Which brand delivers their promise the most ?-Dove What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ?-Dove What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ?-Dove 1
  23. 23. Thus, we find that of 81 respondents, 39 of them would recommend Dove to others. i.e., close to 50% respondents would recommend Dove to others, this gives enough proof that Dove scores extremely high on Brand Relevance Factor. Out of the last 5 purchases, how many times have you purchased Dove ? Age Once Twice 3 times 4 times 5 times <20 0 0 0 0 1 21-30 15 12 6 2 7 31-40 0 0 1 0 1 41-50 0 0 0 0 0 50+ 0 0 1 0 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 <20 21-30 31-40 41-50 50+ Age Which is the Luxury soap you would recommend others ? Dove Which is the Luxury soap you would recommend others ? Nivea Which is the Luxury soap you would recommend others ? Camay Which is the Luxury soap you would recommend others ? Pears
  24. 24. Thus, we find that, in the age group of 21-30, 15 respondents have purchased Dove once in the last 5 purchases, 12 people twice, 6 people thrice, 2 people 4 times and 7 people all 5 times. Thus, we have 7 loyalists to our Brand, which is an encouraging figure, though it can be improved to a higher figure. What will you do if Dove is out of stock in a store ? Total Buy another brand of luxury soap in the same store Buy Dove from another store Delay Purchase Age <20 1 0 1 2 21-30 41 25 4 70 31-40 3 1 1 5 41-50 0 1 0 1 50+ 1 2 0 3 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Once Twice 3 times 4 times 5 times <20 21-30 31-40 41-50 50+
  25. 25. Thus, we find that 29 people out of 81 respondents, will look for Dove in another store if it is not available in the store from which it is usually purchased. Thus those 29 people are Brand loyal. 6 respondents delay purchase, which makes us infer that they do not have any other shops closeby which makes them unarguably delay the purchase. Once Twice 3 times 4 times 5 times What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ?-Dove 13 8 7 2 `9 Total 13 8 7 2 9 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 <20 21-30 31-40 41-50 50+ Age What will you do if Dove is out of stock in a store ? Buy another brand of luxury soap in the same store What will you do if Dove is out of stock in a store ? Buy Dove from another store
  26. 26. Thus, we find that out of the respondents who are aware of Dove, 9 people have purchased all 5 times in the last 5 purchases. Thus, they are completely brand loyal and they will not switch to another brand. Thus, Dove scores high on Brand Relevance. What will you do if Dove is out of stock in a store ? Buy another brand of luxury soap in the same store Buy Dove from another store Delay Purchase 0 5 10 15 Once Twice 3 times 4 times 5 times What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ?-Dove What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ?-Dove
  27. 27. What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ?- Dove 1 29 21 6 Total 29 21 6 Thus, we find that, of 56 people who were aware of Dove, 27 are Brand loyal; which is pretty good, but the number must increase in the years to come. 0 10 20 30 Buy another brand of luxury soap in the same … Buy Dove from another store Delay Purchase What will you do if Dove is out of stock in a store ? What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ?- Dove What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ?-Dove 1
  28. 28. Which is the Luxury soap you would recommend others ? Dove Nivea Camay Pears What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ?-Dove 1 32 5 3 16 Total 32 5 3 16 Thus, we find that, out of 56 people who are aware of Dove, 32 of them recommend the soap to others. Thus, Dove is unbeatable in terms of Brand Relevance. PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION FOR LADDERING METHOD Laddering was performed to a total of 15 respondents. The responses were analysed to form an A-C-V chain where A stands or Attributes, C stands for Consequences and V stands for Values. The ACV’s are organised in the following table where similar attributes, consequences and values have been grouped together. The analysis helped us define 0 10 20 30 40 Dove Nivea Camay Pears Which is the Luxury soap you would recommend others ? What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ?-Dove What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ?-Dove 1
  29. 29. underlying consumer motivations behind buying the product, brand health and how the product makes the consumer feel. S.No. Attributes Sub-attributes 1. Mild and Gentle 2. Look or Aesthetics Eye catching and soothing 3. Foam 4. Creaminess 5. Pleasant fragrance Cucumber flavour – fragrance is very good. 6. Freshness 7. Moisturizing content Not required to use a moisturizer separately S.No. Consequences 1. Flawless and attractive skin 2. Confidence Makes you feel better of yourself 3. Refreshing skin 4. Softness Useful for people having dry skin 5. Cleansing 6. Feel-good factor 7. No rashes / allergy S.No. Values 1. Sense of Achievement 2. Higher self-esteem 3. Security 4. Self-assured feeling 5. Health/Fitness oriented 6. Family Soap  In the terms of the Value section, the self-assured feeling was rated quite highly by the respondents. They felt that feeling assured/confident was of upmost importance to them in their day to day lives. A lot of them felt that the better they looked the more confident they were and it did have a positive effect on their work and the fact that Dove is such a mild soap added to this sense of assurance The feeling that they were doing the right thing for their skin added to this sense of security and self- assuredness. This can also be related to a sense of achievement where respondents felt that this positively affected their personal and professional lives for example in terms of the quality of their work as mentioned before.
  30. 30.  In the current world where people are becoming more fitness and health oriented they expect their soaps to be in line with this style of living. They feel DOVE live up to these expectations through its style of advertising where it emphasizes the mildness and chemical free aspect of the soap.  In terms of consequences there was a lot of repetition in the responses as people experienced the same things after using the soap. Softness, No rashes/allergy, cleansing etc. They felt the soap delivered in terms of the softness it provides in comparison to the other soaps this could also be in part due to the advertisements.  The attributes that people looked for when they decide to buy Dove were very similar but two main aspects that popped up were the mild and gentle nature of the soap and the moisturizing effect of the soap.  All these attributes related to each other for example the use of a mild soap in this case DOVE could lead to softer skin which in turn leads to self-assurance, confidence. This type of graphing gives us a better understanding into the way people thing. This will help us in determining the way people think of the brand and its functionality. Brand Value Measurement The total financial value of the brand and its estimation is Brand Valuation. Six key requirements that distinguish brand valuation from brand equity is transparency, validity, reliability, sufficiency, objectivity and financial,behavioral and legal parameters. There are three main brand valuation techniques cost approach, income approach, market approach. Here in this project we preferred brand valuation method in strategic means rather than the usual way of calculations and analysis so that the context is suitable for business and customers. This both side approach is a qualitative method. We have also given suitable steps with a model called Strategic Brand Assessment with their benefits. Various Brand Value Research studies have shown that in customer markets people pay for brands over and above a baseline. Measuring brand value and assessing the value of intangibles by asking consumers to separate out the brand and place a monetary value is difficult. Brands can be assesses on a variety of issues such as strategic brand management ,marketing budget allocation, marketing ROI , portfolio management , brand extensions , M&A ,balance sheet recognition , licensing , transfer pricing and investor relations. The biggest benefit of valid brand measurement is direction for the business itself. The following objectives can be achieved  focus and intensify the brand  clarify and refine strategy  create compelling new offers  protect against brand risk  produce competitive advantage  reduce brand-support costs  improve short-term profitability
  31. 31. Methods to measure a Brand’s Value Financial methods assign a numeric value for brand and brand image tracking provides benchmark ratings while Strategic Brand Assessment provides a route for increasing brand value. Brand as Intangible Asset (Numeric Value)  Explains difference in market-to-book, expected earnings or expected income as brand value  Uses established accounting methods  Attributes other intangibles to “brand” Brand as Piece of Company Market Value (Numeric Value)  Uses measures such as advertising, patents, R&D’ age, industry structure, expected earnings  Often used to compare companies across industries  Only works for public companies Brand Index Valuation (Numeric Value )  Relies on a historical database of brand image attributes across a range of product categories  Uses ratings index to benchmark relative brand strength  Not customized for particular industry and company situation Strategic Brand Assessments  Defines brand value in business context from perspective of current and potential customers  Uses customized primary research to define brand drivers and assess relative brand strengths and weaknesses in a competitive context  Identifies brand positioning opportunities and business investment imperatives for building brand value The brand valuation method we suggest is Strategic Brand Assessment with other methods because the method’s intention is to know whether people trust the brand to take them to the next step and actions for future development other than numeric values. This method is preferred due to the following aspects involved  Future-oriented
  32. 32.  Focus on strategic business outcomes  Weighs relevance to customer and business  Focus on audiences through segmentation  Analyzes competitive brand equity  Identifies and assesses strategic opportunities  Dynamic view of brand strategy  Iterative and cumulative over time  Feedback to assess decisions  Strategic A simple model Other drivers to be included along with the existing model Brand Strength measurement, the ability of the brand to create continuity of demand into the future through loyalty and, therefore, to reduce risk. In doing this it considers ‘internal’ (management and employee) and ‘external’ (customer) factors. Finally, these inputs are combined with a financial model of the business to measure the brand’s ability to create economic value for its owner. Brand Strength is the key diagnostic tool with which we can measure brand performance and better understand the reasons behind a brand’s strengths and weaknesses, both internally and externally. It supports strategic brand management by prioritising areas of highest impact for managers.
  33. 33. Methodology of study : By using Questionnaire Sample size : 45 BRAND EQUITY We have used the Colombo-Morrison model to study Brand Equity. The three main parameters for the study are :  Brand Loyalty  Ability to charge a price premia  Brand Leveragability
  34. 34. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS - STUDY OF BRAND EQUITY From the above figure, we find that 15 respondents out of 45, perceive that Dove soap should be priced higher than Rs. 20 and 21 respondents perceive the price should be a minimum of Rs. 25. Thus, respondents are well aware of the quality provided by Dove, as a brand and are ready to pay the price. From the above figure, we find that 14 respondents feel that Dove soap should be priced less than Rs. 50 and 10 respondents feel that it should be priced less than Rs. 65. Thus an optimum price range for Dove would be between Rs. 45 and Rs. 55
  35. 35. From the above figure, 21 respondents perceive Dove to be a great buy for the money if it is priced at Rs. 35. 16 people feel that even at Rs. 40, Dove is a great buy for money. This proves the worthiness and strength of the brand. 17 respondents have chosen Pears as their Favorite brand though they may not buy it all the time. Thus, Dove has loyalists, but the fact that people who purchase Dove also have Pears as their favorite is an interesting thing. It is also a matter of concern for Dove. 0 5 10 15 20 Pears Camay Dove Nivea Others Favorite Brand No. Of respondents
  36. 36. From this figure, we find that our perceptions about the price change with time. 27 respondents (15 likely & 12 very likely) have told that they would purchase the brand of Luxury soap which they previously considered expensive. From the figure, we find that 12 people do not stay loyal to the brand, while 20 people (10 agree and 10 strongly agree) would remain loyalists to their brand of Luxury soap. 0 5 10 15 Very unlikely Unlikely Not decided Likely Very likely Likelihood of choosing a brand previously considered expensive No. Of respondents 0 5 10 15 Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Loyalty towards the Brand No. Of respondents
  37. 37. From the above figure, most of our respondents are price inelastic and they would purchase the brand irrespective of price hike. This gives us an advantage of charging a premium. QUALITY - PRICE RELATIONSHIP - DOVE 0 10 20 30 40 Superior Quality Good Quality Poor Quality Quality vs Price is Affordable No. of respondents
  38. 38. From the above figures. we find that 34 out of 45 respondents feel that the Price of Dove is affordable for Good quality, 29 out of 45 feel they have to sacrifice to pay the price and 23 out of 45 feel that the price is unaffordable. Thus, Dove stays in the affordable range for most of our respondents, which makes it a viable brand. QUALITY-PRICE RELATIONSHIP - PEARS 0 10 20 30 Superior Quality Good Quality Poor Quality Quality vs Ready to sacrifice for the price No. of respondents 0 5 10 15 20 25 Superior Quality Good Quality Poor Quality Quality vs Price is not Affordable No. of respondents 0 10 20 30 Superior Quality Good Quality Poor Quality Quality vs Price is Affordable No. of respondents
  39. 39. Thus, we find that 24 people feel that The price of Pears is affordable, but 25 feel that they have to sacrifice to pay the price and 24 feel that it is unaffordable. Thus, it is not a favourable brand for the mass market. It is in the affordable range for just 50% respondents. 0 10 20 30 Superior Quality Good Quality Poor Quality Quality vs Ready to sacrifice for the Price No. of respondents 0 10 20 30 Superior Quality Good Quality Poor Quality Quality vs Price is not affordable No. of respondents
  40. 40. QUALITY-PRICE RELATIONSHIP- NIVEA Thus, we find that 32 respondents feel that price of Nivea is affordable, 31 feel that they have to sacrifice for the price and 26 feel that the price is unaffordable. Thus, it is fairing better than Pears, but still not as good as Dove. 0 10 20 30 40 Superior Quality Good Quality Poor Quality Quality vs Price is Affordable No. of respondents 0 10 20 30 40 Superior Quality Good Quality Poor Quality Quality vs Ready to sacrifice for the price No. of respondents 0 10 20 30 Superior Quality Good Quality Poor Quality Quality vs Price is not Affordable No. of respondents
  41. 41. QUALITY-PRICE RELATIONSHIP-CAMAY 0 10 20 30 40 Superior Quality Good Quality Poor Quality Quality vs Price is Affordable No. of respondents 0 10 20 30 40 Superior Quality Good Quality Poor Quality Quality vs Ready to sacrifice for the price No. of respondents
  42. 42. Thus, we find that the statistics for Camay are almost similar to that of those obtained for Nivea. 32 respondents feel that price of Nivea is affordable, 31 feel that they have to sacrifice for the price and 27 feel that the price is unaffordable. Thus, it is fairing better than Pears, but still not as good as Dove. From the figure. we find that 25 respondents feel that Dove does not have any leveragability, but 13 respondents feel that Dove can be extended to Handbags category and 10 feel that it can be extended to Sunglasses. 0 10 20 30 Superior Quality Good Quality Poor Quality Quality vs Price is not Affordable No. of respondents 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Dove's Leveragability No. of respondents
  43. 43. The leveragability of Pears is slightly higher compared to that of Dove. 20 feel that it cannot be extended to any category. 15 feel that Sunglasses category will work best for Pears and 8 feel that Handbags category is ideal for Pears. From the figure. we find that, Handbags and Sunglasses are again favored for Nivea, though many feel that category extension is not a good idea for the brand. 0 5 10 15 20 25 Pears' Leveragability `No. of respondents 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Nivea's Leveragability No. of respondents
  44. 44. From the figure, we can surely say that Camay can never be extended to other categories; based on respondents' opinion. 31 have said that it will not work. CONCLUSION Thus, we have performed the measurement of Brand image using Questionnaire and Laddering method, and measurement of Brand Equity using Questionnaire for our brand, DOVE, and the results have been analysed effectively. ANNEXURE QUESTIONNAIRE- BRAND IMAGE MEASUREMENT Age : a. <20 b. 21-30 c. 30-40 d. 40-50 e. 50+ 1. What are the brands which come to your mind when you think of Luxury soaps ? a. Dove b. Nivea c. Camay d. Pears e. Others 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Camay's Leveragability No. of respondents
  45. 45. 2. Which brand of luxury soap do you purchase ? a. Dove b. Nivea c. Camay d. Pears e. I don't prefer Luxury Soaps 3. How often do you purchase Luxury Soap ? a. Once in 2 weeks b. Once a month c. Once in 2 months d. >Once in 2 months 4. What are the products that you are aware of under DOVE ? a. Soap b. Deodorant c. Shampoo d. Lotion 5. Identify the following brands SOAP BRANDS 1 2 3 4
  46. 46. 6. Identify brands using their taglines a. You are more beautiful than you think b. Leave him wanting more with your soft, scented skin c. It starts with you d. Preparing to be a beautiful lady 7. Which of the following brands can you relate to the images? Nivea Dove Camay Pears 8. Which of the following brands of soap do you associate with 'Confidence' ? a. Dove b. Nivea c. Camay d. Pears 9. Dove soap serves the purpose of not only a soap but also a moisturizer. a. Strongly Agree b. Agree c. Neutral d. Disagree
  47. 47. e. Strongly Disagree 10. Out of the last 5 purchases, how many times you have purchased the following brands ? BRAND NO. OF TIMES Dove Camay Nivea Pears 11. Which brand comes to your mind when you think of the following attributes ? Attributes Dove Camay Nivea Pears Antiseptic Value for money Mild and gentle Fragrance Freshness Deodorizing effect 12. Rate the following attributes of Dove on a scale of 1 to 5 Attributes 1 2 3 4 5 Antiseptic Value for money Mild and gentle Fragrance Freshness Deodorizing effect 13. Rank the following Brands based on softness
  48. 48. a. Dove b. Nivea c. Camay d. Pears 14. Which brand delivers their promise the most (on a scale of 1-5) ? 1 2 3 4 5 Dove Camay Nivea Pears 15. What will you do if Dove is out of stock in a store ? a. Buy another Brand of Luxury soap in the same store b. Buy Dove from another store c. Delay Purchase 16. Which is the luxury soap you would recommend others ? a. Dove b. Camay c. Nivea d. Pears LADDERING - BRAND IMAGE MEASUREMENT Attributes (A), Consequences (C), Values (V) 1) Situational context:  Interviewer: You mentioned that you like using Dove soap. Why is that?  Respondent: It helps cleanse my skin and the fact that it is a very mild soap gives me confidence to use it as I fell it would hurt my skin.  Interviewer: Why is it important to do this every day?  Respondent: It keeps my skin fresh through the day.
  49. 49.  Interviewer: Why is it important to for your skin to be fresh?  Respondent: So that my skin is as flawless and attractive as possible.  Interviewer: Why is it important to have flawless and attractive skin?  Respondent: So that I can be as confident as possible. Mild soap (A) Flawless and attractive skin (C) Confidence (C) Respondent 2:  Interviewer: Why do you use Dove?  Respondent: After a long day, it helps refresh my skin.  Interviewer: Why is it so important that you refresh your skin?  Respondent: I work long hard hours every day and after I get back doing this makes me feel better about my skin It makes me feel like I am doing the right things to take care of my skin for instance I eat healthy, work out every day and using Dove is just part of the package.  Interviewer: Why do you prefer using dove to any other soap or just plain water?  Respondent: Like I said before, health/fitness is something I take very seriously and the mildness of Dove as a soap is something I fell does the job of cleansing my skin without affecting it or doing any long term damage plus Dove makes my skin feel much softer than the rest. I don’t know if it is because of the way it is advertised/packaged but it just does. It also has a cleaner look to it than the other soaps. Health/Fitness oriented (V) Refresh skin (C) Softer (C) Mild soap (A) Look or aesthetics (A) Respondent 3:  Interviewer: Why do you use dove?  Respondent: I don’t know. I haven’t really thought about it but if would say it’s mostly because my mother uses the soap so it is something that’s always there at home.  Interviewer: Even though you do not buy the soap, what do you like about it?  Respondent: The soap produces a lot of foam which is something I love plus the white look it has, gives out a very good visual.  Interviewer: Why do you like your soaps to produce a lot of foam?  Respondent: It gives me the feeling that it does a better job at cleaning my skin.  Interviewer: Why is it so important to have clean skin?
  50. 50.  Respondent: Who doesn’t want to have clean skin? My answer will be the same as pretty much anyone else to make my skin attractive to others and be as confident as possible. Family soap (V) Foam (A) Cleansing (C) Confidence(C) Respondent 4:  Interviewer: Why do you use dove?  Respondent: It seems like a very dependable soap in terms of their advertising and the product as such.  Interviewer: Why is it so important for the soap to be dependable?  Respondent: Because it has to do with my skin which is obviously very important to me.  Interviewer: Why is it so important to use dove for this purpose rather than other soaps.  Respondent: Like I said before, dove seems like a very dependable soap. It looks like a very mild soap which wouldn’t harm the skin.  Interviewer: Why is this mildness factor very important to you?  Respondent: There are a lot of harsh soaps out there in the market today and I believe my skin deserves the best and the best is dove. Dependable (V) Mildness (A) Good/soft skin (C) 1) Source : Ads, friends Duration : 1-2 years No. purchased : 3 @ a time. Why do you use dove ? very mild, creaminess. it gives a feel-good factor demerit : It consumes a lot of water. Why do u feel it is imp ? Pleasant smell, avoids skin from getting dry. Face must not look dry. Butter kind of element(chemical) - it gives softness. Moved to camay and then fab india( trial )
  51. 51. Generally prefer luxury brands or differentiated normal brands (flavor). Not loyal to any brand. look for a soap which is available in the shop. 2) Duration : 2 years. stopped and used again. Source : Ads Why did you use dove ? Moisturising content, smell(cucumber/ green) was good. was useful to avoid dry skin. Demerit : Felt it had Over moisturising content. Changed soap coz of medical reasons. Why is this imp ? Dry skin gives irritation Currently moved to Pears. Advantage of pears over dove ? Not very oily feel; chemicals used responsible. It gives u comforting feel. Used cinthol long back. Prefer luxury soaps. LOYALIST OF PEARS. Smell wise - Dove is better than pears. No. of soaps @ one go : 3-4 3) How long : 6months Opinion : Palm oil is used, which is against nature. So, stopped using the product.
  52. 52. Attribute : mild, fresh Prefer to use luxury soaps. No. purchased : 3-4 shampoo : not good - too oily, consumes a lot of water 4) source : Ads Before used : cinthol How long : A couple of times continuously. Opinion : very dry effect, positive : smell is good. more concerned abt healthy skin All kinds of soaps are fine.. Longest : cinthol opinion : neutral, no harmful side effects. wouldnt mind trying a new product if friends recommend. 5) Source : Ads How long u used : 3-4 years In between was using pears, mysore sandal, lux. Want to try new product when launched in the market. Opinion : Too oily, too much of moisturizing content. Attributes : very mild n gentle, moisturizing quality is good. makes skin very soft. it suits the person. would definitely use dove. moisturizing quality - not good in pears
  53. 53. why do u feel u need a soft skin ? Feel better of urself. gives Confidence. No. of soaps purchased at one go : 1-2. Prefers luxury soaps. Savlon is ok.. 6) How long : 2-3 months Opinion : Doesnt suit oily skin Importance is fragrance but wish to go for healthy factors Using pears. it does have good fragrance. source : Ads you wouldnt want to use dove. not loyalist of pears. depends on ur liking. prefer normal soaps to luxury soaps opinion : ayurvedic use; healthy factor. 7) How long : 4 years Opinion : Moisturizing bar ; good for dry skin ; does not give rashes / allergy ; very mild Using pears / johnson n johnson before that the fragrance made u switch. source : Ads you would use dove in the future. why not pears ? fragrance of dove is much better ; pears is not moisturizing prefer to use luxury soaps no. of soaps : 3-4 soaps @ a time. Wouldn't try any other soap ; Loyalist of Dove. Opinion : feel dove shampoos are not good.

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