Ill l Ill l l I Ill l Il l Ill l Ill l Il l Ill l Ill l Ill l Il l Ill l Ill l Il l l Ill Il l Ill                        ...
Patent Application Publication                     May 24, 2012 Sheet 1 of 20   US 2012/0128796 A1                        ...
Patent Application Publication   May 24, 2012 Sheet 2 of 20   US 2012/0128796 A1      FIGURE 3      FIGUI tE 4A
Patent Application Publication                                                                              May 24, 2012 S...
Patent Application Publication                                                                                            ...
Patent Application Publication   May 24, 2012 Sheet 5 of 20   US 2012/0128796 A1                                          ...
Patent Application Publication   May 24, 2012 Sheet 6 of 20   US 2012/0128796 A1  FIGURE ,4G
Patent Application Publication   May 24, 2012 Sheet 7 of 20   US 2012/0128796 A1FIGURE 5A
Patent Application Publication   May 24, 2012 Sheet 8 of 20   US 2012/0128796 A1                                 ,-.-.-.-....
Patent Application Publication   May 24, 2012 Sheet 9 of 20    US 2012/0128796 A1                             DP Ce!| Viab...
Patent Application Publication   May 24, 2012 Sheet 10 of 20   US 2012/0128796 A1              i’,                  I     ...
Patent Application Publication   May 24, 2012 Sheet 11 of 20          US 2012/0128796 A1                     iHF viability...
Patent Application Publication   May 24, 2012 Sheet 12 of 20   US 2012/0128796 A1
Patent Application Publication   May 24, 2012 Sheet 13 of 20   US 2012/0128796 A1  FIGURE tliA
Patent Application Publication   May 24, 2012 Sheet 14 of 20   US 2012/0128796 A1
Patent Application Publication              May 24, 2012 Sheet 15 of 20   US 2012/0128796 A1                    ;i i i iii...
Patent Application Publication                                       May 24, 2012 Sheet 16 of 20                          ...
Patent Application Publication                                          May 24, 2012 Sheet 17 of 20                       ...
Patent Application Publication   May 24, 2012 Sheet 18 of 20   US 2012/0128796 A1
Patent Application Publication   May 24, 2012 Sheet 19 of 20   US 2012/0128796 A1
Patent Application Publication   May 24, 2012 Sheet 20 of 20   US 2012/0128796 A1         ?             FIGURE i9
US 2012/0128796 A1                                                                                                May 24, ...
US 2012/0128796 A1                                                                                                      Ma...
US 2012/0128796 A1                                                                                             May 24, 201...
US 2012/0128796 A1                                                                                                    May ...
US 2012/0128796 A1                                                                                                  May 24...
US 2012/0128796 A1                                                                                                 May 24,...
US 2012/0128796 A1                                                                                                   May 2...
US 2012/0128796 A1                                                                                               May 24, 2...
US 2012/0128796 A1                                                                                                        ...
Us published appln no 20120128796 a1
Us published appln no 20120128796 a1
Us published appln no 20120128796 a1
Us published appln no 20120128796 a1
Us published appln no 20120128796 a1
Us published appln no 20120128796 a1
Us published appln no 20120128796 a1
Us published appln no 20120128796 a1
Us published appln no 20120128796 a1
Us published appln no 20120128796 a1
Us published appln no 20120128796 a1
Us published appln no 20120128796 a1
Us published appln no 20120128796 a1
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  1. 1. Ill l Ill l l I Ill l Il l Ill l Ill l Il l Ill l Ill l Ill l Il l Ill l Ill l Il l l Ill Il l Ill US 20120128796A1(19) nited States(12) Patent Application Publication (lO) Pub. No.: S 2012/0128796 A1 Armani et al. (43) Pub. Date: May 24, 2012(54) EXTRACTS AND COMPOUNDS FROM FICUS Publication Classification BENGHALENSIS FOR INCREASING HAIR (51) Int. CI. GROWTH AND DECREASING HAIR LOSS A61K 36/60 (2006.01) A61K 31/7016 (2006.01)(76) Inventors: Antonio Armani, Richmond Hill A61K 31/7028 (2006.01) (CA); Sara Armani, Richmond Hill A 61P 17/14 (2006.01) (CA); Charitha Seneviratne, Mississanga (CA); Reza Nazari, U.S. Cl ............................... 424/725; 514/53; 514/23 (52) Richmond Hill (CA) Appl. No.: 13/051,543 (57) ABSTRACT(21) This application discloses natural product extracts and com-(22) Filed: Mar. 18, 2011 pounds from an aerial root of a Ficus plant, such as Ficus benghalensis. The application also discloses the use of natu- Related U.S. Application Data ral product extracts and compounds from Ficus plants for(60) Provisional application No. 61/315,729, filed on Mar. increasing hair growth and decreasing hair loss. Methods of 19, 2010, provisional application No. 61/379,915, producing the extracts and isolating the compounds are fur- filed on Sep. 3, 2010. ther disclosed.
  2. 2. Patent Application Publication May 24, 2012 Sheet 1 of 20 US 2012/0128796 A1 HF-explant growth assay : -. .[ ..................... g iiGURE "t iHF recipient growth ass FliGUR.E 2
  3. 3. Patent Application Publication May 24, 2012 Sheet 2 of 20 US 2012/0128796 A1 FIGURE 3 FIGUI tE 4A
  4. 4. Patent Application Publication May 24, 2012 Sheet 3 of 20 US 2012/0128796 A1 B.D. :1 M ......... :i’ i .................................................................................... ¯ ............................ , .............. : ...................... .......>:....... ::;.:-:.:,:.:.:,:,:.:..::.:.:,:. ..... ....................................... :: ............................................................ .......................... ! =================================== ......... FIGURE 4C
  5. 5. Patent Application Publication May 24, 2012 Sheet 4 of 20 US 2012/0128796 A1 B, D - zone :3 .................. ................................... :! :. .i i:i i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - :!::-ii ............... :: :ii: ;:ii]:i:;:]:;:;:;:i:iiii: i: . . . . . . . . . ..............i;i;i:il ................ ;i ;iii::]i; ............... initial ................:i i:; ?ii; .................ii:i::ili; ................. identified .................... ::iiiiiil .................. :i;i:i;iii:...........
  6. 6. Patent Application Publication May 24, 2012 Sheet 5 of 20 US 2012/0128796 A1 W
  7. 7. Patent Application Publication May 24, 2012 Sheet 6 of 20 US 2012/0128796 A1 FIGURE ,4G
  8. 8. Patent Application Publication May 24, 2012 Sheet 7 of 20 US 2012/0128796 A1FIGURE 5A
  9. 9. Patent Application Publication May 24, 2012 Sheet 8 of 20 US 2012/0128796 A1 ,-.-.-.-.-.. >>>:.:.:.: >:.:.:.:.:< ..........., ,............FIGURE 5B
  10. 10. Patent Application Publication May 24, 2012 Sheet 9 of 20 US 2012/0128796 A1 DP Ce!| Viability Assay ofTRI fractions FIGURE ?
  11. 11. Patent Application Publication May 24, 2012 Sheet 10 of 20 US 2012/0128796 A1 i’, I I ill il : FIGURE B
  12. 12. Patent Application Publication May 24, 2012 Sheet 11 of 20 US 2012/0128796 A1 iHF viability assay-of TRi TR2÷TR3 .::: : ; ::.,. FIGURE 9
  13. 13. Patent Application Publication May 24, 2012 Sheet 12 of 20 US 2012/0128796 A1
  14. 14. Patent Application Publication May 24, 2012 Sheet 13 of 20 US 2012/0128796 A1 FIGURE tliA
  15. 15. Patent Application Publication May 24, 2012 Sheet 14 of 20 US 2012/0128796 A1
  16. 16. Patent Application Publication May 24, 2012 Sheet 15 of 20 US 2012/0128796 A1 ;i i i iii . . . ; :i!i ;j)., FIGURE 1::2 HF via:bitity assay FIGURE li3
  17. 17. Patent Application Publication May 24, 2012 Sheet 16 of 20 US 2012/0128796 A1 : : : " % ....... ._,_,_,_,_,_,_,_,_,_,_,_,_,_ ¯ =,= =,=,=,=,=,. : t i : i ............................................ "i ......... = .......................................................................................................... ¯ ..... : ................ : ................ :: ................ <--= .................................
  18. 18. Patent Application Publication May 24, 2012 Sheet 17 of 20 US 2012/0128796 A1 " i ; :: ........................................................................ : i ................... ....................................................................... FIGURE 1 5
  19. 19. Patent Application Publication May 24, 2012 Sheet 18 of 20 US 2012/0128796 A1
  20. 20. Patent Application Publication May 24, 2012 Sheet 19 of 20 US 2012/0128796 A1
  21. 21. Patent Application Publication May 24, 2012 Sheet 20 of 20 US 2012/0128796 A1 ? FIGURE i9
  22. 22. US 2012/0128796 A1 May 24, 2012 EXTRACTS AND COMPOUNDS FROM FICUS [0008] In addition, since the length and size of the hair BENGHALENSIS FOR INCREASING HAIR depends on the length of the anagen phase and size of the hair GROWTH AND DECREASING HAIR LOSS follicle respectively, another way to promote hair growth is to use compounds that prolong the length of the anagen phase and increase hair follicle size. CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS SUMMARY OF THE DISCLOSURE[0001] This non-provisional application claims priority [0009] The invention relates to a method of producing anfrom U.S. provisional application No. 61/315,729 filed on extract, its fractions, sub-fractions and compounds from anMar. 19, 2010 and U.S. provisional application No. 61/379, aerial root portion ofa Ficus plant, optionally Ficus bengha-915 filed on Sep. 3, 2010, both of which are incorporated lens&, where the extract and its fractions, sub-fractions andherein by reference in their entirety. compounds are useful as hair growth-increasing agents and/ or hair loss-decreasing agents. The aerial root portion option- ally comprises an aerial root tip. The method typically FIELD involves preparing a crude extract of an aerial root portion of a Ficus plant, optionally the aerial root tip, and fractionating[0002] This application discloses natural product extracts the crude extract with at least one solvent to obtain variousand compounds from an aerial root of a Ficus plant, such as fractions.Ficus benghalensis, that are useful for increasing hair growth [0010] The invention also relates to a method where theand decreasing hair loss in mammals. Methods of producing solvent is selected from the group consisting of n-hexane,the extracts and isolating the compounds are also disclosed. dichioromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. [0011] The invention further relates to a method where a series of fractions are obtained by: BACKGROUND [0012] (a) performing a n-hexane extraction on the crude extract to obtain a n-hexane fraction and a first residue,Hair Loss [0013] (b) performing a dichloromethane extraction on the first residue to obtain a dichloromethane fraction and[0003] Genetic pattern hair loss affects approximately one- a second residue,half of the world’s male population and more than one-quarter [0014] (c) performing an ethyl acetate extraction on theof the female population. Current treatments for hair loss second residue to obtain an ethyl acetate fraction and ainclude surgical hair restoration and pharmaceutical interven- third residue,tions. [0015] (d) performing a methanol extraction on the third[0004] Small organic compounds are currently sold for residue to obtain a methanol fraction and a fourth resi-treating hair loss. These compounds have shown limited due, andresults. For example, the oral medication finasteride is used to [0016] (e) performing a water extraction on the fourthtreat balding. However, as finasteride affects serum DHT residue to obtain a water fraction.levels, it can lead to numerous side effects. The topical lotion [0017] In one embodiment of the invention, the methodminoxidil is also used to arrest the progression of hair loss. further comprises sub-fractionating the n-hexane fraction to obtain at least one sub-fraction. The n-hexane sub-fraction is[0005] There remains a need for naturally-sourced products optionally sub-fractionated using chromatography, solventfor treating hair loss. A natural formulation to treat hair loss partitioning or any other method known in the art or anyand promote hair growth with minimal side effects is highly combination thereof.desirable. [0018] In one embodiment of the invention, the methods described above involve the further step of topically admin-Hair Follicles istering one or more of the fractions and/or sub-fractions to a mammal to increase hair growth on the mammal or to[0006] All parts of the hair follicle are cyclically re-gener- decrease hair loss on the mammal.ated. The hair follicle is an entirely epidermally derived struc- [0019] In another embodiment, the methods involve theture (including the sebaceous gland) and is produced by epi- further step of exposing hair follicles in vitro to one or moredermal stem cells (eSC) residing in the epidermal bulge. of the fractions to increase the viability of the hair follicles. InCross talk between mesenchyma derived dermal papilla (DP) another embodiment, the methods involve the further step ofcells and the epidermal eSC is crucial for cell differentiation exposing hair follicles in vivo to one or more of the fractionsand proliferation (Morris, 2004; Blanpain and Fuchs, 2006). to increase the viability of the hair follicles. In another[0007] Balding, or hair loss, is a consequence of hair fol- embodiment, the methods involve the further step of exposinglicle miniaturization. Normally, a hair follicle cycles through hair follicle cells, in vivo or in vitro, to one or more of thephases including the anagen (growth) phase, the catagen fractions to increase the viability of the hair follicle cells.(transition) phase and the telogen (resting or quiescent) [0020] In a further embodiment of the method, the Ficus isphase. In the miniaturization process, the hair follicle enters a Ficus benghalensis.prolonged lag phase following the telogen stage. Thus, one [0021] In another embodiment of the method, the methodaim of hair loss therapies is to push or coax the hair follicle further comprises the use of the ethyl acetate fraction toafter telogen to quickly enter anagen similar to a normal hair increase the viability of hair follicle cells, optionally outerfollicle (Cotsaleris and Millar, 2001). root sheath cells or epidermal stem cells. The hair follicle
  23. 23. US 2012/0128796 A1 May 24, 2012 2cells are optionally cells in vitro or in vivo. In another [0035] The invention also relates to a sub-fraction of theembodiment, the method comprises the use of the ethyl n-hexane fraction, wherein the sub-fraction is obtained byacetate fraction to rejuvenate skin. [0036] a. sub-fractionating the fraction, and[0022] The invention also relates to the use of a crude [0037] b. isolating a sub-fraction comprising the follow-extract, optionally a total aqueous extract, of an aerial root ing compounds: lupeol, cycloartenol, ct-amyrin, sam-portion, optionally an aerial root tip, ofa Ficus plant, option- rated ester wax, 5-methoxypsoralen, stigmasterol, [3-si-ally Ficus Benghalensis, for increasing hair growth, decreas- tosterol, betulinic acid, betulonic acid, palmitic acid,ing hair loss, rejuvenating skin, increasing the viability of a [3-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadieonic acid and cerebrosides.hair follicle, or increasing the viability of a hair follicle cell.[0023] The invention further relates to an ethyl acetate frac- [0038] In one embodiment, the isolated sub-fraction com-tion from a crude extract of an aerial root portion, optionally prises at least 0.3% by weight lupeol, 0.4% by weightan aerial root tip, of a Ficus plant, optionally Ficus Bengha- cycloartenol, 0.4% by weight ct-amyrin, 0.7% by weight sam-lens&, wherein the fraction is obtained by rated ester wax, 1.2% by weight 5-methoxypsoralen, 5% by [0024] a. performing a n-hexane extraction on the crude weight stigmasterol and [3-sitosterol, 0.3% by weight bem- extract to obtain a n-hexane fraction and a first residue, linic acid, 0.8% by weight bemlonic acid, 0.46% by weight [0025] b. performing a dichloromethane extraction on palmitic acid, 0.1% by weight 13-hydxoxy-9,11-octadec- the first residue to obtain a dichloromethane fraction and adieonic acid and 0.4% by weight cerebrosides. a second residue, and [0039] Optionally, the n-hexane fraction is sub-fractioned [0026] c. performing an ethyl acetate extraction the sec- by solvent partitioning, chromatography or any combination ond residue to obtain an ethyl acetate fraction. thereof. In one embodiment, the chromatography is high per-[0027] The invention also relates to the use of the ethyl formance liquid chromatography, optionally high perfor-acetate fraction to increase the viability of hair follicle cells, mance liquid chromatography with a 19×300 mm C18 col-optionally outer root sheath cells or epidermal stem cells. The umn, a gradient elution with 0.1% HCOOH in water and 0.1%invention further relates to the use of the ethyl acetate fraction HCOOH in acetonitrile and flow rate 18 mL/min.to rejuvenate skin. [0040] In another embodiment, the chromatography is[0028] The invention also relates to a fraction from a crude vacuum-assisted liquid chromatography, optionally vacuum-extract of an aerial root portion ofa Ficus plant, optionally the assisted liquid chromatography with sequential elution usingportion comprising an aerial root tip, whereby the fraction is solvent mixtures from 100% hexane to 100% chloroform toobtained by extracting the crude extract with a solvent having 100% methanol.a dielectric constant of 1.1 to 4.0. In another embodiment, the [0041] The invention also relates to the use of a sub-fractiondielectric constant is 1.5 to 2.5. of the n-hexane fraction to increase hair growth. Optionally,[0029] In a further embodiment, the solvent is n-hexane. In the hair is a hair follicle in vitro or in vivo. The inventionyet another embodiment, the Ficus is Ficus benghalensis. further relates to the use of a composition comprising the[0030] The invention further relates to the use of a compo- sub-fraction of the n-hexane fraction to decrease hair loss orsition comprising the n-hexane fraction to increase hair to increase the viability of a hair follicle cell, optionally a hairgrowth. In another aspect of the invention, the hair is a hair follicle cell in vitro or in vivo.follicle in vitro or in vivo. The invention also relates to the use [0042] In another embodiment, the invention relates to theof a composition comprising the n-hexane fraction to use of a fraction or sub-fraction from a crude extract of andecrease hair loss or to increase the viability of a hair follicle aerial root portion ofa Ficus plant for increasing hair growthcell, in vitro or in vivo. or decreasing hair loss wherein the fraction or sub-fraction[0031] The invention further relates to a composition com- comprises a compound selected from the group consisting of:prising the n-hexane fraction and a pharmaceutically accept- cerebrosides, terpenes, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fattyable carrier. Optionally, the composition comprises 1 pg/ml to acids, polar disaccharides, octadecenoic acids, psoralen, cou-50 pg/ml of the n-hexane fraction, optionally 5 to 15 pg/ml of matins, azelaic acid, waxes, sterols, lupeol, cycloartenol,the n-hexane fraction. The invention also relates to the use of ct-amyrin, saturated ester wax, 5-methoxypsoralen, stigmas-the composition increase hair growth, optionally wherein the terol, [3-sitosterol, bemlinic acid, bemlonic acid, palmitic acidhair is a hair follicle in vitro or in vivo. The invention further and 13-hydroxy-9,11 -octadecadieonic acid.relates to the use of the composition to decrease hair loss [0043] In yet another embodiment, the invention relates toand/or increase the viability of a hair follicle cell. In one the use of a sub-fraction from a crude extract of an aerial rootembodiment, the n-hexane fraction is for use in an amount of portion ofa Ficus plant for increasing hair growth or decreas-1 to 100 pg/day, optionally 10 to 30 pg/day. ing hair loss wherein the sub-fraction comprises or consists[0032] The invention also relates to a sub-fraction of the essentially of the following compounds: lupeol, cycloartenol,n-hexane fraction, wherein the sub-fraction is obtained by ct-amyrin, saturated ester wax, 5-methoxypsoralen, stigmas- [0033] (a) sub-fractionating the fraction, and terol, [3-sitosterol, bemlinic acid, betulonic acid, palmitic [0034] (b) isolating a sub-fraction comprising a com- acid, 13-hydxoxy-9,11-octadecadieonic acid and cerebro- pound selected from the group consisting of: cerebro- sides. In another embodiment, the sub-fraction comprises sides, terpenes, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty 0.3% by weight lupeol, 0.4% by weight cycloartenol, 0.4% by acids, polar disaccharides, octadecenoic acids, psoralen, weight ct-amyrin, 0.7% by weight saturated ester wax, 1.2% coumarins, azelaic acid, waxes, sterols, lupeol, by weight 5-methoxypsoralen, 5% by weight stigmasterol cycloartenol, ct-amyrin, saturated ester wax, 5-methox- and [3-sitosterol, 0.3% by weight bemlinic acid, 0.8% by ypsoralen, stigmasterol, [3-sitosterol, betulinic acid, weight bemlonic acid, 0.46% by weight palmitic acid, O. 1% betulonic acid, palmitic acid and [3-hydroxy-9,11-octa- by weight 13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadieonic acid and 0.4% decadieonic acid. by weight cerebrosides.
  24. 24. US 2012/0128796 A1 May 24, 2012[0044] The invention also relates to a composition compris- BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGSing a plurality of sub-fractions of the n-hexane fraction,wherein the plurality of sub-fractions are obtained by: [0052] Embodiments of the invention will be shown in [0045] (a) partitioning the n-hexane fraction with chlo- relation to the drawings in which the following is shown: roform to obtain a chloroform partitioned fraction; [0053] FIG. 1: Total aqueous extract of E benghalensis [0046] (b) loading the chloroform partitioned fraction aerial roots (TR1) increases hair follicle explant growth at into a chromatography column, optionally a silica gel 0.01 mg/ml and 0.1 mg/ml. vacuum-assisted liquid chromatography column; [0054] FIG. 2: Total aqueous extract of E benghalensis [0047] (c) eluting the chloroform partitioned fraction aerial roots (TR1) increases hair follicle explant growth at through sequential elution using solvent mixtures from 0.01 mg/ml. 100% hexane to 100% chloroform to 100% methanol to [0055] FIG. 3: Total aqueous extract of E benghalensis obtain a plurality of sub-fractions; aerial roots (TR1) increases dermal papilla cell viability. [0048] (d) collecting and combining the plurality of sub- [0056] FIG. 4A-D: A patient (B.D.) treated for 6 months fractions. with a topical formulation containing total aqueous extract of[0049] The invention also relates to a composition compris- E benghalensis aerial roots (TR1) shows an approximatelying sub-fractions eluted at each of the solvent gradients listed 146% increase in terminal hair density averaged over allin column 2 of Table 9. In a preferred embodiment, compo- zones of the scalp. The scalp zone referenced in each chart issition does not contain a sub-fraction eluted at 97% chloro- also indicated (see also FIG. 4G).form: 3% methanol. In another embodiment, the composition [0057] FIG. 4E: A patient (B.D.) treated for 8 months withdoes not contain a sub-fraction comprising unsaturated fatty a topical formulation containing total aqueous extract of Eacids. In another embodiment, the composition does not benghalensis aerial roots (20 pg/day TR1 for 6 months andinclude a sub-fraction that decreases the viability, optionally 100 pg/day TR1 for months 9 to 11) shows an increase inby at least 5%, at least 10%, at least 20%, at least 30% or at terminal hair density and a corresponding decrease in vellusleast 50% of explant hair follicles at 1 pg/ml. In another and miniaturized hair density. The formulation was applied topreferred embodiment, the composition comprises the fol- zone 3-Right (3R) of the patient’s scalp. Extract dosage islowing compounds: lupeol, cycloartenol, ct-amyrin, saturated depicted in the horizontal axis in micrograms per day. Cumu-ester wax, 5-methoxypsoralen, stigmasterol, [3-sitosterol, lative increase in terminal hair density (black solid rect- angles) as a % of before treatment is also shown; treatmentbetulinic acid, betulonic acid, palmitic acid, 13-hydroxy-9, duration in months (m) represented in the x-axis.11-octadecadieonic acid and cerebrosides. In yet anotherembodiment, the composition comprises at least 0.3% by [0058] FIG. 4F: A patient (B.D.) treated in scalp zone 3Rweight lupeol, 0.4% by weight cycloartenol, 0.4% by weight with a topical formulation containing total aqueous extract ofct-amyrin, 0.7% by weight saturated ester wax, 1.2% by E benghalensis aerial roots (TR1) and TR3 shows increased hair growth. The patient was treated with 20 pg/day of theweight 5-methoxypsoralen, 5% by weight stigmasterol and TR1 extract up to month 6, had no treatment from the 6ti’[3-sitosterol, 0.3% by weight betulinic acid, 0.8% by weight month to the 9ti’ month and was treated with 100 pg/day ofbetulonic acid, 0.46% by weight palmitic acid, 0.1% by TR1 from the 9ti’ month to the 10ti’ month followed by 26weight 13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadieonic acid and 0.4% by pg/day of TR3 from the 10ti’ to 12ti’ month.weight cerebrosides [0059] FIG. 4G: A depiction of the hair loss zones referred[0050] The invention also relates to the use of the compo- to in FIGS. 4A-F.sition described above to increase hair growth. Optionally, the [0060] FIG. 5A-SB: A patient (B.D.) treated for one monthhair is a hair follicle in vitro or in vivo. The invention further with a topical formulation containing total aqueous extract ofrelates to use of the composition described above to decrease E benghalensis aerial roots (TR1 ; 100 pg/day) shows growthhair loss or to increase the viability of a hair follicle cell, of new hairs and thickening of pre-existing hairs (SA, beforeoptionally a hair follicle cell in vitro or in vivo. treatment; 5B, after treatment).[0051] The invention also relates to a composition compris- [0061] FIG. 6: Hexane extracted fraction E1 of crudeing lupeol, cycloartenol, ct-amyrin, saturated ester wax, extract ofE benghalensis (also referred to as TR2) increases5-methoxypsoralen, stigmasterol, [3-sitosterol, betulinic acid, hair follicle explant viability at 1 pg/ml.betulonic acid, palmitic acid, 13-hydroxy-9,11-octadec- [0062] FIG. 7: Water extracted fraction E5 of crude extractadieonic acid and cerebrosides and to the use of the compo- ofE benghalensis increases dermal papilla (DP) cell viabil-sition to increase hair growth or decrease hair loss. The inven- ity.tion also relates to a composition consisting essentially of [0063] FIG. 8: Ethyl acetate extracted fraction E3 of crudelupeol, cycloartenol, ct-amyrin, saturated ester wax, 5-meth- extract ofE benghalensis increases outer root sheath (ORS)oxypsoralen, stigmasterol, [3-sitosterol, betulinic acid, betu- cell viability.lonic acid, palmitic acid, 13-hydxoxy-9,11-octadecadieonicacid and cerebrosides and to the use of the composition to [0064] FIG. 9: Hair follicle explant viability assay of theincrease hair growth or decrease hair loss. Optionally, the total aqueous extract of E benghalensis (TR1), the hexanecomposition comprises at least 0.3% lupeol, 0.4% extracted fraction E1 (TR2) and TR3 at 1 pg/ml.cycloartenol, 0.4% ct-amyrin, 0.7% saturated ester wax, 1.2% [0065] FIG. 10: A patient (M.A.F.) treated for one month5-methoxypsoralen, 5% stigmasterol and 13-sitosterol, 0.3% with a topical formulation containing hexane extracted frac-betulinic acid, 0.8% betulonic acid, 0.46% palmitic acid, tion E1 of crude extract ofE benghalensis (TR2; 20 pg/day)0.1% 13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadieonic acid and 0.4% cere- shows an increase in terminal hair density and vellus andbrosides. miniaturized hair density.
  25. 25. US 2012/0128796 A1 May 24, 2012 4[0066] FIG. 11 A-B: A patient (M.A.F.) treated for one tion eluted with dichloromethane. An "ethyl acetate fraction"month with a topical formulation containing hexane extracted is a fraction eluted with ethyl acetate. A "methanol fraction"fraction E1 of crude extract of E benghalensis (TR2; 20 is a fraction eluted with methanol. A "water fraction" is ap.g/day), shows growth of new hairs and thickening of pre- fraction eluted with water.existing hairs (llA, before treatment; llB, after treatment). [0079] The term"sub-fraction" refers to a fraction obtained[0067] FIG. 12: HPLC/UV chromatogram depicting sub- during the sub-fractionation of a fraction of a crude extract.fractionation of n-hexane extracted fraction E1 (TR2). Sub-fractionation is optionally performed by chromatogra-[0068] FIG. 13: Sub-fractions e7, ell, e21, e23 and e24 phy such as high performance liquid chromatographyhave higher hair follicle viability promoting activity com- (HPLC) or vacuum assisted liquid chromatography or anypared to the hexane extracted parent fraction, E1 (TR2). other method known in the art. In another embodiment, sub-[0069] FIG. 14: Hair follicle viability assay for large scale fractionation is performed through solvent partitioning. AE1 (TR2) fractions. E1 (TR2) was sequentially partitioned sub-fraction may be sub-fractionated into further sub-frac-and the resulting chloroform fraction was further separated tions.into sub-fractions by vacuum-assisted liquid chromatogra- [0080] The terms "active extract", "active fraction" orphy. "active sub-fraction" relate to an extract, fraction or sub-[0070] FIG. 15: Hair follicle explant viability assay on 5 fraction that is alternatively at least 5%, 10%, 20%, 50% orsub-fractions ofhexane extracted fraction E1 (TR2). more than 100% more active per unit weight than its parent[0071] FIG. 16: Hair follicle viability assay for large scale fraction, as measured by a hair follicle explant growth assay,E1 (TR2) fractions, normalized with respect to the relative a hair follicle explant viability assay or any other assayweight of the fractions. designed to measure hair-growth promoting activity. In one[0072] FIG. 17: Depiction of fractionation scheme for E1 embodiment, a"hair follicle explant growth assay" is an assay(hexane extracted fraction). that analyzes the growth of explant hair follicles in vitro. In[0073] FIG. 18. The Norwood scale of hair loss. another embodiment, a "hair follicle explant viability assay"[0074] FIG. 19. Percentage increase in hair density in scalp is an assay that analyzes the viability of explant hair follicleszones 1R, 1L, 1M, 2M and 3M following three months of in vitro.treatment with TR3. Results averaged over 20 subjects. [0081] In another embodiment, an "active extract", "active fraction" or "active sub-fraction" is an extract, fraction or DETAILED DESCRIPTION sub-fraction that is alternatively at least 5%, 10%, 20%, 50%[0075] The present application relates to natural product or more than 100% more active per unit weight than the crudeextracts, fractions and compounds from Ficus plants useful extract from which it was originally derived, as measured byfor increasing hair growth and decreasing hair loss. a hair follicle explant growth assay, a hair follicle explant[0076] The term "Ficus" refers to any species of the Ficus viability assay or any other assay designed to measure hair-genus. The term "Ficus having an aerial root" refers to plants growth promoting activity.of the species Ficus with at least one aerial root. One example [0082] In another embodiment, an "active extract", "activeof such a plant is Ficus benghalensis. Other Ficus plants that fraction" or "active sub-fraction" is an extract, fraction ormay grow aerial roots include, but are not limited to, Ficus sub-fraction that contains at least 5%, 10%, 20%, 50%, 75%benjamina, Ficus microcarpa, Ficus citrifolia and Ficus or 100% of active compound(s). An active compound is aretusa. compound that promotes hair growth as measured by a hair[0077] The term"aerial root" refers to a root growing above follicle explant growth assay, a hair follicle explant viabilitythe ground and exposed to air. Aerial roots grow rapidly due assay or any other assay designed to measure hair-growthto the presence of root meristem cells. The term "aerial root promoting activity.tip" refers to the end of the aerial root, typically located on the [0083] The terms "increases hair growth" and "promotesportion of the aerial root furthest from the trunk of the tree hair growth" include, but are not limited to, activity thatdepending on the direction of growth. The term "aerial root increases the number of hairs on a mammal, maintains theportion" refers to any portion of an aerial root. Optionally, the number of hairs in a given area of scalp on a mammal thataerial root portion comprises the tip of an aerial root. Option- would otherwise experience net hair loss, grows hair on aally, the aerial root portion comprises the outer 5 to 15 centi- mammal, re-grows hair on a mammal, increases the length ormeters of an aerial root including the tip. Optionally, the aerial thickness of hair on a mammal, improves the health of hair onroot portion comprises the outer 10 centimeters orthe outer 5 a mammal, treats baldness (for example, male pattern bald-centimeters or less of an aerial root including the tip: ness, female pattern baldness, genetic alopecia) and/or[0078] The term "crude extract" refers to a concentrated increases hair follicle density. The term "increasing hairpreparation of vegetation that has not been subjected to any growth" includes activity that stimulates growth of a singlesolvent extractions. For example, a crude extract can consist hair in a follicle or growth of a group of hairs in hair follicles in specified area of epidermis. Increasing hair growth option-of vegetation that has been dried and processed into a powder ally occurs, for example, by increasing the number of hairsform. The terms "extract", "fraction" or "sub-fraction" refer present in an area of epidermis of a mammal or maintainingto a concentrated preparation of plant material that has been the number of hairs present in an area of epidermis of aobtained by removing active constituents with a suitable sol- mammal that would otherwise experience net hair loss (op-vent. Numerous extracts, fractions and/or sub-fractions can tionally measured per square cm). Increasing hair growthbe obtained from a single crude extract. In one embodiment of optionally causes growth of a new hair in a follicle (e.g. afterthe invention, the "crude extract" is a total aqueous extract or a hair has fallen out) or increases rate of growth of an existinga water extract. Optionally, the total aqueous extract is hair (length and/or width) of a hair in a follicle on a mammal.obtained by pulverizing the aerial root of a Ficus and boiling Increasing hair growth optionally increases hair length.the resulting powder. A "n-hexane fraction" is a fraction Increasing hair growth prevents (reduces) and/or treats bald-eluted with n-hexane. A "dichloromethane fraction" is a frac- ness and/or balding. It optionally has other effects such as
  26. 26. US 2012/0128796 A1 May 24, 2012increasing hair follicle density in an area and/or the appear- [0087] The term "rejuvenating skin" includes increasingance of thickness of hair in an area. Increasing hair growth the health of skin, improving the appearance of skin, decreas-optionally also improves the health of hair and hair follicles ing signs of skin aging, for example, decreasing the presenceon a mammal. Typically the increase in the foregoing param- or appearance of wrinkles, fine lines or age spots or increasingeters that are quantifiable will be at least: 5%, 10%, 20%, the viability of skin cells. Typically the increase or decrease in50%, 100% or 150% compared to untreated hair follicles (or the foregoing parameters will be at least: 5%, 10%, 20%,epidermis) that do not experience the present methods and 50%, 100% or 150% compared to untreated skin which doescompositions that increase hair growth. These percentage not experience the present methods and compositions thatincreases are optionally measured in a single hair or single rejuvenate skin.hair follicle (e.g. rate of increased growth, increase in lengthor thickness per day) or in a plurality of hairs or hair follicles [0088] Ficus benghalensis is also known as Bengal fig,in a specified area (e.g. increase in number of hairs per square Indian fig, East Indian fig, Banyan, Bargad or Bod (Kala et al.,cm or in length of hairs growing per square cm). 2004). It is a species of Ficus that is typically found in high concentrations in Bangladesh, India and Sri Lanka, though it[0084] The term "increasing hair growth" optionally refers can be cultivated in other places. E benghalensis producesto increasing the viability of hair follicles in vivo or in vitro.The term "increasing hair growth" also optionally refers to aerial roots, which grow downwards as slender vine. Onceincreasing the viability of an isolated hair follicle, i.e. an these roots reach the ground, they take root and grow intoisolated hair follicle in culture (in vitro). Increasing the viabil- woody trunks that can become indistinguishable from theity of hair follicles in vitro can be measured through a hair main trunk.follicle explant growth assay, a hair follicle explant viability [0089] The aerial roots ofE benghalensis typically grow aassay or any other method known in the art. Typically the few centimeters per day. Optionally the aerial roots grow atincrease in the foregoing parameters will be at least: 5%, least 0.5 cm per day in length in soil or hydroponic conditions10%, 20%, 50%, 100% or 150% compared to untreated hair that support Ficus growth. The growth and differentiation offollicles that do not experience the present methods and com- meristem cells or plant stem cells is supported by variouspositions that increase hair growth. growth promoting factors in these areas (Tucker and Laux,[0085] The term "decreases hair loss" includes, but is not 2007). Without being bound by theory, the longevity and fastlimited to, activity that maintains the number of hairs or hairfollicles on a mammal that would otherwise experience net incessant growth of E benghalensis aerial roots may reflecthair loss (optionally measured as the number of hairs or hair the presence of such stem cell mobilizing factors.follicles measured per square cm), reduces the rate of balding [0090] In one aspect of the invention, aerial roots ofa Ficusand/or reduces the rate of hair follicle miniaturization. plant are dried and powdered to obtain a crude extract. TheDecreasing hair loss optionally decreases the rate of hair loss, method of extraction optionally includes extracting a portionhair follicle loss and/or hair follicle miniaturization by at least of the aerial root. The portion of the aerial root extracted can5%, 10%, 20%, 50%, 100% or 150% compared to untreated be the end portion of the aerial root that is actively growing inhair follicles (or epidermis) that do not experience the present length. The method of extraction optionally includes extract-methods and compositions that decrease hair loss. These per- ing the outer 5 to 15 centimeters of the root length (the end ofcentage increases are optionally measured in a single hair orsingle hair follicle or in a plurality of hairs or hair follicles in the root tip and the 5 to 15 centimeters proximate to the end),a specified area. or optionally the outer 10 centimeters or outer 5 centimeters, or less of the root length (the end of the root tip and the 5 or 10[0086] The term "increases cell viability" refers to increas- centimeters proximate to the end). The method of extractinging the viability of cells, whether in vivo or in vitro. The term also optionally includes extracting a portion of the Ficus"increases isolated cell viability" refers to increasing the aerial root that has grown in length over the 15 day periodviability of isolated cells in culture (in vitro). The term can prior to cutting or any time period therein (for example, the 2refer to increasing the growth of one or more hair follicle cells day period prior to cutting, the 5 day period prior to cutting orsuch as dermal papilla cells, outer root sheath cells, epidermal the 10 day period prior to cutting).stem cells, dermal sheath cells or epidermal matrix cells. Inone example, cell viability is determined by incubating cells [0091] In one embodiment of the invention, fractions of thewith methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagents and measuring crude extract are extracted by methods known in the art.optical density (OD) 490 nm spectrophotometrically. Option- Optionally, the crude extract is fractionated by performing aally, increased cell viability is indicated by an increase in the Soxhlet extraction with a series of solvents. In one aspect ofpercent survival of treated cells versus non-treated cells. Typi- the invention, the crude extract is fractioned with 250 to 750cally, the increase in cell viability will be quantifiable, for ml of each solvent. In another aspect of the invention, theexample, 110%, 120%, 150%, 200% or 500% viability com- crude extract is fractionated with approximately 500 ml ofpared to a control. The term "increases hair follicle viability" each solvent per 100 g of crude extract. The solvents canrefers to increasing the viability of hair follicles, whether in include, but are not limited to, n-hexane, dichloromethane,vivo or in vitro. The term "increases isolated hair follicle ethyl acetate, methanol and water. The extraction of the vari-viability" refers to increasing the viability of isolated hair ous fractions can occur in the following sequence: n-hexanefollicles in culture (in vitro). Optionally, increased hair fol- extraction, dichioromethane extraction, ethyl acetate extrac-licle viability is indicated by an increase in the percent sur- tion, methanol extraction and water extraction. Other types ofvival of treated hair follicles versus non-treated hair follicles. extractions and solvents will be readily apparent.Typically, the increase in hair follicle viability will be quan- [0092] The crude extract can be fractionated with a solventtifiable, for example, 110%, 120%, 150%, 200% or 500% with a dielectric constant of 1.1 to 4.0, typically 1.5 to 2.5.viability compared to a control. Hair follicle viability is Most typically, the crude extract is fractionated with n-hex-assessed by any method known in the art to quantify hair ane, which has a dielectric constant of 1.9. The crude extractfollicle viability, optionally a hair follicle explant assay. can also be fractionated with solvents having similar physico-
  27. 27. US 2012/0128796 A1 May 24, 2012 6chemical properties to those of n-hexane. Optionally, the [0102] The invention also provides a sub-fraction compris-method of extraction includes fractionating with hexane or ing the following compounds: lupeol, cycloartenol,any of its isomers. ct-amyrin, saturated ester wax, 5-methoxypsoralen, stigmas-[0093] The crude extract or any one of the fractions of the terol, [3-sitosterol, betulinic acid, betulonic acid, palmiticcrude extract of aerial roots of a Ficus plant can be used to acid, 13-hydloxy-9,11-octadecadieonic acid and cerebro-increase hair growth or decrease hair loss. In particular, the sides. Optionally, the sub-fraction comprises at least 0.3% byn-hexane extracted fraction, the ethyl acetate extracted frac- weight lupeol, 0.4% by weight cycloartenol, 0.4% by weighttion or the water extracted fraction are useful to increase hair ct-amyrin, 0.7% by weight saturated ester wax, 1.2% bygrowth or decrease hair loss. The extracts and fractions weight 5-methoxypsoralen, 5% by weight stigmasterol anddirectly useful to increase hair growth or decrease hair loss [3-sitosterol, 0.3% by weight betulinic acid, 0.8% by weightcan be formulated in a composition. In one embodiment, the betulonic acid, 0.46% by weight palmitic acid, 0.1% bycomposition comprises the n-hexane fraction, the dichlo- weight 13-hydloxy-9,11-octadecadieonic acid and 0.4% byromethane fraction, the ethyl acetate fraction and/or the weight cerebrosides.methanol fraction. In another embodiment, the composition [0103] The invention also provides a plurality of sub-frac-consists of, or consists essentially of the n-hexane fraction, tions of the n-hexane fraction, wherein the plurality of sub-the dichloromethane fraction, the ethyl acetate fraction and/ fractions are obtained by partitioning the n-hexane fractionor the methanol fraction. with a solvent, optionally chloroform, loading the solvent[0094] In another aspect of the invention, the n-hexane partitioned fraction into a chromatography column and elut-fraction of the crude Ficus extract (TR2) is sub-fractioned ing the solvent partitioned fraction through sequential elutioninto a number of sub-fractions. The sub-fractionation is to obtain a plurality of sub-fractions. Optionally, the solventreadily performed by chromatography, such as high perfor- partitioned fraction is eluted using solvent mixtures rangingmance liquid chromatography, or any other separation from 100% hexane to 100% chloroform to 100% methanol. Inmethod known in the art. one embodiment, the chromatography is vacuum assisted[0095] The invention provides a sub-fraction of the n-hex- liquid chromatography. In one specific embodiment, the plu-ane fraction of the crude Ficus extract (TR2) containing cere- rality of sub-fractions are the 30 sub-fractions listed in Tablebrosides. Cerebrosides are glycosphingolipids that consist of 9 (also known as TR3). The invention also provides a com-a ceramide (composed of sphingosine and a fatty acid) with a position comprising the plurality of sub-fractions. In a pre-single sugar residue at the 1 -hydroxyl moiety. ferred embodiment, the composition does not contain a sub- fraction eluted at 97% chloroform: 3% methanol. In another[0096] The invention also provides a sub-fraction contain- embodiment, the composition does not contain a sub-fractioning terpenes, saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids. comprising unsaturated fatty acids, optionally 85-90% unsat-Terpenes are a large class of hydrocarbons produced prima- urated fatty acids. In yet another embodiment, the composi-rily by plants. Terpenes are derived biosynthetically from tion does not include a sub-fraction that decreases the viabil-units of isoprene. Isoprene has the molecular formula CsH8. ity, optionally by at least 5%, at least 10%, at least 20%, at[0097] The invention also provides a sub-fraction compris- least 30% or at least 50%, ofexplant hair follicles at 1 tg/ml.ing psoralen. Psoralen is the parent compound in a family of [0104] In another embodiment, the invention provides anatural products known as furocoumarins. composition comprising the chloroform partititioned fraction[0098] The invention further provides a sub-fraction con- wherein a sub-fraction eluted at 97% chloroform:3% metha-taining polar disaccharide and a sub-fraction containing cou- nol has been removed. Optionally, the removed sub-fractionmatins. Coumarins are a group of compounds found in many comprises unsaturated fatty acids, optionally 85-90% unsat-plants. Psoralen and its derivatives belong to the coumarin urated fatty acids. In yet another embodiment, the removedclass of compounds. sub-fraction decreases the viability, optionally by at least 5%,[0099] In another aspect of the invention, the n-hexane at least 10%, at least 20%, at least 30% or at least 50%, offraction of the crude Ficus extract is sub-fractioned through explant hair follicles at 1 tg/ml.solvent partitioning. In a further aspect of the invention, the [0105] The invention also relates to the use of a composi-n-hexane fraction of the crude Ficus extract is partitioned tion comprising or consisting the plurality of sub-fractions towith chloroform to give a chloroform soluble fraction. increase hair growth or to decrease hair loss. The composition[0100] In yet another aspect of the invention, the chloro- may comprise or consist of the 30 sub-fractions listed in Tableform soluble fraction is further sub-fractionated into a num- 9 (also known as TR3) in a suitable carrier. In one embodi-ber of sub-fractions. In a preferred embodiment, the chloro- ment, the carrier is a cosmetic carrier. In another embodiment,form soluble fraction is further sub-fractionated using the composition comprises the following compounds: lupeol,preparative VLC (silica gel) fractionation. The further sub- cycloartenol, alpha-amyrin, saturated ester wax, 5-methox-fractions obtained from the preparative VLC (silica gel) frac- ypsoralen, stigmasterol, [3-sitosterol, betulinic acid, betulonictionation may be further fractionated again by chromatogra- acid, palmitic acid, 13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadieonic acidphy, such as high performance liquid chromatography, or any and cerebrosides. In another embodiment, the compositionother method known in the art. consists essentially of the following compounds: lupeol,[0101] The invention provides a further sub-fraction of the cycloartenol, ct-amyrin, saturated ester wax, 5-methoxypso-choloroform soluble fraction containing any one of the fol- ralen; stigmasterol, [3-sitosterol, betulinic acid, betuloniclowing compounds: saturated fatty acids, psoralen, 5-meth- acid, palmitic acid, 13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadieonic acidoxypsoralen, psoralen analogues, cerebrosides, glucosylce- and cerebrosides. Optionally, the compounds are present inramide, terpenes, octadecenoic acids, betulinic acid, the composition in at least the percentage amounts listed inbetulonic acid, palmitic acid, 13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadi- Table 8.enoic acid and 18-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid, saturated [0106] The invention also relates to the use of a composi-ester waxes (for example, hexacosyl tetracosanoate, hexaco- tion comprising an extract, fraction or sub-fraction of Ficussyl hexacosanoate, hexacosyl tetracosanoate and hexacosyl which has activity to increase hair growth or decrease hairdocosanoate), cycloartenol, ct-amyrin, lupeol, stigmasterol, loss, singly or together, to increase hair growth or decrease[3-sitosterol and 5-methoxypsoralen. hair loss. The invention further relates to the use ofa compo-
  28. 28. US 2012/0128796 A1 May 24, 2012 7sition consisting of, or consisting essentially of an extract, which has activity to increase hair growth or decrease hairfraction or sub-fraction ofFicus which has activity to increase loss, alone or in combination, to increase the viability of hairhair growth or decrease hair loss, singly or together, to follicle cells, for example, outer root sheath cells, epidermalincrease hair growth or decrease hair loss. stem cells, dermal papilla cells, dermal sheath cells and epi-[0107] In addition, the invention relates to the use, singly dermal matrix cells.and together in any combination, of a composition compris- [0114] In one embodiment, the compositions of the inven-ing a compound or class of compound described above which tion are topical compositions that are typically applied to thehas activity to increase hair growth or decrease hair loss to scalp or skin by spraying or coating. The compositions forincrease hair growth or decrease hair loss. The invention external dermal applications can be formulated as liquids,further relates to the use, singly and together in any combi- milky lotions, gels, creams, aerosols, sprays, powders, cos-nation, of a composition consisting of, or consisting essen- metics or rinses. There are no limitations to the method bytially of a compounds or class of compound described above which the compositions can be applied. For example, 1 to 5which has activity to increase hair growth or decrease hair ml of the compositions could be applied to scalp or skinloss to increase hair growth or decrease hair loss. surface areas 1 to 3 times per day.[0108] The invention further relates the use of a composi- [0115] Optionally, the compositions of the invention aretion comprising, consisting or, or consisting essentially of an formulated in a suitable dermal penetration carrier or phar-extract, fraction, sub-fraction or compound described above maceutically acceptable carrier. Optionally, the carrier is awhich has activity to increase hair growth or decrease hair cosmetic carrier. The carrier may contain antioxidants, vita-loss, alone or in combination, to generate new hair on a mins, preservatives, anti-microbials, colorants, moisturizers,subject. In one aspect of the invention, a new hair is generated thickeners and preservatives that do not interfere with thefrom a pre-existing follicle. In another aspect of the invention, desired effects of the present invention.a follicle giving rise to a new hair is generated. The generationof new hair may comprise increasing the density of individual [0116] Suitable pharmaceutically acceptable carriershairs and/or hair follicles within a specified area of a patient’s include essentially chemically inert and nontoxic composi-scalp. Optionally, hair density is increased by 5%, 10%, 20%, tions that do not interfere with the effectiveness of the bio-50% or more than 100%. In one embodiment of the invention, logical activity of the pharmaceutical or cosmetic composi-a composition comprising, consisting of, or consisting essen- tion. Examples of suitable pharmaceutical or cosmetictially of an extract, fraction, sub-fraction or compound carriers include, but are not limited to, water, saline solutions,described above which has activity to increase hair growth or glycerol solutions, ethanol, N-(l(2,3-dioleyloxy)propyl)N,decrease hair loss, alone or in combination, is topically N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (DOTMA), diolesylphos-applied to a subject for use in generating new hair. photidyl-ethanolamine (DOPE), and liposomes. Such com- positions should contain a therapeutically effective amount of[0109] The invention further relates the use of a composi-tion comprising, consisting or, or consisting essentially of any the compound(s), together with a suitable amount of carrier so as to provide the form for administration to the subject.of the extracts, fractions, sub-fractions and compoundsdescribed above, alone or in combination, to thicken a hair [0117] In one embodiment of the invention, the carrier isshaft on a subject. Optionally, the diameter of a thickened hair WE-basic medium plus 25% glycerol. In another embodi-shaft is increased by 5%, 10%, 20%, 50% or more than 100% ment, the carrier is a basic oily carrier, optionally a basic oilyfollowing treatment with a composition of the invention. carrier comprising the following ingredients: dicapryl ether,Optionally, the diameter of a thickened hair shaft is increased octyldodecanol, oryza sativa bran oil, prunus amygdalus dul-by at least 10-100 grn, optionally 20-50 pm. cis oil, lecithin, tocopherol, ascorbyl palmitate and citric acid.[0110] The invention further relates the use of a composi- [0118] The compositions of the invention optionally con-tion comprising, consisting or, or consisting essentially of an tain between 0.0001% to 100% by weight of the activeextract, fraction, sub-fraction or compound described above, extract, fraction, sub-fraction and/or compound. Optionally,alone or in combination, to increase the rate of hair growth on the compositions of the invention contain between 0.001%a subject. Optionally, the rate is increased by 5%, 10%, 20%, and 1% by weight of the active extract, fraction, sub-fraction50% or more than 100% following treatment with a compo- and/or compound. Optionally, the compositions of the inven-sition of the invention. tion contain between 1 tg/ml to 0.1 mg/ml, optionally 10[0111] The invention further relates the use of a composi- tg/ml to 100, 150, 200 or 250 tg/ml, of the active extract,tion comprising, consisting or, or consisting essentially an fraction, sub-fraction and/or compound.extract, fraction, sub-fraction or compound described above [0119] In one particular embodiment, the invention relateswhich has activity to increase hair growth or decrease hair to a composition comprising 0.1 tg/ml to 250 tg/ml TR1loss, alone or in combination, to increase the longitudinal hair (total aqueous extract of E benghalensis), optionally 0.1growth of a subject. Optionally, longitudinal hair growth is tg/ml to 100, 150, 200 or 250 tg/ml TR1, preferably 1 tg/mlincreased by 5%, 10%, 20%, 50% or more than 100% follow- to 100 tg/ml TR1, preferably 10 tg/ml to 50 tg/ml TR1.ing treatment with a composition of the invention. Typically, a TR1 composition is administered to a subject in[0112] The invention also relates to the use of a composi- order to increase hair growth or decrease hair loss at a dosagetion comprising, consisting or, or consisting essentially of an of 1 tg to 200 tg TR1 per day, preferably 20 tg to 100 tg perextract, fraction, sub-fraction or compound described above day.which has activity to increase hair growth or decrease hair [0120] In another particular embodiment, the inventionloss, alone or in combination, to increase the viability of hair relates to a composition comprising 0.1 tg/ml to 250 tg/mlfollicles in vitro. TR2 (hexane extracted fraction of F.. benghalensis), option-[0113] The invention also relates to the use of a composi- ally 0.1 tg/ml to 100, 150, 200 or 250 tg/ml TR2, preferablytion comprising, consisting or, or consisting essentially of an 1 tg/ml to 100 tg/ml TR2, preferably 10 tg/ml to 50 tg/mlextract, fraction, sub-fraction or compound described above TR2. Typically, a TR2 composition is administered to a sub-
  29. 29. US 2012/0128796 A1 May 24, 2012ject in order to increase hair growth or decrease hair loss at a the invention relates to a method of increasing the length ordosage of 1 pg to 200 gg TR2 per day, preferably 20 gg to 100 viability of hair follicles in vitro by maintaining the hairpg per day. follicles in media comprising a composition described herein. [0121] In another particular embodiment, the inventionrelates to a composition comprising 0.1 pg/ml to 250 pg/ml EXAMPLESTR3, optionally 0.1 gg/ml to 100, 150, 200 or 250 pg/ml TR3,preferably 1 pg/ml to 100 gg/ml TR3, preferably 10 gg/ml to [0128] Embodiments of the present invention will be illus-50 gg/ml TR3. Typically, a TR3 composition is administered trated in a non-limiting way by reference to the examples below.to a subject in order to increase hair growth or decrease hairloss at a dosage of 1 gg to 200 pg TR3 per day, preferably 20 Example 1pg to 100 pg per day. [0122] Optionally, the compositions of the invention are Total Aqueous Extracts ofF. benghalensis Aerialadministered subcutaneously, subdermally, intramuscularly Root Tipsor intravenously. [0123] The dosage of the compositions vary according to Sample Collectionthe specific form of the external application, age and the type [0129] F. benghalensis var. benghalensis (Banyan) treesand degree of hair loss. FIG. 20 depicts the seven classes of grown in rural non-residential area far from industries andhair loss as defined by the Norwood scale of hair loss. Option- heavy traffic roads were selected. Samples were obtainedally, the compositions of the invention are administered to from at least 5 trees located at least 100 meters apart. The treessubjects with hair loss as classified by the Norwood scale as were confirmed to be species F. benghalensis at a certifiedclass 2 (mild hair loss), class 3 (mild to moderate hair loss), botanic centre. Ten centimeter long intact aerial root tips wereclass 4 (moderate hair loss), class 5 (moderate to large hair collected from longer prop roots (roots originating fromloss), class 6 (large hair loss) or class 7 (complete hair loss). higher branches but yet reaching the ground). The collectedOptionally, the compositions of the invention are adminis- intact root tips from each tree separately weighed at least 500tered to subjects with no hair loss (class 1) in order to preventfuture hair loss. grams. [0124] In one aspect of the invention, the compositions are Sterilizationused for treating hair loss or baldness. Optionally, the com-positions are also used for preventing or reducing hair loss or [0130] Aerial root tips of each E benghalensis tree werebaldness (e.g. stopping or slowing hair loss progression). rinsed with sterile double distilled water, immersed in 70%Since the compositions are natural products with no known aqueous ethanol for 60 seconds, rinsed three times with sterileside effects, they are also useful for individuals with no signs double distilled water three times, surface sterilized with aof hair loss at all who wish to use the product to prevent or 5% (w/v) NaOC1 solution for 10 minutes and rinsed againreduce risk of hair thinning or hair loss on a prophylactic three times with sterile double-distilled water (Sokmen et al.basis. The compositions are therefore useful by themselves or 2004; Liqing Z. et al. 2005).as additives to products such as shampoo, conditioner,mousses, gels or creams as well as other cosmetics and drugs Total Aqueous Extracts (Crude Extracts)(typically over the counter drugs). These products are topi-cally administered according to methods described herein. [0131] Sterilized root tips were shade-dried for 5-7 days [0125] In another aspect of the invention, the compositions and pulverized using a pestle and mortar. The pulverized partsare used conjunction with hair transplant surgery. Optionally, may be stored in cellophane bags at room temperature. 100 gthe compositions are administered to a patient prior to sur- of the root tip powder was subjected to exhaustive Soxhletgery, during surgery, or following surgery. The invention extraction in 500 ml of distilled water for 72 hours. Eachtherefore relates to a method of transplanting hair in a subject extract was concentrated in a water bath until a constant colorby implanting a hair follicle in the subject and contacting the residue was obtained (Garba et al. 2006). The extract washair follicle with a composition described herein. The hair further lyophilized and stored in a tightly capped container infollicle of the subject can be contacted with the composition the freezer (Channabasavaraj et al. 2008).prior to, during, or after transplantation. The follicle trans-plant is typically made onto a human scalp and the composi- Preparation of Stock and Test Solutionstions are optionally used for at least one week, four weeks or [0132] Stock solution of the aqueous extract was preparedat least 52 weeks. by dissolving the lyophilized powder in Ca2÷- and Mg2÷-free [0126] In one embodiment of the invention, the composi- phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The stock solution had ations are used to promote the viability of cells derived from final concentration of 250 mg/ml and was stored at 4° C.hair follicles. Cells derived from hair follicles include, but are Aqueous extracts for the required treatment regimens werenot limited to, dermal papilla cells, outer root sheath cells, freshly prepared by serially diluting the stock solution withdermal sheath cells and epidermal matrix cells. In one aspect cell culture medium (Garba et al. 2006).of the invention, the compositions are added to cell culturemedium to increase the viability of hair follicle cells in vitro. Example 2In another embodiment of the invention, the compositions are E benghalensis Extract Increases Hair Follicleused to promote the viability of skin cells. Explant Growth [0127] In another embodiment of the invention, the com-positions are used to promote the viability of explant hair [0133] Hair follicles were obtained through standard surgi-follicles in vitro. In another aspect, the compositions are used cal procedures and placed in Petri dishes containing 5x anti-to increase the length of explant hair follicles in vitro. The biotic/PBS for 20 minutes at room temperature. After wash-invention therefore relates to a method of increasing the ing in saline or phosphate buffered saline, the hair follicleslength or viability of hair follicles in vitro by contacting the were transferred to Williams’ E growth media (WE; Invitro-hair follicle with a composition described herein. Optionally, gen) and placed inside the incubator until ready for use. The
  30. 30. US 2012/0128796 A1 May 24, 2012 9follicles were cut below the epidermis, leaving an intact hair [0139] Hair density measurements were taken once everyfollicle bulb with dermal papilla, hair fiber, and outer root two weeks for each area. Hairs with a diameter less than 40sheath. tm were classified as vellus & miniaturized hairs; hairs with[0134] Growth of the follicles was measured with Zeiss a diameter greater than 40 tm were classified as terminalDV4 Stereo Microscope equipped with a reticle. Whole hair hairs. Treatment with the TRl-formulation for 6 monthsfollicle length was measured before treatment and after incu- resulted in an approximately 146% increase in overall termi-bating under the defined conditions for 7 to 8 days at 37° C., nal hair density. FIGS. 4A-D depict the density of vellus,5% CO2. miniaturized, terminal and total hairs over the 6 month treat-[0135] FIG. 1 shows growth of hair follicles as a percentage ment in zones 1 R and L, 1M, 2 and 3, respectively (zones areof the initial length for each treatment. Each experimental depicted in FIG. 4G).point represents a summary of 3 to 4 individual experiments [0140] FIG. 4E depicts the density ofvellus and miniatur-in different patients. Data are the mean_+SEM (SEM, standard ized hair, terminal hair and total hair over 10 months oferror of mean) of at least 4 individual patients. The media only treatment with the TR1 -formulation over a varying dosage ascontrol consists of WE substituted with L-glutamine (2 depicted in the horizontal axis.retool/L), hydacocortisone (10 ng/ml) and antibiotic solution [0141] FIG. 4F shows a visualization of the hair growth in1 x (100 units/ml penicillin, 100 btg/ml streptomycin and 0.25 the patient described above. The patient was treated with 20btg/ml amphotericin). The "Growth factor 10 mixture" con- tg/day TR1 up to month 6, had no treatment from the 6ti’tains IGF-I, FGF-2, FGF-10, PDGF-AA, Wnt-3A, Noggin, month to the 9ti’ month and then was treated with 100 tg/dayEphrin-A3, SHH, !3MP-6 each at 20 ng/ml, and hypoxanthine TR1 from the 9ti’ month to the 10ti’ month followed by 26at 2 btmol/L (2 btM) final concentration. TR1 refers to the total tg/day TR3 from the 10ti’ month to the 1Ui’ month.aqueous extract of E benghalensis. The TR1 extract pro-moted hair follicle (HF) explant growth at concentrations of Example 50.01 mg/ml and 0.1 mg/ml.[0136] FIG. 2 shows a hair follicle explant growth assay Topical Application of TR1 Results in New Hairsperformed as described for FIG. 1. The GF7 treatment con- and Thickened Hairssists of 7 growth factors (IGF-1, FGF-2, PDGF-AA, Wnt-3a,Noggin, !3MP-6; at 10 ng/ml; hypoxanthine at 1 btmol/L). [0142] 2 ml of a 50 btg/ml (100 btg per day) TR1 (totalTR1 at 0.01 mg/ml induced more growth compared to the aqueous extract ofF. benghalensis) formulation was topicallycontrol as well as the GF7 treatment. applied on a daily basis to the whole balding area of the scalp of a patient for four weeks. Patient presented with male pat- tern baldness in the crown area (Zone 3-right). Prior to the Example 3 treatment, a 0.789 cm2 area was shaved to such that the hairs F. benghalens& Extract Promotes Dermal Papilla were 0.5 mm in length and phototrichographic measurements Cell Viability of the area were taken including hair density and hair thick- ness. Hair density and thickness was measured using the[0137] Dermal papilla (DP) cells were isolated from hair Tricoscan® system (phototrichography system fromfollicles. The cells were plated and treated with the total FotoFinder Systems Inc. MA, USA). Following four weeks ofaqueous extract ofE benghalens& (TR1) for different dura- treatment, the area was shaved to 0.5 mm again and photo-tions by incubating at 37° C. with 5% CO2. To assess cell graphs were taken and each hair follicle unit was manuallyviability after treatment, a MTS (methanethiosulfonate) enumerated at 40x magnification for both new hair andviability assay was performed: 5 tl MTS reagents (Promega, increase in thickness of hair.WI) were added per 100 tl cells. Cells were incubated further [0143] FIG. 5A depicts the treatment zone prior to treat-for 2.5 hrs at the end of which OD at 490 nm was measured ment and FIG. 5t3 depicts the treatment zone after 4 weeks ofspectrophotometrically. The color developed at this wave- treatment. New hairs that appeared after treatment are indi-length is directly proportional to the viability of cells in the cated by numbered triangles and hairs that appeared thick-medium. As shown in FIG. 3, increased DP cell viability was ened after treatment are indicated by numbered squares. Inobserved from 0.1 to 10 tg/ml TR1. all, 9% of the hair follicles in the study area contained hair that was thickened and 10% of the hair follicles in the study area Example 4 contained new hair. Table 1 contains a detailed analysis of the numbered hair follicles in FIGS. 5A and 5t3. Bracketed num- Topical Application of Total F. benghalensis Extract bers in the "Increased number" column indicate the number Increases Hair Density of new hairs at a follicle. Numbers marked with an asterix[0138] A patient’s scalp was mapped to 4 specific bald indicate an entirely new hair (i.e., either a new hair from a newzones: 1) 1R+IL (Zone 1 Right and Left), 2) 1M (Zone 1 follicle or a new hair from a follicle not previously growing aMiddle), 3) Zone-2 and 4) Zone-3, as shown in FIG. 6G. A 1.1 hair). 2cm area of each zone was shaved followed by a measurementof hair density (hairs per cm 2 ) for each type of hair: thin hair TABLE 1(vellus or miniaturized hair; VH; thickness<40 gm); thick Analysis of the hair follicles in FIGS. 5A and 5B following 4 weekshair (terminal hair; TH; thickness>40 grn) and total hair (VH+ of treatment with TR1.TH) with a Phototrichographic system (Folliscope; Hans-derma, USA). One ml of a total aqueous extract ofF. bengha- Changeslens& (TR1) formulation (10 tg/ml final concentration ofTR1 in Williams E basic medium (Williams E basic medium Hair follicle Increased Increased number thickness Increased number thickness + numbersubstituted with L-glutamine (2 mmol/L); 1 x antibiotic (100units/ml penicillin, 100 gg/ml streptomycin and 0.25 gg/ml 1amphotericin) and hydlocortisone (10 ng/ml))+25% glycerol 2 A(1)(v/v)) was topically applied about twice-a-day (i.e., 20 tg of 3total dose per day).

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