Students’ motivationWorld War II – successful language learning experience They were highly motivated They really wanted to learn They had powerful reasons (fear of failure)Integrative vs. Instrumental motivationTeachers provoke interest and involvementReal motivation comes from within
Tell me and I forget.Teach me and I remember. Involve me and I learn!
Responsibility for learningSelf-study / Self-access centerStudents take responsibility for their own learningGood learners don’t wait to be taughtLearning: teacher-student partnershipStart gradually and encourage student autonomyTeachers should choose the right kind of task
Learning levelsBeginners – success and failure are easy to see Teacher has a part in students’ successIntermediate – the plateau effect Give students more challenging tasksAdvanced – clear evidence of progress Encourage students to take more responsibility
How should teachers use their physical presence in class?
Teachers’ physical presenceIt plays a large part in classroom managementPhysical characteristics and habits into the classroomIssues to consider: Proximity – how close do you want to be? Appropriacy – create a friendly atmosphere Movement – move around to some extent Contact – watching/listening as carefully as teaching
Consider your physical approach and personality in the class
How should teachers use their voices in class?
Teachers’ voiceTeacher’s most important instrumentIssues to think about: Audibility/Volume – everyone should hear Variety – vary quality and volume Conservation – take care of your voice
Different and varied voices More interesting classes
How should teachers mark the stages of a lesson?
Marking lesson stagesA play starts with the rise of a curtain!Make it clear when you start and finishChanges of direction get the students’ attention clap hands / speak loudly / raise handsProvide closure – summaries / predictions
Successful teachers promote a feeling of completeness
What’s the best seatingarrangement for a class?
Seating arrangementOrderly rows Students and teacher can see each other It makes lecturing easy – eye contact It makes discipline easier The teacher can easily walk around It implies working with the whole class Keep everyone involved
Seating arrangementCircles and horseshoes For smaller classes Teacher at the open end (horseshoe) Less dominating position (circle) The Round Table – King Arthur (equality) Lower the teacher-student barriers All students can see each other
Seating arrangementSeparate tables Teacher walks around monitoring and helping The atmosphere is less hierarchical Students gain more responsibility Consider students’ preferences It makes ‘whole-class’ teaching more difficult
What different studentgroupings can teachers use?
Student groupingsWhole class Students focus on the teacher and the task in handGroupwork and pairwork Cooperative activities / Greater independence Problems: students domination / disruption / use of L1Solowork Students work at their own speed, as individuals
Use different class groupings for different activities
Evaluating lessonsAsk students for feedback (spoken or written)Invite a colleague into the classroomHave a lesson recorded on filmAsk students to give suggestions periodicallyKeep a record of students’ achievements
Language LearningChildren learn a language by exposure (unconsciously)Most adults can learn a language without studying itChildren and adults share certain similarities: Exposure, but little production Motivation to communicate Opportunities to use the languageNatural language acquisition in the classroom (???)
What elements are necessary for successful language learning in classrooms?
Elements for successful learning Different kinds of exposure (classroom vs. ‘picking up’) Motivation, exposure and use Three elements (present in nearly all classes) ESA Engage Study Activate
ENGAGEArouse Ss’ interest, involving their emotionsAllow ‘fun’ moments that lead to better learningActivities and materials (games, music, discussions,stimulating pictures, dramatic stories, etc.)Engage Ss with the topic/exercise/languageEngaged Ss learn better!
STUDYFocus on language and how it is constructedDifferent styles – Ts explain grammar, Ss discovergrammar, Ss work in groupsExamples: sound problems, 3rd person ‘s’, invitingpatterns, use of pronouns, parapraph organization,‘make’ and ‘do’, etc.Blend acquisition and Study activities
ACTIVATESs use the language freelySs try out real language use with little restrictionExercises: role-plays, debates and discussions,advertisement design, ‘Describe and Draw’, story andpoem writing, writing in groups, etc.Ss need to have a chance to Activate their knowledge
The ESA elements need to be present in most lessons
How do the three elements of ESA fit together in lesson sequences?
ESA Lesson SequencesStraight Arrows: Engage – Modern robots. Actions. Like them? Why (not)? Study – Particular robot. ‘can’ / ‘can’t’. Pronunciation. Grammar. Activate – Groups design a robot. Presentation.
Straight Arrows ESA Engage Study ActivateStraight Arrows Sequence
Straight ArrowsIt works for certain structuresIt doesn’t work for all learning stylesIt works better for lower levelsIt’s not appropriate for more advanced levels
ESA Lesson SequencesBoomerang: Engage – Discussion on job interviews. Ss get interested. Activate – T describes an interview situation. Ss plan questions. Ss role-play the interviews. T monitors. Study – T works on troubles. Comparison for discovery. Controlled practice. Activate – Ss role-play another job interview.
Boomerang EAS(A) 1 Engage Study ActivateBoomerang Sequence 2 3
BoomerangTs answer the needs of SsShow Ss they have a need to use languageTransparency – what Ss need/what they are taughtTs need to find good material based on the problemsMore appropriate for intermediate/advanced Ss
ESA Lesson SequencesPatchwork: Engage – Picture of sunbathers. Comments. Activate – Ss act out a dialogue: doctor – sunburn victim. Activate – Text on different people and effect the sun has on their skin. Ss say how they feel about it. Study – Vocabulary and pronunciation. Activate – Ss describe themselves as in the text. Study – Relative clause (I’m the type of person who...). Ss practice. Engage – T discusses advertisements. Activate – Ss write a radio commercial for a sunscreen. Ss record.
Sentence constructionsSubject, Object, Verb, Complement and AdverbialComplements (be, seem, look etc.) – relates to subject: She seems happy. / They are Irish. / He looks tired.Subject + Verb (+ Object): He laughed. (intransitive) / He read the book. (transitive)Objects (direct and indirect) She sang a song. (DO) / She sang me a song. (IO)
Sentence constructionsAdverbial (phrases) – complement the verb: He lived in Paris. (place) They arrived late / at night. (time) She sings beautifully / like an angel. (manner)Multi-clause sentences: The girl met the woman who was standing at the canal and they went to a café and had a meal, which they enjoyed very much.
Parts of speechNounsVerbsAdjectivesAdverbsDeterminersPrepositionsPronounsConjunctionsExclamations
Noun typesCountable and uncountable Weather, doubt, money, people, friends, coins, etc.Plural nouns, singular verbs Darts is a popular game. / The news is depressing.Collective nouns Familly, team, government (either singular or plural)Compound nouns Walking stick, city hall, boyfriend, etc.Noun phrases The man with the hat... / The girls I met last night...
Verb typesAuxiliary verbs and Modal auxiliary verbs be, do, have shall, should, will, would, can, could, may, might, must, oughtMain verbs – main meaningPhrasal verbs – verb + adverb and/or preposition run over, put off, take after, get away with, put up with, etc.
Verb forms Present / Past / Simple / Continuous (Progressive) simple continuouspresent Mr. D’Arcy is in the hall. What’s happening? I love it here. I’m not listening.past She said goodbye. He was waiting at the gate. She cried. They were listening to the radio. She bought a new phone.
Verb formsForm and meaning What are you doing tomorrow? I arrive at the house and knock on the door... (storytelling)
Verb forms Perfect verbs simple continuouspresent I have read Othello. I’ve been reading Othello. They haven’t arrived yet. They haven’t been traveling for long.past He had studied English as a child. She’d been living in Argentina for years. She hadn’t talked to him before. They hadn’t been talking for more than a minute when...
Verb formsParticiples Present – taking, talking, happening, going, etc. Past – taken, talked, happened, gone, etc.Regular and irregular verbs Regular – talked, happened, laughed, etc. Irregular – ran, went, bought, saw, etc.
Verb formsActive and passive A scene of utter chaos confronted her. She was confronted by a scene of utter chaos.Verb complementation (to +) infinitive – I can swim. / I like to swim (2 possibilities) Participle – I enjoy running. ‘that’ – She suggested that I trained as a teacher.
Pronouns Personal pronouns subject object reflexive possessiveI me myself mineyou you yourself yourshe him himself hisshe her herself hersit it itself itswe us ourselves oursyou you yourselves yoursthey them themselves theirs
PronounsRelative pronouns (who, whose, where, which, that) The man who walked into my office was tall and blond. She gave me a pen that I still use. That’s the school where I taught my first class. That’s the woman whose courage saved her child. The saxophone is the instrument which makes the nicest sound.
AdjectivesComparative and superlative -(i)er/-(i)est; more/most; irregular adjective comparative superlative good better best big bigger biggest nice nicer nicest young younger youngest silly sillier silliest clever cleverer/more clever cleverest/most clever interesting more interesting most interesting
AdjectivesAdjective order size color origin material purpose noun the small purple German silk evening dress the large ( ) ( ) wooden ( ) crate
AdverbsTime – early, late, yesterday morningManner – well, quickly, fiercelyPlace – upstairs, in Cambridge, in hellAdverb position – usually at the end of sentencesModifying adverbs – a wonderfully physical performance,an unusually large cucumber, a really fascinating film
PrepositionsAt, in, on, for, of, with, etc.Usually before nouns or at the end of a clause The book’s on the shelf. It’s not something I’m very interested in.Particular prepositions anxious about, dream about/of, good at, depend on...Prepositions and adverbs She climbed down the ladder. (P) / She sat down. (A)
ArticlesDeterminers – the, a, an, this, that, these, those, some, all ofDefinite article – theIndefinite article – a/an
Conjunctions and conditionals Conjunctions join two clauses (and, but, so, because...) Nicky said goodnight and walked out of the house. Conditional sentences (if) Present, Past and Future Real and hypothetical First, Second and Third
Conjunctions and conditionals real hypotheticalTalking about If you pay by cash, you get If I had a dog, I’d take it forthe present a discount. walks.Talking about If you work hard, you’ll If I won the lottery, I’dthe future pass the exam. travel around the world.Talking about If it was very warm, we ate If I’d known about the railthe past outside. strike, I would have come by car.
Forms and meaningsOne form, many meanings book, beat, can, I’m talking to the presidentOne meaning, many forms I’ll see you tomorrow. / I’m going to win the race. / I can get to you by tomorrow evening. / He arrives at home on Sunday. intelligent, bright, brainy, clever, smart, etc.
Collocation‘How was your lesson?’ ‘A complete disaster!’ ‘A total disaster!’ / ‘An utter disaster!’ ‘A full disaster!’ / ‘A whole disaster!’Common/good sense, but not bad senseMaking the bed, but not making the housework
How can we help students tounderstand language form?
Understanding language form Example 1: ‘It’s a pen’ (complete beginners) Example 2: invitations (elementary) Example 3: comparatives (lower intermediate) Example 4: ‘protection’ (upper intermediate)
Making mistakesPart of learningInterference from L1 – ‘false friends’ (assist, pretend, lunch)Grammar issues (article usage, word order)Developmental errors – ‘I have to go’ / ‘I must to go’Mistakes – errors / slips
All students make mistakes as anatural and useful way of learning.
Reading SkillsScanning – particular informationSkimming – general ideaReading for pleasureReading for detailed comprehension
What are the principlesbehind the teaching of reading?
Principles1. Reading is not a passive skill.2. Ss need to be engaged with what they’re reading.3. Ss should be encouraged to respond to the content of a reading text, not just to the language.4. Prediction is a major factor in reading.5. Match the task to the topic.6. Good teachers exploit reading texts to the full.
Kinds of writingConsider Ss’ age, interests and level.Make sure Ss have enough languageCommon everyday stylesConsider usefulness and enjoyability for mixed groupsMotivation should ALWAYS be present!
Correcting writingRed ink, underlinings and crossings-out?Demotivating effectBalance accuracy/truth and sensitivity/sympathyAvoid ‘over-correction’: Correct specific mistakes (pronunciation, grammar, etc.) Use a correction codeAlways write a comment at the end
Correcting writingTwo last points: Correcting is important, but time-consuming Ensure Ss understand the problem and encourage re-writing
Encouraging studentsRehearsal Ss ‘get the feel’ of what communicating really feels likeFeedback Ts see how well/badly their class is doing Ss see how easy/difficult a speaking task isEngagement Activities can and should be highly motivating
Correcting speakingCorrection is different during an Activate exercise.Constant interruption ‘destroys’ the purpose of the activity.Watch and listen, note things downAsk for Ss’ opinions, then give feedbackMake the mistakes impersonal
What else should teachers doduring a speaking activity?
What else?Get involved, but don’t dominate!Intervene when necessaryPrompting is often necessaryConsider sympathy and sensitivity!
Why teach listening?Hear different varieties and accentsTs should judge the number of varietiesTreat English as a global languageRecordings expose Ss to spoken EnglishThe more Ss do it, the better they become!
ListeningThe same speed for everybody (panic!)Encourage ‘general understanding’ firstUnique features of spoken language Incomplete utterances (Dinner?) Repetitions (I know, I know what you’re talking about.) Hesitations (Yes, well, uhm, yes, possibly, but, er...)Ensure that Ss are well prepared
What are the principles behind the teaching of listening?
Principles1. The CD player is just as important as the CD.2. Preparation is vital.3. Once will not be enough.4. Ss should be encouraged to respond to the content of a listening, not just to the language.5. Different listening stages demand different listening tasks.6. Good teachers exploit listening texts to the full.
VideoConsider age, level, interest, task difficulty and motivation.Video is richer – speakers can be seen (body language)Watching videos is not an excuse for TV watching! Play the video without sound Play the video but cover the picture Freeze the picture Divide the class in half