# Physics of Hollow Earth

CEO at Possum Holler Studios
Jan. 4, 2011
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### Physics of Hollow Earth

• 1. Physics of Hollow Earth Theory Rick Osmon Burlington Vortex Conference October 2010
• 2. Generally, there are two opposing theories regarding the make up of our planet
• 3. A fact. Every Hollow Earth book published in the past 100 years that has reached any popularity at all except for Secret of The Ages has NEVER been out of print … somewhere in the world. And yet you hardly ever find Hollow Earth books for sale in used bookstores. And you NEVER find Trench’s book in one. A second fact: If your local library has any Hollow Earth books they can be found by using the Dewey decimal system number 551.11 --- which designates a non-fiction Earth Sciences book. You will find them shelved right beside the establishment’s books on the geology of the earth. After all, when all is said and done, one theory is equal to another. THEI-12
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• 5. One thing both sides agree on: Gravity And they agree on the physics of gravity
• 6. There must be a drawing power in matter. And the sum of the drawing power in the matter of the Earth must be in the Earth's centre, not in any side of the Earth. Therefore does this apple fall perpendicularly or towards the centre? If matter thus draws matter; it must be proportion of its quantity. Therefore the apple draws the Earth, as well as the Earth draws the apple .
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• 8. where: * F is the magnitude of the gravitational force between the two point masses, * G is the gravitational constant, * m1 is the mass of the first point mass, * m2 is the mass of the second point mass, and * r is the distance between the two point masses.
• 9. Einstein's General Relativity Gravitation formula (abstract index notation) At scales calculating inside earth diameter, GR and Newtonian essentially agree and Newtonian is much easier to apply. The geodesic equations case (inertial bodies interaction) non sequitur
• 10. The “accepted” Case A Solid Core
• 11. Accepted Model is based on assumptions: 1. Magnetic field generated by iron core 2. Seismic waves' behaviors result from liquid outer core 3. Earth's gravity center matches geometric center 4. Density increases with depth 5. Hottest at center
• 12. 1. Magnetic field generated by iron core
• 13. Magnetic field generated by iron core “ Electric Universe” alternative: Earth's rotation and orbit around sol cause copper in earth crust to generate magnetic field. The total amount of copper on Earth is vast - around 10 14 tons just in the top kilometer of Earth's crust Effects observed / documented in extensive electrical power grids Effects observed / documented in atmospheric radiometry
• 14. Mars, at roughly half the diameter of Earth and with a crust composed mostly of iron or iron oxide, has no detectible magnetic field and only minute traces of copper.
• 15. 2.) Seismic waves behaviors result from liquid outer core
• 16. “ Seismic waves behaviors result from liquid outer core” There are two types of seismic waves, body waves and surface waves. P a P wave in the mantle S an S wave in the mantle The propagation velocity of the waves depends on density and elasticity of the medium. Velocity tends to increase with depth, and ranges from approximately 2 to 8 km/s in the Earth's crust up to 13 km/s in the deep mantle.
• 17. When an S- or P-wave strikes an interface at an angle other than 90 degrees, a phenomenon known as mode conversion occurs. If the interface is between a solid and liquid, S becomes P or vice versa. However, even if the interface is between two solid media, mode conversion results S for secondary, comes from the fact that it is the second direct arrival on an earthquake seismogram, after the compressional primary wave, or P-wave, because S-waves travel slower in rock. Unlike the P-wave, the S-wave cannot travel through the molten outer core of the Earth, and this causes a shadow zone
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• 19. These waves are divergenceless
• 20. Deep strata seismic transmission and reflection is strictly hypothetical Reflections from outer core result from waves passing from dense to less dense material. Result would be virtually identical if outer core were gaseous instead of liquid or if large density gradient present regardless of state. Detailed and reliable earth structure data deeper than about 100 meters requires exploration (core drilling, e.g.). Reflections from inner core, “i” waves, are interpolated, not directly detected or measured S-waves do not exist at all in the liquid portion of the core*
• 21. *S-waves do not exist at all in the liquid portion of the core S waves propagation cause our surface oceans and large lakes to manifest tsunamis Why not in a liquid iron outer core?
• 22. 3. Earth's gravity center matches geometric center
• 23. *Calculated value (assumes solid core) Measured values Theoretical absolute http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/43/Earth-G-force.png/200px-Earth-G-force.png
• 24. ~7900 Miles 1500 CORE Theoretical max gravity depth 5770 Lehman Discontinuity Outer Edge of Outer Core Deepest point that seismic waves behave “normally”
• 25. Earth's gravity center matches geometric center
• 26. Earth's gravity measured by NASA's GRACE mission, showing deviations from the theoretical gravity of an idealized smooth Earth.
• 27. Even though GRACE was a polar orbit mission, no rendered (modeled image) data of gravity anomalies of the polar regions was released GRACE data are affected by spatial and temporal errors which require appropriate filtering http://earth.esa.int/cgi-bin/confg6.pl?abstract=412 Part of the stated mission of GRACE was to measure the effects of global warming on glaciation. Seems like a major disparity there. Folks other than NASA and UN see it a little differently
• 28. Data combined: CHAMP, GRACE, LIDAR altimetry, et al
• 29. All such orbital gravity studies flawed because all fail to account for magnetic flux variations, giga scale spatial and temporal (spacetime), other coincident, but unincorporated data
• 30. Density increases with depth The Kola Superdeep Borehole reached 12,262 metres (40,230 ft) in 1989, and is the deepest hole ever drilled To scientists, one of the more fascinating findings to emerge from this well is that the change in seismic velocities was not found at a boundary marking Harold Jeffreys's hypothetical transition from granite to basalt; it was at the bottom of a layer of metamorphic rock that extended from about 5 to 10 kilometers beneath the surface. The rock there had been thoroughly fractured and was saturated with water, which was surprising. This water, unlike surface water, must have come from deep-crust minerals and had been unable to reach the surface because of a layer of impermeable rock Another unexpected discovery was the large quantity of hydrogen gas, with the mud flowing out of the hole described as &quot;boiling&quot; with hydrogen expected instead
• 31. Hottest at center The hole reached 12,262 m (40,230 ft) in 1989. In that year the hole depth was expected to reach 13,500 m (44,300 ft) by the end of 1990 and 15,000 m (49,000 ft) by 1993 However, due to higher than expected temperatures at this depth and location, 180 °C (356 °F) instead of expected 100 °C (212 °F), drilling deeper was deemed unfeasible and the drilling was stopped in 1992.[3] With the expected further increase in temperature with increasing depth, drilling to 15,000 m (49,000 ft) would have meant working at a projected 300 °C (570 °F), at which the drill bit would no longer work.
• 32. Kola Surprises Both density and pressure increase at rate about 1.8 times greater than a priori calculations No subsequent study to attempt correlation of empirical to theoretical (real good science there, boys and girls) “ Highly fractured” zone and presence of water at the working depth broke all paradigms Hydrogen volume has no explanation in current theory Accepted V
• 33. Earth continuously produces and emits roughly 4 terra Watts more thermal energy than it recieves from Sol That's 4,000,000,000,000 watts Seismic geology theory states this heat is left over from planetary formation / accretion 4.2 billion years ago This theory indicates that in its lifetime, earth has emitted 147,168,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 watt-hours of power. Conclusion: Some mechanism inside the earth generates new thermal energy at a rate of four thousand billion watts continuously
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• 35. One problem that attracted Halley's attention was the proof of Kepler's laws of planetary motion. In August 1684 he went to Cambridge to discuss this with Sir Isaac Newton, only to find that Newton had solved the problem, but published nothing. Halley convinced him to write the Principia Mathematica Philosophiae Naturalis (1687), which was published at Halley's expense. Sir Edmund Halley
• 36. In 1692, Halley put forth the idea of a hollow Earth consisting of a shell about 500 miles (800 km) thick, two inner concentric shells and an innermost core, about the diameters of the planets Venus, Mars, and Mercury respectively. He suggested that atmospheres separated these shells, and that each shell had its own magnetic poles, with each sphere rotating at a different speed. Halley proposed this scheme in order to explain anomalous compass readings. He envisaged each inner region as having an atmosphere and being luminous (and possibly inhabited), and speculated that escaping gas caused the Aurora Borealis. Halley's was the last serious scientific attempt at describing a hollow earth until Euler
• 37. Leonhard Euler In the eighteen century A Swiss mathematician, Leonhard Euler, took the multiple spheres theory and replaced it with a single hollow sphere that contained a sun 600 miles wide. He said the sun maintained heat and light for an advanced civilization that he said lived there. A Scottish mathematician, Sir John Leslie (10 April 1766 – 3 November 1832), suggested that there was not one sun but in fact two he named these Pluto and Proserpine. Many pseudo science and slightly off scientific treatments exist regarding a Hollow Earth. Jan Lamprecht lists most of them in Hollow Planets Whole cults sprang up and subsequently vanished based on a “ paradise within the Hollow Earth”
• 38. Halley's Model Euler's Model per De Camp & Ley
• 40. Excess Thermal Energy Planet Earth emits approximately 4 terra Watts more heat energy than it receives from the sun 4,000,000,000,000 4 thousand billion watts Doctrinal geology and cosmology assert this is energy left over from planetary accretion 4 billion years ago If electrical, would satisfy nearly a third of global demand
• 41. The hypothesized spreading apart of continental masses as Earth's size increases by the creation of new ocean floor material. Maxlowe et al “Expanding Earth” Model
• 42. The Accretion Model In essence, a bunch of trash orbiting the sun got together and formed a fetal planet 4 billion years ago. Most of this initial matter was water ice and various gases. Other matter later accreted onto the surface of this initial mass as a harder outside shell. Silicon, iron, nickel, etc., coated the primordial body. Various processes (geothermal, gravity and thermal convection, seismic and volcanic actions) amalgamated the material and replaced the initial water ice with iron, giving us the rocky planet we know and love.
• 43. The problem with the accretion model and all “accepted” models is the gravity part of the equation At the center of the Earth, acceleration due to gravity is zero, therefore, a void must exist at the center A second zero gravity depth must also exist, a “sweet spot” between the surface and the center where gravitational force vectors are equal and opposite The highest acceleration of gravity within the planet is AWAY from the center Not Speculation, accepted theory! Accepted Not now accepted, but SOON!
• 44. General , Science 25 March, 2010 17:21 Radio science result from 2008 Phobos Flyby now accepted for publication The abstract is: We report independent results from two subgroups of the Mars Express Radio Science (MaRS) team who independently analyzed Mars Express (MEX) radio tracking data for the purpose of determining consistently the gravitational attraction of the moon Phobos on the MEX spacecraft, and hence the mass of Phobos. New values for the gravitational parameter (GM=0.7127 ± 0.0021 x 10-³ km³/s²) and density of Phobos (1876 ± 20 kg/m³) provide meaningful new constraints on the corresponding range of the body's porosity (30% ± 5%), provide a basis for improved interpretation of the internal structure. We conclude that the interior of Phobos likely contains large voids.
• 45. Earth's gravity center matches geometric center But only when taken as an integral, a sigma Within the planet, there are BIG deltas Volume of void undetermined Exact depth of “ sweet spot” unknown
• 46. “ Sweet spot” described in at least two accounts Etidorpha Macuxie Indians oral traditions Both accounts describe a point more than halfway to the center, but no greater detail found
• 47. ETIDORHPA by John Uri Lloyd [1897] “ ...the fourteen feet of fall seemed to affect me as though I had become as light as a cork. I fluttered to the earth as a leaf would fall, and leaned against the precipice in surprise meditation.” Link: Full Text
• 48. Link: Full Text Macuxi live in Ecuador / Brazil border area at a point which was beyond the halfway point, they had to hold onto the walls and pull themselves along carefully because, if not, they would float weightlessly The Subterranean World of the Macuxies Translated by Dean Dominic Delucia Original chronicler unknown
• 49. ~7900 Miles 1500 Totally Void ? Accepted model theoretical max gravity depth (10.7 m/s 2) 5770 Lehman Discontinuity Outer Edge of “Outer Core” Deepest point that seismic waves behave “normally” General vicinity of Sweet Spot ~1065 Atmosphere? Biosphere?
• 50. THE Big question: Is there an 800 mile wide hole at the top of the world?
• 51. Answer: No, there is an 1100 by 2300 mile hole
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• 53. The Hole at the North Pole 1117 Miles * http://www.maps.com/map.aspx?pid=15904
• 54. Deepest point 2 nd Deepest point In Arctic Ocean Water erosion NORTH POLE