Curious Stone Walls in Southern Indiana Rick Osmon
Be Careful What You Wish For <ul><li>Ancient </li></ul><ul><li>Walls </li></ul><ul><li>Fortress </li></ul><ul><li>Waterway...
Known Fortress Indiana State Geologist, E.T. Cox, recorded this survey report in 1870, supposedly discovered by Gen. Georg...
The New Site Landowner in erosion & friend atop largest of at least six exposed wall segments I call it the  “East Fork Si...
Site Medium Context
Site Large Context Cox /Clark Site Charlestown Deam Wilderness Site Merom Bluff Site East Fork Site
Finer Context
10 O’clock Line Curious coincidence?
Curious Features <ul><li>Slot at top middle of at least 3 wall segments </li></ul><ul><li>Old  growth trees </li></ul><ul>...
Satellite View Wall Spring/Cave Excavated stone steps Second cave entrance (vertical) Grade ca. 1:2
 
Heavy Construction <ul><li>Some stones up to about 800 lbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Visible cross section >10 feet at apparent b...
Yep, It’s a Wall, But Why? <ul><li>Erosion control </li></ul><ul><li>Fortification </li></ul><ul><li>Structure foundation ...
Mill Pond Criteria <ul><li>Flowing water at or above top of wheel </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable support structure (food, s...
Problems with Mill Hypothesis <ul><li>Steep grade </li></ul><ul><li>High hill </li></ul><ul><li>Few available resources, r...
Various Waterwheel Designs
Rio Tinto Mine  De-watering Pumps <ul><li>Sixteen wheels </li></ul><ul><li>96 feet lift </li></ul><ul><li>Human powered </...
One of the Signs at Rio Tinto 5,000 Years of Mine Pollution
If a Mill, What Product? <ul><li>Grist mill </li></ul><ul><li>Saw mill (wood or stone) </li></ul><ul><li>Hammer mill </li>...
Ore Processing? <ul><li>Significant vein of rust colored rock </li></ul><ul><li>Near major river, but falls up & downstrea...
No Joy in the Ironton
Give up?  No! <ul><li>Cable cars (?!) </li></ul><ul><li>Moving water with water power Or maybe no water wheel at all… </li...
A Wall of Confusion <ul><li>All key words met except one, “Welsh” </li></ul>
Gravity Balance In a gravity balance system two parallel tracks are employed with ascending trains on one and descending t...
Gravity Balance
Water balance This is a variant of the gravity balance incline that can be  used to move loads  uphill . The weight of the...
Lynton and  Lynmouth  Cliff Railway
Lynton and  Lynmouth  Cliff Railway Two cars, each capable of transporting 40 passengers, joined by a continuous cable run...
Where exactly is this gravity balance railway?
Wales
Speculative Hypotheses Truly ancient Fortress Water balance cable tram to deliver supplies, wooden rails Multi-purpose mil...
Next Step Dig
Digging for…? Evidence of a palisade Any artifacts  Skeletal remains, including livestock Tooled stone
Also… Attempt to enter closed room in cave Core sample the old beech tree.
  Rick Osmon, aka Oz http:// oopaloopacafe .com  to find great info about guests and previous shows     http:// blogtalkra...
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Curious Stone Walls

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Recently discovered stone walls in southern Indiana, their possible relationship to documented ancient structures, and possible purposes.

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Curious Stone Walls

  1. 1. Curious Stone Walls in Southern Indiana Rick Osmon
  2. 2. Be Careful What You Wish For <ul><li>Ancient </li></ul><ul><li>Walls </li></ul><ul><li>Fortress </li></ul><ul><li>Waterways </li></ul><ul><li>Hilltop </li></ul><ul><li>Indiana </li></ul><ul><li>“ Line” of Fortresses </li></ul><ul><li>Welsh </li></ul>Key Words
  3. 3. Known Fortress Indiana State Geologist, E.T. Cox, recorded this survey report in 1870, supposedly discovered by Gen. George Rogers Clark in about 1799
  4. 4. The New Site Landowner in erosion & friend atop largest of at least six exposed wall segments I call it the “East Fork Site”
  5. 5. Site Medium Context
  6. 6. Site Large Context Cox /Clark Site Charlestown Deam Wilderness Site Merom Bluff Site East Fork Site
  7. 7. Finer Context
  8. 8. 10 O’clock Line Curious coincidence?
  9. 9. Curious Features <ul><li>Slot at top middle of at least 3 wall segments </li></ul><ul><li>Old growth trees </li></ul><ul><li>Steep grade </li></ul><ul><li>Significant spring very nearby </li></ul><ul><li>Significant erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Excavated footpath </li></ul>Note accumulated soil & detritus on uphill side
  10. 10. Satellite View Wall Spring/Cave Excavated stone steps Second cave entrance (vertical) Grade ca. 1:2
  11. 12. Heavy Construction <ul><li>Some stones up to about 800 lbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Visible cross section >10 feet at apparent base </li></ul><ul><li>Original length ca. 20 meters / 66 feet </li></ul><ul><li>Apparent maximum height about 15 feet </li></ul><ul><li>Straight line footprint </li></ul>It makes a GREAT deer blind !
  12. 13. Yep, It’s a Wall, But Why? <ul><li>Erosion control </li></ul><ul><li>Fortification </li></ul><ul><li>Structure foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock enclosure </li></ul><ul><li>Bath house </li></ul><ul><li>Dam for a mill pond </li></ul><ul><li>Some or all of the above </li></ul>Possible Purpose?
  13. 14. Mill Pond Criteria <ul><li>Flowing water at or above top of wheel </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable support structure (food, shelter, transport) </li></ul><ul><li>Readily available hardwoods </li></ul><ul><li>Something to process </li></ul>
  14. 15. Problems with Mill Hypothesis <ul><li>Steep grade </li></ul><ul><li>High hill </li></ul><ul><li>Few available resources, raw materials on top </li></ul><ul><li>Poor transport for finished material </li></ul>
  15. 16. Various Waterwheel Designs
  16. 17. Rio Tinto Mine De-watering Pumps <ul><li>Sixteen wheels </li></ul><ul><li>96 feet lift </li></ul><ul><li>Human powered </li></ul><ul><li>Roman period </li></ul><ul><li>This lode shows signs of being worked for 5000 years </li></ul>
  17. 18. One of the Signs at Rio Tinto 5,000 Years of Mine Pollution
  18. 19. If a Mill, What Product? <ul><li>Grist mill </li></ul><ul><li>Saw mill (wood or stone) </li></ul><ul><li>Hammer mill </li></ul><ul><li>Bellows </li></ul><ul><li>Textile </li></ul><ul><li>Other processes </li></ul><ul><li>Other work </li></ul>
  19. 20. Ore Processing? <ul><li>Significant vein of rust colored rock </li></ul><ul><li>Near major river, but falls up & downstream </li></ul><ul><li>Near place name “Ironton” </li></ul><ul><li>Testable! </li></ul>
  20. 21. No Joy in the Ironton
  21. 22. Give up? No! <ul><li>Cable cars (?!) </li></ul><ul><li>Moving water with water power Or maybe no water wheel at all… </li></ul>More Possibilities
  22. 23. A Wall of Confusion <ul><li>All key words met except one, “Welsh” </li></ul>
  23. 24. Gravity Balance In a gravity balance system two parallel tracks are employed with ascending trains on one and descending trains on the adjacent track. A single cable is attached to both trains, wound round a winding drum at the top of the incline to provide braking. The weight of the loaded descending cars is used to lift the ascending empties. This form of cable railway can only be used to move loads downhill and requires a wider space than a stationary engine -driven incline, but has the advantage of not requiring external power, and therefore costs less to operate.
  24. 25. Gravity Balance
  25. 26. Water balance This is a variant of the gravity balance incline that can be used to move loads uphill . The weight of the unloaded descending train is increased using water until it is greater than the train traveling uphill. At this point gravity allows the uphill train to ascend. The water is either carried in an additional water wagon attached to the descending train, or is carried in a platform on which the train descends. This form of incline has the advantages of a gravity balance system with the added ability to haul loads uphill. It is only practical where a large supply of water is available at the top of the incline. An example of this type of cable railway is the passenger carrying Lynton and Lynmouth Cliff Railway .
  26. 27. Lynton and Lynmouth Cliff Railway
  27. 28. Lynton and Lynmouth Cliff Railway Two cars, each capable of transporting 40 passengers, joined by a continuous cable running around a 5 ft 6 in (1.7 m) pulley at each end of the incline. Water feeds through 5-inch (130 mm) pipes from the West Lyn River — over a mile away — into tanks under the floor of the upper car. Each car has a 700 gallon tank mounted between the wheels. Water is discharged from the lower car, until the heavier top car begins to descend, with the speed controlled by a brakeman travelling on each car. The parallel tracks (which bow out at the centre point, to allow the cars to pass) rise 500 feet (150 m) and are 862 feet (263 m) long, giving the line a gradient of 1:1.75 .
  28. 29. Where exactly is this gravity balance railway?
  29. 30. Wales
  30. 31. Speculative Hypotheses Truly ancient Fortress Water balance cable tram to deliver supplies, wooden rails Multi-purpose mill & power source Euro or Middle Eastern, but far from certain
  31. 32. Next Step Dig
  32. 33. Digging for…? Evidence of a palisade Any artifacts Skeletal remains, including livestock Tooled stone
  33. 34. Also… Attempt to enter closed room in cave Core sample the old beech tree.
  34. 35.   Rick Osmon, aka Oz http:// oopaloopacafe .com  to find great info about guests and previous shows     http:// blogtalkradio .com/ oopa - loopa -cafe  to listen to the live shows and join the chat   Call in during show (646) 652-2720   Mobile (not during live show, please) (812) 259-1102   oz@ oopaloopacafe .com Thanks for listening Feedback

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