8th grade taks review power point


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8th grade taks review power point

  1. 1. 8 th Grade 2011 Science TAKS Review
  2. 2. Physical and Chemical Changes <ul><li>_____________________ Change – any process involving a substance's change without alteration of the chemical composition. Does not make a new substance. </li></ul><ul><li>_____________________ Change - any process in which one or more substances are changed into one or more different substances. Makes a new substance. </li></ul>Physical Chemical
  3. 3. Read each description and label it as a physical or chemical change. Put a (P) for Physical and a (C ) for Chemical. <ul><li>____ Iron rusts. </li></ul><ul><li>____ Sodium hydroxide dissolves in water. </li></ul><ul><li>____ A safety match ignites and burns. </li></ul><ul><li>____ A cube of ice melts to form a puddle of water. </li></ul><ul><li>____ Icicles form at the edge of a roof. </li></ul><ul><li>____ Water is heated and changed into steam. </li></ul><ul><li>____ Milk sours. </li></ul><ul><li>____ A chocolate bar melts in the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>____ Acid on limestone produces carbon dioxide gas. </li></ul><ul><li>____ Vinegar and baking soda react. </li></ul><ul><li>____ A tea kettle begins to whistle. </li></ul><ul><li>____ Wood leaves root to form humus. </li></ul>C P C P P P C P C C P C
  4. 5. Kinetic and Potential Energy <ul><li>1.__________________ energy – the energy an object has because of it position or stored energy. How high it is above earth. </li></ul><ul><li>2.__________________ energy – the energy of motion. </li></ul>Potential Kinetic
  5. 6. In the image below put a circle around the letter that shows where the car will have the greatest amount of potential energy. Put a square around the letter that has where the car will have the greatest amount of kinetic energy.  
  6. 8. Plant Cells <ul><li>Use the word bank to fill in the blanks and label the parts of the plant cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Word bank </li></ul><ul><li>Functions within a Plant Cell </li></ul><ul><li>________________ - the thin layer of protein and fat that surrounds the cell, but is inside the cell wall. Controls what comes in and goes out of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>________________ - a thick, rigid membrane that surrounds a plant cell. This layer of cellulose fiber gives the cell most of its support and structure. </li></ul><ul><li>________________ - an elongated or disc-shaped organelle containing chlorophyll. Photosynthesis takes place here. </li></ul><ul><li>________________ - controls many of the functions of the cell and contains DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>________________ - the jellylike material outside the cell nucleus in which the organelles are located. </li></ul><ul><li>________________ - a large, membrane-bound space within a plant cell that is filled with water. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Cell Wall Nucleus Chloroplast Vacuole Vacuole Cytoplasm Cell Wall Cell Membrane Nucleus Chloroplast
  7. 9. Cell Membrane Vacuole Cytoplasm Cell Wall Nucleus Chloroplast Vacuole Cytoplasm Cell Wall Cell Membrane Nucleus Chloroplast
  8. 10. Animal Cells <ul><li>Use the word bank to fill in the blanks and label the parts of the animal cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Word Bank </li></ul><ul><li>Functions within an Animal Cell </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>________________ - the thin layer of protein and fat that surrounds the cell, but is inside the cell wall. Controls what comes in and goes out of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>________________ - controls many of the functions of the cell and contains DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>________________ - the jellylike material in which the organelles are located. </li></ul><ul><li>________________ - stores water, nutrients, and waste. </li></ul>Cell Membrane Vacuole Cytoplasm Nucleus Vacuole Cytoplasm Cell Membrane Nucleus
  9. 11. Cell Membrane Vacuole Cytoplasm Nucleus Vacuole Cytoplasm Cell Membrane Nucleus
  10. 12. Ecological Succession <ul><li>WORD BANK </li></ul><ul><li>pioneer species climax community secondary succession </li></ul><ul><li>succession primary succession </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Put the proper word in the space before the definition. </li></ul><ul><li>1. ____________________________________ The gradual replacement of one plant community </li></ul><ul><li>by another through natural processes over time. </li></ul><ul><li>2. ____________________________________Begins on newly formed with lichens to begin the </li></ul><ul><li>soil building process. </li></ul><ul><li>3. ____________________________________These are the first plants in a new area, such as </li></ul><ul><li>lichens. </li></ul><ul><li>4. ____________________________________Begins in a place that already has soil, but the </li></ul><ul><li>plants and animals are gone. </li></ul><ul><li>5. ____________________________________A stable group of plants and animals that is the </li></ul><ul><li>end result of the succession process. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Secondary Succession Pioneer Species Primary Succession Succession Climax Community
  11. 14. Weathering <ul><li>WORD BANK </li></ul><ul><li>Abrasion ice wedging mechanical </li></ul><ul><li>animal plant chemical water </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>____________Weathering </li></ul><ul><li>A. Is a physical change resulting in sediments. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Examples include </li></ul><ul><li>1._____________________ - Breaking, grinding, wearing </li></ul><ul><li>away of rock into sediments which caused by wind and water. </li></ul><ul><li>2. _______________________________- Freezing water in cracks expands and breaks rocks. </li></ul><ul><li>3. __________________________ roots wedge into rocks. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Burrowing of _________________________wears away rock. </li></ul><ul><li>____________Weathering </li></ul><ul><li>A. Is the process by which rocks are decomposed, </li></ul><ul><li>dissolved or loosened by chemical processes to form sediment. </li></ul><ul><li>B. An example is the combining of ______________________ with CO2 combine to form carbonic acid, which dissolves limestone. </li></ul>Mechanical Abrasion Ice wedging Plant Animals Chemical water
  12. 16. <ul><li>Word Bank </li></ul><ul><li>Dropping Delta Water Wind </li></ul><ul><li>Ice weathered gravity </li></ul><ul><li>Erosion </li></ul><ul><li>A. The removal of _________________rocks. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Methods of erosion </li></ul><ul><li>1. __________________ </li></ul><ul><li>2. __________________ </li></ul><ul><li>3. __________________ </li></ul><ul><li>4. __________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Deposition </li></ul><ul><li>A. The ___________________ of materials carried away by erosion. </li></ul><ul><li>B. An example of deposition would be a ___________________, where the river meets the ocean. </li></ul>Weathered Wind Ice Water Gravity Dropping Delta
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  14. 18. Making Predictions <ul><li>1. A grassy field containing much vegetation is cleared to make a parking lot for a local Wal-Mart. What impact would this change most likely have on the local ecosystem? </li></ul><ul><li>A. Larger predator populations </li></ul><ul><li>B. A lower number of producers </li></ul><ul><li>C. A greater number of herbivores </li></ul><ul><li>D. A smaller amount of available carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>2. Malcolm wants to make a prediction. He has set out 3 glasses of water at different temperatures. The first is near boiling, the second is room temperature, and the last is near freezing. Help him predict which one will evaporate the fastest. </li></ul><ul><li>a.The near boiling glass </li></ul><ul><li>b.The room temperature glass </li></ul><ul><li>c.The ice water glass </li></ul><ul><li>d.They will all evaporate at the same rate </li></ul>
  15. 19.
  16. 20. 1. Now predict or extrapolate the speed at 8m. A. 6.9 m/s B. 6.3 m/s C. 5.9 m/s D. 6.5 m/s
  17. 21. Word Bank Hypothesis Model Limitation Prediction Inference 1. The way a model is not like the real thing is a ___________________________________. 2. A _____________________ are a small representation of something. 3. A conclusion based from an observation is an ______________________________. 4. A __________________________ is a way of forming an opinion about how or why something happens. Some call it an “educated guess.” 5. A _________________________ is to guess possible results to something. Limitation Model Inference Prediction Hypothesis
  18. 22. The Sun
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  20. 24.
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  23. 27.
  24. 28.
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  26. 30. <ul><li>Using the periodic table you just used to find the answers to the questions above separate the table into 3 separate groups. Metals, metalloids, and non-metals. Shade each group with a different color. </li></ul>
  27. 31. Metals Nonmetals Metalloids
  28. 32. Nonmetal Nonmetal Metal Metal
  29. 33. Word Bank Protons Electrons Nucleus Neutrons Z = _________________________ Y= _________________________ X=_________________________ W= ________________________ Electrons Protons Neutrons Nucleus
  30. 34. Word Bank Metals Periods Electrons Subscript Protons Group Coefficient Metalloids Nonmetals Atomic Mass Physical   Protons Metals Electrons Atomic Mass Coefficient Subscript Nonmetals Physical Periods Metalloids Groups
  31. 35. <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>2H 2 O + NaCl  </li></ul><ul><li>How many atoms are present in this equation? ________ </li></ul><ul><li>How many elements are present in this equation? _________ </li></ul>8 4
  32. 36.
  33. 37. Word Bank   Equator El Nino Poles Water Vapor Condensation Precipitation Global Warming Sea Breeze Pollution Equator Precipitation Pollution Water Vapor Condensation Evaporation Poles Sea Breeze El Nino Global Warming
  34. 38. A. C. B. Radiation Convection Conduction
  35. 39.
  36. 40. B A C
  37. 41. Max told his friend for homework that city A would have a much warmer climate in the winter because city A has warmer water coming up from the equator passing by it and city B does not.
  38. 42. <ul><li>Which of these stars is the hottest? </li></ul><ul><li>A. Orange star </li></ul><ul><li>B. Blue star </li></ul><ul><li>C. Yellow-white star </li></ul><ul><li>D. Red star </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  39. 43. Supergiants Main Sequence White Dwarfs Giants
  40. 44.
  41. 45. <ul><li>The squared words in the sentences below are misspelled. Correctly spell the word to complete the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>__________________ 1. smato are the basic component of all matter. </li></ul><ul><li>__________________ 2. An teelmne is a combination of atoms which have all of the same chemical properties. </li></ul><ul><li>__________________ 3. Atoms consist of a nucleus of protons and snortuen surrounded by electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>__________________4. A xtuimer consists of two or more substances mixed together, but remain unchanged and can usually be separated by mechanical means. </li></ul><ul><li>__________________5. Two or more elements can be mixed resulting in the original elements losing their individual chemical properties and forming a new dnuopcmo has new properties. </li></ul><ul><li>____________6. A compound of two or more atoms and the smallest unit of chemical compounds is a emlouec. </li></ul><ul><li>___________ 7.The rfmloua which identifies the atoms and the number of each kind of atom in the molecules of a compound. </li></ul><ul><li>___________8. The uisbscrpt tells the # of atoms of each element in a molecule of the compound. </li></ul><ul><li>___________9. The constieffice is the number of molecules in a formula. </li></ul>Atoms Element Neutrons Mixture Compound Molecule Formula Subscript Coefficients
  42. 46. New Moon Waxing Crescent 1 st Quarter Waxing Gibbous Full Moon Wanning Gibbous Last Quarter or 3 rd Quarter Wanning Crescent
  43. 47.
  44. 48. <ul><li>What does it mean when someone says the moon is waxing or wanning? </li></ul><ul><li>Waxing – the light is increasing </li></ul><ul><li>Wanning – the light is decreasing </li></ul>
  45. 49. Crest Wavelength Amplitude Trough Equilibrium
  46. 50. 1m 2 per second .5m 3 per second
  47. 51. Igneous Metamorphic Sedimentary Melts Cools Heat Pressure Pressure Weathered Cement
  48. 52.
  49. 53.
  50. 54. Elevation Elevation Steep Gentle interval Index Relief
  51. 55.
  52. 56. Tectonic Plates Convergent Boundary Divergent Boundary Transform Boundary Collide Mountains Subduction Zone away Volcanoes
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  54. 58. A B C 1 3 2
  55. 59.
  56. 60. Speed = Distance / Time Seconds Meters .63 m/s Accelerate .74 m/s .64 m/s