Cognitive development


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  • (DevelopmentalMetacognition, Aspects in young children) Shows a gradual development of metacognition and theory of mind leading to what Piaget called “de-centering”, where the child can see from another perspective Also found that 4-5yr old children who had a metacognitive advantage kept that advantage during the two year study
  • Reciprocol teaching Summarizing: Identifying the main ideas of a reading passage Questioning: Asking oneself questions to check comprehension of ideas Clarifying: Taking steps to better understand a confusing point Predicting: Anticipating what points an author is apt to make laterScaffolding Cognitive modeling – Adult performs while verbalizing instructions Overt External guidance – Adult verbalizes instructions while child performs Overt self-guidance – Child repeats instructions while performing Faded, overt self-guidance – The child whispers instructions while performing Covert self-guidance – the child silently things about the instructions (inner speech) while performin
  • Partition the classroom into small areas that give children numerous optionsProvide realistic toys that suggest certain activities and functions as well as more versatile objects that allow children to engage in fantasy and imaginationProvide enough toys and equipment to minimize potential conflicts, but keep them limited enough in number that children must share and cooperate
  • Cognitive development

    1. 1. Cognitive Development:Piaget and Vygotsky<br />Richard Poore<br />
    2. 2. Piaget’s Theory<br />Clinical Method<br />Class Inclusion<br />
    3. 3. Key Ideas to Piaget’s Theory<br />Children are active and motivated learners<br />Children organize what they learn from their experiences<br />Schemes<br />Operations<br />Children adapt to their environment through:<br />Assimilation<br />Accommodation<br />
    4. 4. Key Ideas to Piaget’s Theory<br />Interaction with the physical environment is critical for cognitive development<br />Interaction with other people is equally critical<br />The process of equilibration promotes increasingly complex forms of thought<br />Equilibrium<br />Disequilibrium<br />Children think in qualitatively different ways at different age levels<br />
    5. 5. Piaget’s Stagesof Cognitive Development<br />Sensorimotor Stage<br />Birth through 2 years<br />Preoperational<br />2 through 6/7 years<br />Concrete Operations<br />6/7 through 11/12 years<br />Formal Operations<br />11/12 through adulthood<br />
    6. 6. Sensorimotor Stage<br />Trial and Error<br />Goal Directed Behavior<br />Object Permanence<br />Symbolic Thought<br />
    7. 7. Preoperational Stage<br />Rapid Linguistic Ability<br />Vocabulary and Syntax<br />Extensive Pretend Play<br />Intuitive Thought<br />
    8. 8. Concrete Operations<br />Distinctions Between<br />One’s own and<br />Others’ perspectives<br />Class Inclusion<br />Conservation<br />
    9. 9. Formal Operations<br />Reasoning about abstract<br />hypothetical,<br />And contrary-to-fact<br />ideas<br />Separation and control of<br />variables<br />Proportional Reasoning<br />Idealism<br />
    10. 10. Current Perspectives related toPiaget’s Theory<br />Capabilities of different age-groups<br />Effects of prior knowledge and experience<br />Effects of culture<br />Does cognitive development occur in stages?<br />Neo-Piagetian theories<br />
    11. 11. Key Ideas inNeo-Piagetian Theories<br />Cognitive development is constrained by the maturation of information processing mechanisms in the brain<br />Working memory<br />Children acquire new knowledge through both unintentional and intentional learning processes<br />
    12. 12. Key Ideas inNeo-Piagetian Theories<br />Children acquire cognitive structures that affect their thinking in particular content domains<br />Central Conceptual Structures<br />Development in specific content domains can sometimes be characterized as a series of stages<br />
    13. 13. Applying Piagetian Ideas<br />Provide opportunities for children to experiment with physical objects and natural phenomena<br />Explore children’s reasoning with problem-solving tasks and probing questions<br />Keep Piaget’s stages in mind when interpreting children’s behavior and when planning activities, but don’t take the stages too literally.<br />
    14. 14. Applying Piagetian Ideas<br />Present situations and ideas that children cannot easily explain using their existing knowledge and beliefs<br />Use familiar content and tasks when asking children to reason in sophisticated ways<br />Plan group activities in which young people share their beliefs and perspectives with one another<br />
    15. 15. Vygotsky’sSociocultural Theory<br />Focused on tools – concepts, problem-solving strategies, etc – rather than physical objects<br />Adult assistance<br />
    16. 16. Vygotsky’s Key Ideas<br />Some cognitive processes are seen in a variety of species; others are unique to human beings<br />Through both informal interactions and formal schooling, adults convey to children the ways in which their culture interprets the world<br />Every culture passes along physical and cognitive tools that make daily living more effective and efficient<br />
    17. 17. Vygotsky’s Key Ideas<br />Thought and language become increasingly interdependent in the first few years of life<br />Self-talk<br />Inner speach<br />Complex mental processes begin as social activities and gradually evolve into internal mental activities that children can use independently<br />Internalization<br />
    18. 18. Vygotsky’s Key Ideas<br />Children acquire their culture’s tools in their own ideosyncratic manner<br />Appropriation<br />Children can perform more challenging tasks when assisted by more advanced and competent individuals<br />Challenging tasks promote maximum cognitive growth<br />Zone of Proximal Development<br />
    19. 19. Vygotsky’s Key Ideas<br />Play allows children to stretch themselves cognitively<br />Sociodramatic play<br />
    20. 20. Current Perspectives related toVygotsky’s Theory<br />Social construction of meaning<br />Mediated learning experience<br />Scaffolding<br />Participation in adult activities<br />Guided participation<br />Aprenticeship<br />Cognitive Aprenticeship<br />Acquisition of teaching skills<br />
    21. 21. Applying Vygotsky’s Ideas<br />Help children acquire the basic cognitive tools of various activities and academic disciplines<br />Use group learning activities to help children internalize cognitive strategies<br />Reciprocal teaching<br />Present challenging tasks, and provide sufficient scaffolding to enable children to accomplish them successfully<br />
    22. 22. Applying Vygotsky’s Ideas<br />Assess children’s abilities under a variety of work conditions<br />Provide opportunities to engage in authentic activities<br />Give children the chance to play<br />
    23. 23. Piaget and VygotskyCommon Themes<br />Constructive processes in learning<br />Constructivism, social and individual<br />Readiness<br />Challenge<br />Importance of social interaction<br />
    24. 24. Piaget vs. VygotskyTheoretical Differences<br />How essential is language for cognitive development?<br />What kinds of experiences promote development?<br />What social interactions are most valuable?<br />How influential is culture?<br />