The Material Wood

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  • Bark PROTECTIVE LAYER OUTSIDE IS DEAD - INSIDE ALIVE Cambium VERY THIN CREATES NEW CELLS Sapwood STORE NUTRIENTS & TRANSMITS SAP THICK - LIVING Heartwood DEAD WOOD PROVIDES STRUCTURAL STABILITY Pith EARLY YEARS GROWTH SMALL - WEAK
  • Primarily Hollow, Cylindrical Cells - “TRACHEIDS” Axis running parallel to the tree Tough Cellulose bond by Lignin IMAGINE A GROUP OF STRAWS Impact on the properties of wood PARALLEL WITH GRAIN (TUBE) STRONG PERPENDICULAR - WEAK
  • Springwood (earlywood) Faster growth Cells larger and less dense Summerwood (latewood) Slower growth Cells smaller and denser APPEARS DARKER HENCE - THE RINGS
  • Softwoods - Coniferous Trees “ SOFT” OR “HARD” NOT NECESSARILY LITERALLY SIMPLE MICROSTRUCTURE COARSE UNINTERESTING GRAIN PINE, SPRUCE, FIR, CEDAR MOST OF THE LUMBER USED IN BUILDING WHY??? GROWS FASTER, MORE PLENTIFUL, MORE ECONOMICAL Hardwoods - Broad leafed trees MORE COMPLEX STRUCTURE BEAUTIFUL GRAIN PATTERNS PRIMARILY - FINE CABINETRY & DOORS, TRIMS / ACCENTS OAK, POPULAR, WALNUT, MAPLE
  • Structural Framing GENERALLY PINE, FIR OR SPRUCE Subfloors and Roof decking GENERALLY WOOD PANELS Siding - Structural & Exposed STRUCTURAL - OFTEN WOOD PANELS EXPOSED - NATURALLY DECAY RESISTANT OR TREATED CEDAR, CYPRESS Finish cabinetry and Trim PAINTED OR LAMINATED - PANELS OR SOFTWOODS “ EXPOSED”/ FINISHED - HARDWOODS
  • 1ST CUT (LOG) AND TRANSPORT TO THE MILL Plain Sawing Maximum Yield Varying grain pattern CAUSES DRYING DISTORTIONS DIFFERENT SURFACE APPEARANCE LESS DURABILITY Most common use - Framing lumber WHY??? NOT SEEN STRUCTURAL QUALITIES ACCEPTABLE ECONOMICAL
  • WHY DRY WOOD??? WATER IS 30% TO 300% OF DRY WT. Seasoned lumber @ 19% or less HEAVY, WEAKER, LESS STABLE Drying Types Air CUT & STACKED IN OPEN AIR DRIED - CAN TAKE MONTHS Kiln CUT & STACKED KILN DRIED - A MATTER OF DAYS FASTER, HIGHER QUALITY PROCESS Drying Effects Shrinkage LENGTH - NEGLIGIBLE RADIAL - MEASURABLE AMOUNT 12’ BOARD - 30% TO 15% (2% SHRINKAGE - 1/4”) TANGENTIAL - UP TO 50% > RADIAL (STRESSES INDUCED) Reduced weight Increase of strength and stiffness More dimensional stable
  • Purpose; Smooth Dimensional precision Designations; S2S, S4S FRAMING - S4S SOME HARDWOODS - S2S Performed primarily after drying WHY??? “ SHRINAGE DURING DRYING
  • Growth defects Knots & knot holes LIMBS / BRANCHES Decay and/or insect damage MOIST CONDITIONS, BORES Manufacturing Defects Splits & checks Crook, bow, cup, and/or twist WHAT CAUSES THESE DEFECTS??? DIFFERENTIAL SHRINKAGE
  • Strength & Stiffness, or STRUCTURAL OR FRAMING LUMBER VARIES - SPECIES AND IMPERFECTIONS Appearance NON-STRUCTURAL OR FINISH LUMBER Effect on price Grade HIGHER GRADE HIGHER ALLOWABLE STRESSES HIGHER PRICE #1 SELECT - DIFFICULT TO FIND #2 &3 MOST COMMON FOR FRAMING Appearance BETTER APPEARANCE HIGHER PRICE EXAMPLE; 1 x 12 (priced in 2001) # 3 $1 / BF #2 TWICE (2) THE PRICE OF #3 #1 FIVE (5) TIMES PRICE OF #3
  • Thickness - “Nominal” < 2 inches - Boards FRAMING LUMBER - MOST 2 to 4 inches - Dimension Lumber = to or > 5 inches - Timbers Widths - “Nominal” Framing Lumber - 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 inches WHY NOT Typically WIDER??? Finish /lumber - 1 inch (typ.)
  • Nominal not equal to “Actual” dimensions LUMBER “SAWN” Close to Nominal Then dried and surfaced Up to 6 inches - actual is 1/2 inch less Greater than 6 inches - actual is 3/4 inch less WHY THE “BREAK AT 6”??? MORE DISTORTION & SHRINKAGE TO ACCOMMODATE DURING SURFACING
  • Typically; Two (2) foot increments Sizes; 8’, 10’, 12’, 14’, & 16’ WHY NOT Typically LONGER??? Exceptions; 93 inch studs WHY 93 INCHES??? Special order lengths
  • FACTORS YOU MUST DECIDE ON WHY DOES SIZE AFFECT COST / BF???
  • Lamination Process SELECT LUMBER, GRADE JOINTS - FINGER OR SCARF ADHESIVES BASED ON EXPECTED MOISTURE Why Laminate? Create a size not available naturally Create Shapes ARCHES, CURVES, ETC. Improved Quality PROCESS CONTROLLED DEFECTS REMOVED / CONSIDERED GRAIN DIRECTION CONTROLLED USES CHURCHES LARGE RESIDENTIAL LODGES, RESTAURANTS
  • Why Panelize? More “controlled” product (strength, shrinkage, etc.) Efficient use of forest products Increase labor productivity Types Plywood Composite panels Veneered panels
  • Thin layers of veneer glued together VENEERS - ROTARY CUT Odd number of veneers Alternating direction of veneers Face veneers parallel USES SAME AS OSB EXPOSED/PAINTED SURFACES FORMWORK COST MORE THAN OSB
  • Based on the smoothness & integrity of the veneers Classifications; A, B, C (plugged), C, D B and better sanded smooth Price Variances (2001) 23/32 Exterior A/C = $31 per panel 23/32 Exterior B/C = $20 per panel MOST FORMWORK B/C FINISH AREAS MAY REQUIRE “A”
  • INTRODUCED IN THE EARLY 80’s GETTING WIDESPREAD USE Long strand like wood particles Alternate grain orientation (3-5 layers) Compressed / glued Strongest of the Non-veneered WHY IS IT THE STRONGEST??? ORIENTATION OF STANDS Generally more economical than Plywood Uses; Sheathing for floor, roofs, & siding WHY IS IT GETTING WIDESPREAD USE??? STRUCTURALLY SOUND ECONOMICAL - SUBBSTITUTE FOR PLYWOOD NEW GROWTH TREES
  • Established by American Plywood Association (APA) Standards based on; Structural adequacy Dimensional Stability UNDER VARYING MOISTURE CONDITIONS Durability of Adhesive
  • Panel Grade Span Rating IN INCHES PERPENDICULAR TO SUPPORT LARGER # - ROOF SPAN SMALLER # - FLOOR SPAN
  • Thickness Exposure Durability Exterior - siding or continuous exposure Exposure I; Waterproof glue - but veneers are not as high of quality as exterior grade (subfloors, sheathing) - most common rating Exposure II; Minimum wetting
  • Combustibility FIRE RETARTANT IMPREGNATED UNDER PRESSURE Decay & Insect PRESSURE IMPREGNATED UP TO 30 YEAR LIFE TYPES CREOSOTE PENTACHOROPHENOL - OILY, CAN’T PAINT WATERBORNE SALTS - GREENISH - CAN PAINT Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) being phased out HIGH MOISTURE USES – WHY NOT USE DECAY RESISTANT WOODS??? (CEDAR, REDWOOD, CYPRESS) COST & STRENGTH
  • Common flat heads, used mostly for structural connections Finish Nails virtually headless, finish woodwork Common - Used for Framing, Large Shank & Head Box - Smaller Shank, less chance for splitting wood, Used Shingles, Rough Casings Casing, Finish, Brad - Finish Components, Sink Head Deformed Shank - Very Hard to Remove, DW & Flr. Concrete - Masonry & Concrete Cut - Finish Flooring - SQ Head Reduces Cracking Roofing - One of Many, Some Have lead/Rubber Washers
  • Size - Measured in “pennies” (Price of 100 nails long ago) Corresponding Lengths Same for Common & Finish Most Common Light Frame Nails - 16d for 2”, 10D AND 8D Coatings Bright/ Plain uncoated steel MOST COMMON USED - NON CORROSIVE OR CONCEALED CONDITION Corrosion-resistant “ EXPOSED TO WEATHER RUST OR STAIN LUMBER GALVANIZED, ALUM., SS Resin/Vinyl Decrease Drive & Increase Holding This nail has a smaller shaft – commonly called a ‘sinker’
  • Anchorage Face - Perpendicular to Grain End - Parallel Toe - Angle to Grain Which Has the Most Holding Power??? Which is most common???
  • APPLICATIONS FRAMING SHEATHING ROOFING
  • “ Head” type PHILLIPS SLOTTED SQUARE HEAD PAN, FLAT, ROUND, ETC. Sizing - Gauge & Length WIRE GAUGE (SAMPLES #8 & #10) LENGTH IN INCHES (AND FACTIONS) Installation HAND SCREW DRIVER “ SCREW GUN”, OR DRILL HOLDING POWER TIGHTER, STRONGER THAN NAILS CAN BE “BACKED” OUT, & REINSERTED Uses CABINETWORK SOME FRAMING APPLICATIONS DECKING - BETTER HOLD - LESS SQUECK
  • Lag Screws Large screws Very LARGE Screws, Wrench, ¼ “@ 2-6 in., ½ to 10” FOR HEAVIER STRUCTURAL CONNECTIONS Square or octagonal head Installed w/ wrench Drywall screws Used to attach drywall Drywall Screws (Size, 1 ¼, 1 5/8, 2 “, Screw Gun - Fast, Wood or Metal,
  • Heavier structural connections COMMONLY USED W/ TIMBER CONSTRUCTION Sizes 1/4 inch to 1 inch+ LENGTH; ABOUT ANY (PRACTICALLY 10-12”) Types Machine SQUARE OR OCTAGONAL HEAD USED WITH WASHER Carriage ROUND BUTTON HEAD SQUARE SHANK INHIBITS TURNING Washers DISTRIBUTE THE COMPRESSIVE FORCE
  • NUMEROUS TYPES AND SHAPES MOST COMMON - JOIST HANGER LIGHT WOOD FRAMING - ATTACHED WITH SCREWS OR NAILS HEAVY TIMBER - ATTACHED WITH BOLTS / LAGS
  • ON SITE LESS USES BECAUSE OF NEED TO CLAMP USES FLOOR SHEATHING BASE (SOLE) PLATES WALL PANELS PANELING (WHERE THERE IS A NEED FOR CONCEALED FASTENERS) INCREASE STIFFNESS, ELIMINATE “SQUEAK”
  • Uses FLOORS & ROOFS Sizes Typically, 9-1/2” TO 24 “ DEEP LENGTH UP TO 40 FEET+ Composition & cost TOP & BOTTOM - LUMBER OR Laminated WEB - OSB, PLYWOOD COST - COMPARABLE TO 2x
  • The Material Wood

    1. 1. “ Crisscrossing light wood frame recalls Gothic and surrounding trees while lifting the mind skyward.” E. Fay Jones and Associates. Thorncrown Chapel Eureka Springs, Arkansas 1980 WOOD
    2. 2. Qualities of Wood <ul><li>Strong & Stiff </li></ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul><ul><li>Easily worked / shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Fastened quickly & economically </li></ul><ul><li>Recyclable </li></ul><ul><li>Biodegradable </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable Resource </li></ul>
    3. 3. Undesirable Characteristics of Wood <ul><li>Not perfectly straight nor precise </li></ul><ul><li>Size & shape affected by moisture </li></ul><ul><li>Contains growth defects </li></ul><ul><li>Can spilt & warp </li></ul><ul><li>Burns easily </li></ul><ul><li>Decays </li></ul><ul><li>Susceptible to Insect Damage </li></ul>
    4. 4. Tree Composition <ul><li>Bark </li></ul><ul><li>Cambium </li></ul><ul><li>Sapwood </li></ul><ul><li>Heartwood </li></ul><ul><li>Pith </li></ul>
    5. 5. Softwoods : Conifer Trees (pine, fir, spruce) for framing and sheathing
    6. 6. Hardwoods - Deciduous trees (leaf trees) Like maple, oak ash, beech, birch Used for Flooring, moldings, furniture
    7. 7. Tree Cells <ul><li>Primarily Hollow, Cylindrical Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Axis running parallel to the tree (grain direction) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tough Cellulose bound by Lignin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impacts the properties of wood </li></ul>
    8. 8. Tree Growth <ul><li>Springwood (earlywood) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faster growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells larger and less dense </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Summerwood (latewood) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slower growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells smaller and denser </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Types of Trees / Woods Oak Poplar Pine
    10. 10. Construction Uses for Wood <ul><li>Structural Framing </li></ul><ul><li>Subfloors and Roof Sheathing </li></ul><ul><li>Siding - Structural & Exposed </li></ul><ul><li>Finish cabinetry and Trim </li></ul>
    11. 11. Lumber Production - Sawing <ul><li>Plain Sawing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum Yield </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Varying grain pattern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common use - Framing lumber </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Lumber Production - Sawing <ul><li>Quarter Sawing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perpendicular to annual rings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less yield, but consistent grain pattern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved wearing quality, less distortion </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Typical Sawing Method
    14. 14. Lumber Drying <ul><li>Drying Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kiln </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drying Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shrinkage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase of strength and stiffness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More dimensional stable </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Differential Shrinkage (between radial & tangential) during drying can cause distortions
    16. 16. Lumber Surfacing <ul><li>Purpose; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dimensional precision </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Designations; S2S, S4S </li></ul><ul><li>Surfacing typically performed before or after drying? </li></ul>Rough sawn (not surfaced) S4S
    17. 17. Lumber Defects <ul><li>Growth defects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knots & knot holes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decay and/or insect damage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing Defects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Splits & checks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crook, bow, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cup, and/or twist </li></ul></ul>
    18. 19. Lumber Grade & Species <ul><li>Graded by: </li></ul><ul><li>Strength & Stiffness (Structural Lumber), or </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance (Finish Lumber) </li></ul><ul><li>Lumber sold by - Species and Grade </li></ul><ul><li>Better Grade  Higher price </li></ul><ul><li>Scarce or Higher Quality Species  Higher price </li></ul>
    19. 20. Spruce, Fir, or Pine Stud Surfaced Dry No 2 Lumber Kiln Dried (19% moisture)
    20. 21. Lumber Thickness and Width - NOMINAL <ul><li>Thickness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< 2 inches - Boards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 to 4 in. - Dimension Lumber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>= to or > 5 inches - Timbers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Widths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Framing Lumber - 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 inches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finish /lumber - 1 inch (typ.) </li></ul></ul>
    21. 22. Lumber Thickness and Width - ACTUAL <ul><li>Nominal not equal to Actual dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Lumber SAWN Close to Nominal </li></ul><ul><li>Then dried and surfaced </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 6 inches - actual is 1/2 inch less </li></ul><ul><li>Greater than 6 inches - actual is 3/4 inch less </li></ul>
    22. 23. Lumber Lengths <ul><li>Typically; Two (2) foot increments </li></ul><ul><li>Sizes; 8’, 10’, 12’, 14’, & 16’ (longer available) </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptions; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>93 inch studs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special order lengths </li></ul></ul>
    23. 24. Lumber Pricing Factors <ul><li>Species </li></ul><ul><li>Grade (& drying process) </li></ul><ul><li>Lumber Size </li></ul>
    24. 25. Lumber Pricing Unit - Board Feet <ul><li>One board foot = 1 inch X 12 inch X 1 foot </li></ul><ul><li>Calculation based upon Nominal dimensions </li></ul><ul><li># of board feet = </li></ul><ul><li>[(thickness” X width”) / 12] X length’ </li></ul><ul><li>Example; 2x8 that is 10 feet long </li></ul><ul><li>[(2x8)/12] X 10 = 13.33 board feet (bf) </li></ul>
    25. 26. Laminated Wood ( Glulam ) <ul><li>Lamination Process </li></ul><ul><li>Why Laminate? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a size not available naturally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create Shapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve Quality </li></ul></ul>
    26. 29. Structural Composite Lumber (PSL)
    27. 31. Wood Panel Products <ul><li>Why Panelize? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More “controlled” product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient use of forest products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase labor productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plywood panels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composite panels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonveneered panels </li></ul></ul>
    28. 32. Veneered Panels - Plywood <ul><li>Thin layers of veneer glued together </li></ul><ul><li>Odd number of veneers </li></ul><ul><li>Alternating direction of veneers </li></ul><ul><li>Face veneers parallel </li></ul><ul><li>Size: 4’x8’ panels </li></ul><ul><li>Thickness: ¼” to 1” </li></ul>
    29. 33. Veneer Grades <ul><li>Based on the smoothness & integrity of the veneers </li></ul><ul><li>Classifications; A, B, C (plugged), C, D </li></ul><ul><li>Price Variances </li></ul>C Grade C Plugged A Grade
    30. 34. Non-veneered Panels <ul><li>Oriented Strand Board (OSB) </li></ul><ul><li>Waferboard </li></ul><ul><li>Particleboard </li></ul><ul><li>Fiberboard </li></ul>Particleboard Fiberboard
    31. 35. Oriented Strand Board (OSB) <ul><li>Long strand like wood particles </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate grain orientation (3-5 layers) </li></ul><ul><li>Compressed / glued </li></ul><ul><li>Strongest of the Non-veneered </li></ul><ul><li>Uses; Sheathing for floor, roofs, & siding </li></ul>
    32. 36. Waferboard & Particleboard <ul><li>Waferboard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large wafer-like particles - No orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses; Low moisture areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Particleboard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small wood particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses; Low moisture areas </li></ul></ul>
    33. 37. Panel Standards & Grading <ul><li>Established by American Plywood Association (APA) </li></ul><ul><li>Standards based on; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural adequacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dimensional Stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Durability of Adhesive </li></ul></ul>
    34. 38. Structural Ratings <ul><li>Specified by Thickness or Span Rating </li></ul><ul><li>Span Rating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grade Stamp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For veneered & </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nonveneered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long dimension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>perpendicular to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the support </li></ul></ul>
    35. 39. Exposure Durability Classifications <ul><li>Exposure Durability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exterior - siding or continuous exposure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure I; waterproof glue but lower quality veneers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure II; protected environments & minimum wetting </li></ul></ul>
    36. 40. PRESERVATIVE-TREATED WOOD <ul><li>Waterborne Preservatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ACQ (alkaline copper quat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CA (copper azole) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SBX (sodium borates) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CCA (copper, chromate, arsenic) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creosote </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distillate of coal tar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oil-borne </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Penta(chlorophenol) </li></ul></ul>
    37. 41. Wood Polymer Composite Planks proprietary name: TREX <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decay Resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy Workability </li></ul></ul>
    38. 42. Wood Fasteners <ul><li>Nails </li></ul><ul><li>Wood & Lag Screws </li></ul><ul><li>Bolts </li></ul><ul><li>Toothed Plates </li></ul><ul><li>Sheet Metal & Metal Framing Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Machine Driven Staples & Nails </li></ul><ul><li>Adhesives </li></ul>
    39. 43. Nails <ul><li>Sharpened metal pins </li></ul><ul><li>Installation: Hammer or mechanical nail gun </li></ul><ul><li>Common Nails </li></ul><ul><li>Finish Nails </li></ul><ul><li>Other types </li></ul>
    40. 44. 16d Galvanized 16d Sinker Deformed Shank 10d Galv. Spiral Finish Nail Roofing Nail (far right)
    41. 45. Nails <ul><li>Size - Measured in pennies </li></ul><ul><li>Coatings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bright/ Plain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>uncoated steel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Galvanized Corrosion-resistant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resin/Vinyl </li></ul></ul>
    42. 46. Anchorage <ul><ul><li>Face, End, or Toe </li></ul></ul>
    43. 47. Machine Driven Nails & Staples <ul><li>Nail Guns, Staple guns </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumatic (or electric) </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-packaged fasteners (collated nails) </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Used in many applications </li></ul><ul><li>Power actuated fasteners </li></ul>Battery Powered Electric Nailer Collated Nails
    44. 48. Wood Screws <ul><li>Head type </li></ul><ul><li>Sizing - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gauge & Length </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Installation </li></ul><ul><li>Holding power </li></ul><ul><li>Uses </li></ul>Deck Screws Types of ‘Heads’
    45. 49. Lag & Drywall Screws <ul><li>Lag Screws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large screws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Square or octagonal head </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Installed w/ wrench </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drywall screws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to attach drywall </li></ul></ul>
    46. 50. Bolts <ul><li>Heavier structural connections </li></ul><ul><li>Sizes </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Machine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carriage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Washers </li></ul>
    47. 51. Toothed Plates <ul><li>Sheet metal plate w/ numerous teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Used with roof & floor trusses </li></ul><ul><li>Pressed into members </li></ul><ul><li>Very effective fasteners </li></ul>
    48. 52. Sheet Metal Framing Devices <ul><li>Light Wood Framing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joist Hangers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Framing anchors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Angle anchors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rafter anchor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heavy Timber or Laminated Framing </li></ul>
    49. 53. Adhesives <ul><li>Widely used in the manufacture of wood products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wood panels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laminated wood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cabinetry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>On Site Uses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheathing </li></ul></ul>
    50. 54. Engineered Wood <ul><li>Trusses </li></ul><ul><li>Wood I-Joists </li></ul><ul><li>Beams (gluelams) </li></ul><ul><li>Panel Components </li></ul>
    51. 55. Trusses <ul><li>Types of Trusses - Floor & Roof </li></ul>Floor Trusses Roof Trusses
    52. 57. Trusses (cont.) <ul><li>Where and How Built? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most factory built (pre-engineered) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most 2X4 or 2X6 w/ toothed fasteners </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Order how? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Span </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pitch (roof) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overhang </li></ul></ul>
    53. 58. I-Joists <ul><li>Uses </li></ul><ul><li>Sizes </li></ul><ul><li>Composition </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul>
    54. 59. Why Use Trusses or I-Joists? <ul><li>Less material (less weight) </li></ul><ul><li>More efficient use of wood </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Span </li></ul><ul><li>Increased dimensional stability </li></ul><ul><li>Installation savings (labor) </li></ul>
    55. 60. Sustainability in Wood Construction <ul><li>Only major renewable structural material </li></ul><ul><li>Forestry Practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable forestry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearcutting & replanting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mill Practices – Lumber Recovery Factor (LRF) </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Embodies Energy Content </li></ul>

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