Social determinants: Culture, Manpower- education and training, skills, experience, age group, health etc. Economic determinants: Assets, Capital, Resources, HR (education, employment, devotion), transportation and communication etc
Marxists believe that the transition from capitalism to socialism is an inevitable part of the development of human society
Social Planning Approaches, Strategies,
Indicators and Perspectives in Social
Department of Social Work,
Understanding the terms
Social the term refers to society.
Plan is a blue print of action. Planning is to devise
detailed methods of doing things using different
approaches to be adopted. It is a fore thought.
Strategy is a plan of action designed to achieve
the set goals.
Strategy is a way to proceed- from known to
unknown, from simple to sophisticated. It is a
deliberate intervention with the instruments of
policy and planning to bring about a non-random
change towards the desired goals.
Perspective refers to a particular attitude towards
something. It is a point of view.
Social Planning is concerned with defining goals,
determining future activities, identifying resources
and ways to accomplish those set goals meant
for social development.
Social Development is equated with a series of
completed stages. Like having to climb the rungs
of a ladder, one moves up and up in order to
become more and more developed.
Development is always conceived within a twin
framework of self- and other-development. Social
development represents a holistic approach that
is dynamic and process-oriented.
Major Social Planning
RRA (Rapid Rural Appraisal) – RRA typically last
from four to eight days. During this period a
multidisciplinary team of researchers looks at a set
of issues in close collaboration with community
members, involving them in all aspects of the
collection and analysis of information. The focus is
generally on gathering information and ensuring that
the information is as rich and as accurate as
possible. An RRA generally results in findings
(information) which can then be used in a variety of
PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal) - The
approach takes into account knowledge and
opinions of rural people in the planning and
management of development projects and
programmes. It is a set of participatory and
largely visual techniques for assessing group
and community resources, identifying and
prioritizing problems and appraising strategies
for solving them.
PLA (Participatory Learning and Action) – PLA
is an approach for learning about and
engaging with communities. It provides and
promotes active participation of communities in
the issues and interventions that shape their
Big Push Strategy
Formulated by Paul N. Rosenstein Rodan. It picturizes
a very large amount of investment on industrial sector
so as to jump over the obstacles to development. This
strategy emphasizes the need for acceleration in
investment over a short period. It is to make an
economy self sustaining in a short time, progressing
bit by bit is not enough.
Strategies of Social Development
Critical Minimum Effort Strategy
Formulated by Leibenstein. This strategy picturizes a certain
minimum effort in the form of investment to achieve self-
accelerating growth in the face of rapidly arising population
so that it becomes possible to attain a substantial increase in
the per capita income. Initial investment has to be large
enough so that the efforts at rising per capita income are not
frustated by population growth.
Balanced Growth Strategy
Proposed by Ragnar Nurkse, H. Leibenstein, Rosenstein
Rodan, W. Lewis and others. Rodan was the first to propose
this startegy. According to him, all areas of economy should
be developed equally in order to get the maximum
advantage. It emphasizes a balance between different
sectors of economy during the process of economic growth.
Unbalanced Growth Strategy
Propounded by a German economist, Hirchman.
Investments should be made in selected sectors rather
than simultaneously in all sectors of economy. It is the
approach as opposed balanced growth strategy.
Economists like Singer, Kindleberger, Streeten etc., have
expressed their views in favor of this concept.
Social Development as an Alternate
Approach to Development
Social development pursues an alternative approach
focusing on the empowerment and autonomy of actors, and
also taking account of the structural obstacles that confront
them as they shape their daily lives in the sense of learning
to develop their selves.
Unified Approach to Development – This approach
was to include the following components:
To leave no section of the population outside the
scope of change and development.
To effect structural change which favours national
development and incorporates all sectors of
population to participate in the process of
To aim at social equity, including achievement of
equitable distribution of resources in the nation.
To give high priority to the development of the human
Thus, full integration of economic and social
determinants was made possible.
Basic Needs Approach – According to Streeten,
there are two ways of defining basic needs approach
First Approach – To include components of previous
strategies and approaches like- rural development,
urban poverty alleviation, employment generation
through small scale industries, redistribution of
growth and other equity oriented approaches, with an
emphasis towards social services and transfer
payments for all those who are deprived.
Second Approach – This approach focuses on
channeling resources to particular groups identified
as deficient in these resources. It is derived from the
aim of meeting basic human needs for changing
composition of output – rate of growth and its
components and distribution of purchasing power.
Holistic Approach to Development – This
approach focuses on totality of the process of
development, eliminating compartmentalizing the
process as per various disciplines. It views
development as a complex whole, comprising not
only economic elements strictly, but also other
social as well as political and administrative
So we do- attacking the problems from more
angles, and in cooperation to all sides.
Holistic Approach to Development
Rural Development, Urbanization,
Transportation, Social Services like
Education, Employment, Income, Health,
Nutrition and Housing.
Development programmes are based on productive
and distributive strategies. Be it rural development
as emphasized in the initial five year plans or
urbanization – growth of cities, thoughtful and
reflective communication is needed to provide social
services to the deprived sectors of the society.
Education – To aim at achieving balance between liberal
and technical education, rural and urban education for
boys and girls, lower and higher stages of education etc.
Employment – To generate labour intensive projects,
incorporating proper technology, or atleast a choice of
correct mix of technologies with optimum employment
potential, consistent with the need of modernization of
Income – Equitable distribution of income. Taxation is an
inadequate connection to a more even spread of income
and wealth. Taxation can only level down the standard of
living of the poorer sections, on the contrast, the social
service sector emerging from Government aid, aims at
leveling up the standard of living of the deprived.
Nutrition and Health – Food and nutrition are related
and this is a matter of common knowledge. A lot of
factors influence food policies – fluctuation in cash
economy, state intervention in agricultural markets,
pressures of export promotion etc. Health care and
immunization are considered of utmost importance in
any health plan for the development of societies.
Housing – In this sector deterioration is seen not
only in terms of quantity but also in quality.
Innovative approach to low-income housing has to
be made before this problem takes a giant form.
Best Approaches to Development
Starting at grass root level.
Through people’s participation in study, assessment and
People Centered Approach:
Delegation of power to lower levels.
Empowering the weak, reducing discrimination and inequality.
Collective decision making.
Meeting the needs of the present without compromising that of
Territorial Approach - This means that any social development
initiative is designed on a precise space called “TERRITORY”, taking
into account its peculiarities, its potentials, assets, strengths and
weaknesses in term of geographical position, economic and social
dynamic, cultural and ethnic characteristics.
The Gender Approach - The Gender referring to the social, economic,
and cultural roles of men and women, as well as relations between
them, takes into account the specific responsibilities of men and
women in a culture or in different population groups (age etc.). This
approach systematically takes into account the differences in term of
conditions, situations, capabilities and needs of women and men in all
development policies and actions in order to set up a new equitable
partnership between women and men, respecting the right and
ensuring their equal, full and complete participation at all levels. The
final goal is to come to an equitable development and their
The Partnership Approach - It consists of the putting in synergy
(networking) of a mosaic of actors (civil society, local authorities,
central departments, international NGOs…) gathering them around
a sole vision. It is based on the principle of trust, sharing of
knowledge and the complementarities of skills.
Iterative Approach – Before a final plan is made, many studies,
assessments, alternative considerations and revisions have to be
made. After receiving comments from all the related sources, a
review and revision period begins. This process is repeated many
times to find the best results.
Flexible Approach – Continuous monitoring and evaluation process
should be built into the plan to incorporate future adjustment,
modification, or revision. Planned targets should be progressive –
smaller at beginning and expand gradually.
Regional Development Approach – Attempts to reduce regional
disparities by focusing on peripheral regions of the country and
linking the region more with the core.
Growth Pole Approach – Development of a core region/sector. It
could be planned or unplanned.
The Trickle down/ Top Down Approach - It argues that richer
individuals and bigger companies are the driving force behind
economic growth. This wealth will naturally trickle down and benefit
all. Therefore, a country should focus upon building a favorable
environment for them with low taxation and reduced regulation. Top
down approach tends to centralize decision making and is often
linked to development through large scale “prestige” projects.
The Export led growth Approach – Economic growth through
production and export of products which the country has a
comparative advantage at producing.
Import substitution Approach – Domestic production instead of
imports. Subsidies and protection of domestic industries from
foreign competition and tarrifs and non-tariff barriers reducing
Economic Growth and Social Change in the
context of National Development.
Social consequences of national development are not at all
planned or are much less expected. There are various factors
on the broad spectrum of social change (like, high rate of
population growth, emergence of new styles of living, values
and institutions, unabsorbed rural-urban migration etc.) which
are foreseeable, and therefore preventable. Yet, there are
some circumstances that effect social development, which
cannot be predicted(like, natural disasters, wars, riots etc.)
Social Welfare is a basic integrated institution in the society
providing both universal and selective services outside the
market on the principle of need.
(National Development Programmes: Integrated Child
Development Programme, Watershed Management
Programme, Integrated Rural Development Programme etc.)
Stages of Social Development
Physical Stage – Society is preoccupied with bare
survival and subsistence. It is the agrarian or feudal
phase, where wealth is measured in terms of land
Vital Stage – Societies become adventurous, curious
and innovative, where people try to explore. Money
becomes powerful and trade and law get recognition.
Mental Stage – Incorporates practical, social and
political application of mind. Societies become more
organized, ideas to social change emerge, notion of
better life (Human Rights, Democracy etc) are
I Demographic Indicator
i. Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR): It is defined as the
proportion of currently married women using any
ii. Total Fertility Rate (TFR): It is the number of children a
women would bear during her life at the rate specified by the
schedule of age specific fertility rate for the year, and if none
of them dies before crossing the age of reproduction.
iii. Infant Mortality Rate (IMR): This is the proportion of new
born dying before completion of their first year.
iv. Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR): The maternal mortality
rate (MMR) is the annual number of female deaths per
1,00,000 live births from any cause related to or aggravated
by pregnancy or its management (excluding accidental or
II HEALTH INDICATOR
i. Percentage of Institutional Deliveries: It
represent percentage of delivery that took place in
an institution in both public and private sector in
ii. Percentage of Undernourished Children: The
nutritional status of children calculated according
to anthropometric measure (weight-for-age).
III EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT
i. Literacy Rate: Literacy rate here is defined as the
proportion of literate to the population in the age
group 15 years and above by the level of general
ii. Pupil Teacher Ratio: It is the ratio of the number
of students to a teacher in primary school to the
different state of India.
iii. School Attendance Rate: Similarly for the school
attendance rate, which indicate the percentage of
the defacto population aged 5 to 14 currently
IV BASIC AMENITIES INDICATOR
i. There are percentage of household that:
ii. Live in pucca house
iii. Have access to safe drinking water
iv. Have access to toilet facilities
v. Electricity connection
V ECONOMIC DEPRIVATION
i. Gini Ratio for per capita consumption
expenditure: it shows the state wise figure
inequality in consumption expenditure.
ii. Unemployment Rate: Current daily status
employment rate is taken as the basis for
VI SOCIAL DEPRIVATION
i. Disparity ratio between Schedule Caste and the
Unreserved population in the literacy rate.
ii. Disparity ratio between Schedule Tribe and
Unreserved population in the literacy rate.
iii. Disparity ratio between female and male in the
iv. Female unemployment.
v. Economic deprivation of Muslim.
vi. Shortcomings that the female children face for
survival in the early years of life.
Social Development Perspectives
The World Summit for Social Development held in
Copenhagen in 1995 persisted with the point that
over one billion people in absolute poverty live
lives characterized by deprivation of basic human
needs, including those of safe drinking water and
sanitation facilities. The Social Summit urged that
in formulating strategies for eradicating absolute
poverty, governments and the international
community should implement the commitment to
meet basic needs including providing ‘on a
sustainable basis, access to safe drinking water
in sufficient quantities and proper sanitation for
all’ (UNICEF, 1995).
Socialism is a social and economic system
characterized by social ownership of the means of
production and co-operative management of the
economy, as well as a political theory and movement
that aims at the establishment of such a system.
Capitalism is an economic system in which trade,
industries, and the means of production are largely
or entirely privately owned and operated for profit.
Central characteristics of capitalism include private
property, capital accumulation, wage labour and, in
many models, competitive markets.
Criticism of Capitalism:
According to the Marxist theoretician and revolutionary Vladimir
Lenin, "the principal content of Marxism" was "Marx's economic
doctrine". Marx believed that the capitalist bourgeois and their
economists were promoting (what he saw as the lie that) "The
interests of the capitalist and those of the worker are ... one and
the same"; he believed that they did this by purporting the
concept that "the fastest possible growth of productive capital was
best not only for the wealthy capitalists but also for the workers
because it provided them with employment.”
Exploitation is a matter of surplus labour – the amount of labour
one performs beyond what one receives in goods. Exploitation
has been a socio-economic feature of every class society, and is
one of the principal features distinguishing the social classes. The
power of one social class to control the means of
production enables its exploitation of the other classes. Thus,
Exploitation is inevitable, and the "voluntary" nature of a worker
participating in a capitalist society is illusory.
There is general agreement that the Left includes:
anarchists, anti-capitalists, anti- imperialists,
autonomists, democratic-socialists, feminists, greens,
progressives, left-libertarians, secularists, socialists,
social-democrats and social-liberals.
There is also general consensus that the Right
capitalists, conservatives, fascists, monarchists,
nationalists, neoliberals, reactionaries, theocrats, right-
libertarians, social-authoritarians, neoconservatives
Marxism is a worldview and a method of societal
analysis that focuses on class relations and societal
conflict, that uses a materialist interpretation of historical
development i.e., political and historical events result
from the conflict of social forces and are interpretable as
a series of contradictions and their solutions. The conflict
is seen as caused by material needs.
The influential Communist Manifesto by Karl
Marx and Friedrich Engels, published in 1848, asserted
that all human history is the history of class struggle.
They predicted that a proletarian revolution would
eventually overthrow bourgeois capitalism and create
a classless, stateless, post-monetary society. It talks
about the different views about how to reach a classless
and stateless society.
Non Marxist left thought - They accept or
support social equality and egalitarianism, often in
opposition to social hierarchy and social inequality.
They typically involve concern for those in society
who are perceived as disadvantaged relative to
others and a belief that there are unjustified
inequalities that need to be reduced or abolished.
They believe that the transition of economy to
socialism will be a peaceful and evolutionary one,
through progressive social reform of capitalism.
Collectivism: Actions taken united are more powerful
than individualistic actions. Supporters are Karl
Marx, Hegel and Rousseau.