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Social Planning and Development


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Social Planning - Meaning and Approaches
Social Development - Strategies and Approaches, Indicators and Perspectives

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Social Planning and Development

  1. 1. Social Planning Approaches, Strategies, Indicators and Perspectives in Social Development Richi Simon Department of Social Work, BSSS
  2. 2. Understanding the terms  Social the term refers to society.  Plan is a blue print of action. Planning is to devise detailed methods of doing things using different approaches to be adopted. It is a fore thought.  Strategy is a plan of action designed to achieve the set goals.  Strategy is a way to proceed- from known to unknown, from simple to sophisticated. It is a deliberate intervention with the instruments of policy and planning to bring about a non-random change towards the desired goals.  Perspective refers to a particular attitude towards something. It is a point of view.
  3. 3. Cont…  Social Planning is concerned with defining goals, determining future activities, identifying resources and ways to accomplish those set goals meant for social development.  Social Development is equated with a series of completed stages. Like having to climb the rungs of a ladder, one moves up and up in order to become more and more developed.  Development is always conceived within a twin framework of self- and other-development. Social development represents a holistic approach that is dynamic and process-oriented.
  4. 4. Major Social Planning Approaches  RRA (Rapid Rural Appraisal) – RRA typically last from four to eight days. During this period a multidisciplinary team of researchers looks at a set of issues in close collaboration with community members, involving them in all aspects of the collection and analysis of information. The focus is generally on gathering information and ensuring that the information is as rich and as accurate as possible. An RRA generally results in findings (information) which can then be used in a variety of ways.
  5. 5.  PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal) - The approach takes into account knowledge and opinions of rural people in the planning and management of development projects and programmes. It is a set of participatory and largely visual techniques for assessing group and community resources, identifying and prioritizing problems and appraising strategies for solving them.  PLA (Participatory Learning and Action) – PLA is an approach for learning about and engaging with communities. It provides and promotes active participation of communities in the issues and interventions that shape their lives. Cont…
  6. 6. Big Push Strategy Formulated by Paul N. Rosenstein Rodan. It picturizes a very large amount of investment on industrial sector so as to jump over the obstacles to development. This strategy emphasizes the need for acceleration in investment over a short period. It is to make an economy self sustaining in a short time, progressing bit by bit is not enough. Strategies of Social Development
  7. 7. Critical Minimum Effort Strategy Formulated by Leibenstein. This strategy picturizes a certain minimum effort in the form of investment to achieve self- accelerating growth in the face of rapidly arising population so that it becomes possible to attain a substantial increase in the per capita income. Initial investment has to be large enough so that the efforts at rising per capita income are not frustated by population growth. Balanced Growth Strategy Proposed by Ragnar Nurkse, H. Leibenstein, Rosenstein Rodan, W. Lewis and others. Rodan was the first to propose this startegy. According to him, all areas of economy should be developed equally in order to get the maximum advantage. It emphasizes a balance between different sectors of economy during the process of economic growth.
  8. 8. Unbalanced Growth Strategy Propounded by a German economist, Hirchman. Investments should be made in selected sectors rather than simultaneously in all sectors of economy. It is the approach as opposed balanced growth strategy. Economists like Singer, Kindleberger, Streeten etc., have expressed their views in favor of this concept. Social Development as an Alternate Approach to Development Social development pursues an alternative approach focusing on the empowerment and autonomy of actors, and also taking account of the structural obstacles that confront them as they shape their daily lives in the sense of learning to develop their selves.
  9. 9.  Unified Approach to Development – This approach was to include the following components:  To leave no section of the population outside the scope of change and development.  To effect structural change which favours national development and incorporates all sectors of population to participate in the process of development.  To aim at social equity, including achievement of equitable distribution of resources in the nation.  To give high priority to the development of the human potentialities. Thus, full integration of economic and social determinants was made possible.
  10. 10.  Basic Needs Approach – According to Streeten, there are two ways of defining basic needs approach to development-  First Approach – To include components of previous strategies and approaches like- rural development, urban poverty alleviation, employment generation through small scale industries, redistribution of growth and other equity oriented approaches, with an emphasis towards social services and transfer payments for all those who are deprived.  Second Approach – This approach focuses on channeling resources to particular groups identified as deficient in these resources. It is derived from the aim of meeting basic human needs for changing composition of output – rate of growth and its components and distribution of purchasing power.
  11. 11.  Holistic Approach to Development – This approach focuses on totality of the process of development, eliminating compartmentalizing the process as per various disciplines. It views development as a complex whole, comprising not only economic elements strictly, but also other social as well as political and administrative elements. So we do- attacking the problems from more angles, and in cooperation to all sides.
  12. 12. Economics Political Science Environmental studies LawTechnology Education Medical Holistic Approach to Development Engineering Sociology Psychology Commerce Agriculture Administration Communication Development HR Philosophy
  13. 13. Rural Development, Urbanization, Transportation, Social Services like Education, Employment, Income, Health, Nutrition and Housing. Development programmes are based on productive and distributive strategies. Be it rural development as emphasized in the initial five year plans or urbanization – growth of cities, thoughtful and reflective communication is needed to provide social services to the deprived sectors of the society.
  14. 14.  Education – To aim at achieving balance between liberal and technical education, rural and urban education for boys and girls, lower and higher stages of education etc.  Employment – To generate labour intensive projects, incorporating proper technology, or atleast a choice of correct mix of technologies with optimum employment potential, consistent with the need of modernization of the economy.  Income – Equitable distribution of income. Taxation is an inadequate connection to a more even spread of income and wealth. Taxation can only level down the standard of living of the poorer sections, on the contrast, the social service sector emerging from Government aid, aims at leveling up the standard of living of the deprived.
  15. 15.  Nutrition and Health – Food and nutrition are related and this is a matter of common knowledge. A lot of factors influence food policies – fluctuation in cash economy, state intervention in agricultural markets, pressures of export promotion etc. Health care and immunization are considered of utmost importance in any health plan for the development of societies.  Housing – In this sector deterioration is seen not only in terms of quantity but also in quality. Innovative approach to low-income housing has to be made before this problem takes a giant form.
  16. 16. Best Approaches to Development  Bottom-Up Approach:  Starting at grass root level.  Through people’s participation in study, assessment and intervention.  People Centered Approach:  Delegation of power to lower levels.  Empowering the weak, reducing discrimination and inequality.  Collective decision making.  Sustainable Development:  Meeting the needs of the present without compromising that of future.
  17. 17.  Territorial Approach - This means that any social development initiative is designed on a precise space called “TERRITORY”, taking into account its peculiarities, its potentials, assets, strengths and weaknesses in term of geographical position, economic and social dynamic, cultural and ethnic characteristics.  The Gender Approach - The Gender referring to the social, economic, and cultural roles of men and women, as well as relations between them, takes into account the specific responsibilities of men and women in a culture or in different population groups (age etc.). This approach systematically takes into account the differences in term of conditions, situations, capabilities and needs of women and men in all development policies and actions in order to set up a new equitable partnership between women and men, respecting the right and ensuring their equal, full and complete participation at all levels. The final goal is to come to an equitable development and their empowerment. Other Approaches
  18. 18.  The Partnership Approach - It consists of the putting in synergy (networking) of a mosaic of actors (civil society, local authorities, central departments, international NGOs…) gathering them around a sole vision. It is based on the principle of trust, sharing of knowledge and the complementarities of skills.  Iterative Approach – Before a final plan is made, many studies, assessments, alternative considerations and revisions have to be made. After receiving comments from all the related sources, a review and revision period begins. This process is repeated many times to find the best results.  Flexible Approach – Continuous monitoring and evaluation process should be built into the plan to incorporate future adjustment, modification, or revision. Planned targets should be progressive – smaller at beginning and expand gradually.  Regional Development Approach – Attempts to reduce regional disparities by focusing on peripheral regions of the country and linking the region more with the core.
  19. 19.  Growth Pole Approach – Development of a core region/sector. It could be planned or unplanned.  The Trickle down/ Top Down Approach - It argues that richer individuals and bigger companies are the driving force behind economic growth. This wealth will naturally trickle down and benefit all. Therefore, a country should focus upon building a favorable environment for them with low taxation and reduced regulation. Top down approach tends to centralize decision making and is often linked to development through large scale “prestige” projects.  The Export led growth Approach – Economic growth through production and export of products which the country has a comparative advantage at producing.  Import substitution Approach – Domestic production instead of imports. Subsidies and protection of domestic industries from foreign competition and tarrifs and non-tariff barriers reducing imports.
  20. 20. Economic Growth and Social Change in the context of National Development. Social consequences of national development are not at all planned or are much less expected. There are various factors on the broad spectrum of social change (like, high rate of population growth, emergence of new styles of living, values and institutions, unabsorbed rural-urban migration etc.) which are foreseeable, and therefore preventable. Yet, there are some circumstances that effect social development, which cannot be predicted(like, natural disasters, wars, riots etc.) Social Welfare is a basic integrated institution in the society providing both universal and selective services outside the market on the principle of need. (National Development Programmes: Integrated Child Development Programme, Watershed Management Programme, Integrated Rural Development Programme etc.)
  21. 21. Stages of Social Development  Physical Stage – Society is preoccupied with bare survival and subsistence. It is the agrarian or feudal phase, where wealth is measured in terms of land holdings.  Vital Stage – Societies become adventurous, curious and innovative, where people try to explore. Money becomes powerful and trade and law get recognition.  Mental Stage – Incorporates practical, social and political application of mind. Societies become more organized, ideas to social change emerge, notion of better life (Human Rights, Democracy etc) are emphasized.
  22. 22. Social Development Indicators
  23. 23. I Demographic Indicator i. Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR): It is defined as the proportion of currently married women using any contraceptive measure. ii. Total Fertility Rate (TFR): It is the number of children a women would bear during her life at the rate specified by the schedule of age specific fertility rate for the year, and if none of them dies before crossing the age of reproduction. iii. Infant Mortality Rate (IMR): This is the proportion of new born dying before completion of their first year. iv. Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR): The maternal mortality rate (MMR) is the annual number of female deaths per 1,00,000 live births from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management (excluding accidental or incidental causes).
  24. 24. II HEALTH INDICATOR i. Percentage of Institutional Deliveries: It represent percentage of delivery that took place in an institution in both public and private sector in the state. ii. Percentage of Undernourished Children: The nutritional status of children calculated according to anthropometric measure (weight-for-age).
  25. 25. III EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT INDICATOR i. Literacy Rate: Literacy rate here is defined as the proportion of literate to the population in the age group 15 years and above by the level of general education. ii. Pupil Teacher Ratio: It is the ratio of the number of students to a teacher in primary school to the different state of India. iii. School Attendance Rate: Similarly for the school attendance rate, which indicate the percentage of the defacto population aged 5 to 14 currently attending school.
  26. 26. IV BASIC AMENITIES INDICATOR i. There are percentage of household that: ii. Live in pucca house iii. Have access to safe drinking water iv. Have access to toilet facilities v. Electricity connection
  27. 27. V ECONOMIC DEPRIVATION INDICATOR i. Gini Ratio for per capita consumption expenditure: it shows the state wise figure inequality in consumption expenditure. ii. Unemployment Rate: Current daily status employment rate is taken as the basis for calculating unemployment.
  28. 28. VI SOCIAL DEPRIVATION INDICATOR i. Disparity ratio between Schedule Caste and the Unreserved population in the literacy rate. ii. Disparity ratio between Schedule Tribe and Unreserved population in the literacy rate. iii. Disparity ratio between female and male in the literacy rate. iv. Female unemployment. v. Economic deprivation of Muslim. vi. Shortcomings that the female children face for survival in the early years of life.
  29. 29. Social Development Perspectives  The World Summit for Social Development held in Copenhagen in 1995 persisted with the point that over one billion people in absolute poverty live lives characterized by deprivation of basic human needs, including those of safe drinking water and sanitation facilities. The Social Summit urged that in formulating strategies for eradicating absolute poverty, governments and the international community should implement the commitment to meet basic needs including providing ‘on a sustainable basis, access to safe drinking water in sufficient quantities and proper sanitation for all’ (UNICEF, 1995).
  30. 30.  Socialism is a social and economic system characterized by social ownership of the means of production and co-operative management of the economy, as well as a political theory and movement that aims at the establishment of such a system.  Capitalism is an economic system in which trade, industries, and the means of production are largely or entirely privately owned and operated for profit. Central characteristics of capitalism include private property, capital accumulation, wage labour and, in many models, competitive markets.
  31. 31. Criticism of Capitalism:  According to the Marxist theoretician and revolutionary Vladimir Lenin, "the principal content of Marxism" was "Marx's economic doctrine". Marx believed that the capitalist bourgeois and their economists were promoting (what he saw as the lie that) "The interests of the capitalist and those of the worker are ... one and the same"; he believed that they did this by purporting the concept that "the fastest possible growth of productive capital was best not only for the wealthy capitalists but also for the workers because it provided them with employment.”  Exploitation is a matter of surplus labour – the amount of labour one performs beyond what one receives in goods. Exploitation has been a socio-economic feature of every class society, and is one of the principal features distinguishing the social classes. The power of one social class to control the means of production enables its exploitation of the other classes. Thus, Exploitation is inevitable, and the "voluntary" nature of a worker participating in a capitalist society is illusory.
  32. 32.  There is general agreement that the Left includes: anarchists, anti-capitalists, anti- imperialists, autonomists, democratic-socialists, feminists, greens, progressives, left-libertarians, secularists, socialists, social-democrats and social-liberals.  There is also general consensus that the Right includes: capitalists, conservatives, fascists, monarchists, nationalists, neoliberals, reactionaries, theocrats, right- libertarians, social-authoritarians, neoconservatives and traditionalists.
  33. 33.  Marxism is a worldview and a method of societal analysis that focuses on class relations and societal conflict, that uses a materialist interpretation of historical development i.e., political and historical events result from the conflict of social forces and are interpretable as a series of contradictions and their solutions. The conflict is seen as caused by material needs.  The influential Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, published in 1848, asserted that all human history is the history of class struggle. They predicted that a proletarian revolution would eventually overthrow bourgeois capitalism and create a classless, stateless, post-monetary society. It talks about the different views about how to reach a classless and stateless society.
  34. 34.  Non Marxist left thought - They accept or support social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy and social inequality. They typically involve concern for those in society who are perceived as disadvantaged relative to others and a belief that there are unjustified inequalities that need to be reduced or abolished. They believe that the transition of economy to socialism will be a peaceful and evolutionary one, through progressive social reform of capitalism.  Collectivism: Actions taken united are more powerful than individualistic actions. Supporters are Karl Marx, Hegel and Rousseau.