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R callaghan DT774 Energy and Retrofit Presentation

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R callaghan DT774 Energy and Retrofit Presentation

  1. 1. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitProject 5 Presentation:17th May 2013In relation to the Flat Top Block Complex
  2. 2. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013What do we mean by ‘energy use’ in this context?How do we measure energy use in dwellings?The energy required for the space heating, ventilation, water heating andlighting of a dwelling.Where does the energy used in dwellings come from?Energy used may be from the electricity grid, the combustion of naturalgas, fossil fuels and biomass, renewable technologies (solar, wind, etc.)BER assessment: an indication of the energy performance of a dwelling.In-use measurement: monitoring energy bills.
  3. 3. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013What is energy use measured in?What is primary and delivered energy usage in dwellings?There are many units that energy is expressed in(Joules, Calories, Horsepower, BTU, etc.)Kilowatt-hours (kWh) of Energy are used in BER assessments.What can one Kilowatt-hour do?Run a 11W CFL Bulb for 90 hours.Run a 3kW kettle for 20 minutes.Run a 20kW Gas boiler for 3 minutes.Delivered energy is the amount of energyexpended at the point of use. e.g. The energymeasured at the electricity meter.Primary energy is the total amount of energy usedincluding the energy requirements for the conversionof primary sources (oil, gas, peat) and the transferringof the energy to the dwelling.e.g. Energy used in oil refining and electricity lossesduring transmission.
  4. 4. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013Source: SEAI Energy StatisticsDatabank from www.cso.ieIrish Energy Use by Sector for 2011 Transport (40%)Residential (25%)Industry (20%)Commercial services(7%)Public services (5%)Agricultural andFisheries (3%)Importance of creating sustainableenergy supply for dwellings
  5. 5. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013Sustainable Energy / Energy ConservationThere are many reasons why dwellings should be made more energy efficient:Societal:no fuel poverty, national fuelsecurity, health and wellbeing, ensuringsustainable energy supply for futuregenerations.Financial:Lower operating costs, less wastage(through inefficiency), counteractincreasing oil & gas prices.Environmental:Reduce greenhouse gasemissions, reduce airborne particles andpollution, less mining, fracking or oildrilling.
  6. 6. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013Energy Conservation Targets and ControlsInternational Policy Drivers:• Kyoto Protocol• EU Climate and Energy Package(20-20-20 targets)• Energy Performance of Buildings Directive(2002/91/EC and Re-cast 2010/31/EU)• EU Renewable Energy Supply - ElectricityDirectiveNational Policy Drivers:• National Energy Efficiency Action Plan 2(NEEAP)• National Spatial Strategy• National Development Plan• National Climate Change StrategyNational Regulations & GuidanceDocuments:• Part L (2011) Conservation of Fuel andEnergy• Part F (2009) Ventilation• Part J (1997) Heat Producing Appliances
  7. 7. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013Energy Conservation and RetrofitSimilar benefits exist as to why retrofit is a progressive policy in relation to bothmonetary expenditure and energy expenditure.• Existing building structure.• Embodied energy of existing building.• Embodied CO2 of existing building.• Future-proofing of asset.• Existing Infrastructure.• Existing Local Services.• Existing Communities• Quicker return on investmentthrough lifecycle cost savings
  8. 8. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013DEAP Assessment ToolThe Dwelling Energy Assessment Procedure (DEAP) is the official Irish methodfor calculating and assessing the energy required in dwellings.Used to demonstrate compliance with the EPBD and elements of Part L.DEAP calculates the primary energy per square meter per annum. ( kWh/m²/y )The BER grade is based on this figure.Items included in calculations of the required energy input:• Space Heating – fabric heat loss (planar + LTB), ventilation heat loss.• Domestic Hot Water – based on floor areas / occupancy and efficiency ofboiler and controls and insulation of pipework.• Lighting – proportion of energy efficiency lightbulbs• Fans and pumps – for ventilation (heat recovery), for renewables (pumpSHW), for flues (in boilers).Energy use that DEAP doesn’t count:• Non-fixed appliances and heaters.• Energy used to construct building and produce building fabric.• Actual in-use measurements.
  9. 9. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013DEAP Calculator as a Design ToolDuring the design process DEAP can be used to measure the progress of theproposal to meet any energy performance targets set.Input geometry andareas of proposal.Input ventilationsystemsInput u-values ofFabric.Input lightingvalues.Input window u-valuesand orientation.Input SH & DHWsystem specificationsCheck PreliminaryResultRedesign proposal(if required)
  10. 10. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013Energy Targets Set in Flat Top BlockRetrofit Performance Specification• Hygrothermal analysis for all enclosing elements using the Glaser (steadystate) method in accordance with Irish Building Regulations.• Surface temperature/condensation risk (fRsi) calculation for internal surfacesof the thermal envelope in ground and fifth floor rooms adjacent to the gablein accordance with Irish Building Regulations.• Full compliance with Irish Building Regulations as if it were a new building.• BER of A2 using the DEAP methodology (with calculated y-factor).Criteria indirectly affecting energy strategy.
  11. 11. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013Energy Use in Average Dwelling in Existing Flat Top BlockUnit 9 located in the Long Block. BER grade of E1 & Primary Energy of 316kWh/m²/y0200040006000800010000120001400016000Space Heating Water Heating Lighting Pumps and FansDelivered EnergyPrimary EnergyRenewable EnergykWh/y
  12. 12. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013Energy Use in Average Dwelling in Retrofitted Flat Top BlockMid Floor Type A2 Unit. BER grade of A2 & Primary Energy of 37kWh/m²/y05001000150020002500Space Heating Water Heating Lighting Pumps and FansDelivered EnergyPrimary EnergyRenewable EnergykWh/y
  13. 13. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013Heat Loss Comparison - Existing and RetrofitUnit 9 located in the Long Block. BER grade of E1 & Primary Energy of 316kWh/m²/y-v-Mid Floor Type A2 Unit. BER grade of A2 & Primary Energy of 37kWh/m²/y050100150200250Ventilation Fabric - Planar Fabric - LTBExisting BuildingProposed RetrofitW/K
  14. 14. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013Methods Employed to improve EnergyPerformance in Flat Top Block RetrofitImprovement of u-values ofbuilding envelope.Reduction of heat loss throughlinear thermal bridgesIncreased air-tightness ofenvelope.Group heating system with highefficiency, and Solar ThermalPanels and CHP incorporated.
  15. 15. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013The Benefits of Renewable Energy ProductionFor the environment: Renewablesreduce the need to burn fossil fuelsand thus reduce greenhouse gasemissions. It is a more sustainableenergy system.Financially: After the initial expenditure the energy costs from renewables arenegligible in comparison to energy utility costs. Payback period from reducedutility bills varies for different technologies and projects.There are many varieties ofrenewable technologies availableto choose from:solar thermal, photovoltaicpanels, micro-windpower, biomass combustion, heatpumps, etc.
  16. 16. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013The importance of Renewable Energy ProductionCombined Heat and Power (CHP) andSolar thermal were employed in theFlat Top Block Retrofit proposal.Within DEAP: The net energy produced by the technology is subtractedfrom delivered energy in the DEAP assessment. Thus the associated primaryenergy factor and CO2 emissions are reduced.Flat plate solar panels have beenshown above the balcony areas and onthe main roof. These provide asubstantial proportion of heat energy tothe DHW and SH systems.While gas fired CHP is not considered to be arenewable energy source, the lack of transmissionlosses allow for much greater electricalefficiencies and lower CO2 emissions within thescheme. Other micro-generation systems have asimilar advantage.TGD Part L: The minimum requirements for dwellings is 10 kWh/m²/ycontributing to water and space heating or 4 kWh/m²/y to electrical energy.
  17. 17. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013Energy Use versus Carbon Dioxide EmissionsDifferent fuels and energy sourceshave varying CO2 emission factors.Some examples are shown in thetable to the right.TGD Part L prescribes the Maximum Permitted Carbon Performance Coefficient(MPCPC) for dwellings as 0.46.The average MPCPC for the dwellings in the existing building is approximately 1.8.The average MPCPC for the Flat Top Block design proposal is 0.235 whichindicates that the proposed scheme will comply with the requirements of Part L forCO2 emissions.Primary energyfactorCO2 emissionfactor[kg/kWh]Gas mains gas 1.1 0.203Oil heating oil 1.1 0.272Solid fuelmanufactured smokelessfuel 1.2 0.392peat briquettes 1.1 0.377wood logs 1.1 0.025Electricity electricity 2.42 0.524Groupheatingwaste heat from powerstations 1.1 0.057
  18. 18. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013Energy in the Retrofit Context - ReflectionsA successful retrofit scheme will delivera building that will be sustainable andfuture-friendly.This will largely be achievedthrough a robust and highlyefficient energy strategy for theproposed dwellings.The cost of implementing a retrofit schemeshould be lower than that of constructing anew-build similar project. Thus the paybackperiod for renewable technology and highlyinsulated fabric should be achieved in ashorter period.Ultimately what will determine the success ofthe project is the increased health, wellbeingand quality of life for the residents.

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