• The XVII th century remained in history as the “Siglo de Oro” inthe spanish art.• The Spanish Baroque was different from the rest of Europe.•Philip II was really conservative and didn t want that thecounter-reformative ideas corrupt the catholic faith.• The Baroque Art finally entered in the Iberian Peninsula with“escurialense” influence.• The art was depleted because of the wrong political and economical administration.• It is surprising that although all these disadvantages, the arts atthis time were so brightful.
- During this period a lot of “plazas mayores”, palaces and religious constructions.- Used of poor materials.- It was a progresive developement of the “ornamentacion”.
-During this period the style that influenced most in the architecture was the herrerianStyle and the transition of the new ways of architecture from Italy.- The most famouses architects of this period were: - Juan Gomez de Mora: The townhall of Madrid andthe “plaza mayor” of Madri - Alonso Carbonell: Exterior afferes ministry.
During this period the style that influenced most was the “churrigueresco” style ofJose de Churriguera. Also the decoration is mora marked and developed.The most important architects of this period are: - José Benito de Churriguera: Altarpiece of the convent of Saint Esteban. - Pedro de Rivera: Hospicon of Saint Fernando. - Alonso Cano: Facade of the cathidral of Granada.
During this period they take the decorative exuberance to the limit, tjhis was calledrococo.There are not changes in the composition of the architecture but the are changes inthe decoration inside the architecture.-The most important architects during this period are: - Fernando de casas y Novoa: facade of the Obradoiro of the cathedral ofSantiago. - Narciso Tome: Transparent of the Cathedral of Toledo. - Jaime Bort: Cathedral of Murcia.
GENERAL FEATURES Religious themes. Mythological and secular themes absent. The material used is wood. Stew technique was abandoned. Realism. Thanks to the inserts. They create images of clothing. Expression of feelings in the figures. Purpose: to suggest profound religious emotion with the spirit of the Catholic Counter-Reformation.
LARGE SCHOOLS1. Andalusian School. Classical Realism: Juan Martínez Montañés.2. Castilian School. Violent and pathetic realism: Gregorio Fernández.3. Murcia: Francisco Saltillo.
ANDALUSIAN SCHOOL Classic and serene realism. Stew technique. Two creative centers: Sevilla, with Juan Martínez Montañés and Juan de Mesa, and Granada with Alonso Cano and Pedro de Mena.
JUAN MARTÍNEZ MONTAÑÉS Serenity and classic Castilian against dramatic pathos. Linked in with the Renaissance tradition. Perfect knowledge of the nude. Child sculpture creator.
CRISTO DE LA CLEMENCIA Christ is still alive, it avoids exaggeration. Realistic but idealized image, serenity. Anatomical model is smooth and balanced. More exquisit.
JUAN DE MESA Pupil of Martínez Montañés. Greater drama and violence at work. Cristo de la Buena Muerte
ALONSO CANO Disciple of Montañés. Expression and classicism of the form. Taste for stylization and simplification. Linked to the Renaissance. Evolution from the serenity of Montañés to the sensitivity prior to Rococó.
LA INMACULADA CONCEPCIÓN Youthful face, pious attitude. Verticality, small sice.
PEDRO DE MENA Mystical and dramatic representations. Triumph of the feelings.San Francisco de Asís Magdalena Penitente Ecce Homo
CASTILIAN SCHOOL Violent realism. It enhances the pain and pathos. The best exponent: Gregorio Fernández.
GREGORIO FERNÁNDEZLA MUERTE DE ECCE CRISTO: HOMO: Violent realism. Strong anatomical Anatomical modeling figures. perfection of bodies.
LA PIEDAD The central group is composed of diagonal: the Virgin’s right arm raised in sorrow, while her left hand holds firmly the Son, who rests on his lap. Both figures are treated with beauty and elegance, while the two thieves are superb anatomical studies.
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS:• “ Mecenazgo” of the Court and Church.• Absence of the heroic and sizes larger than the natural ones.They prefered a balance naturalism, a simple composition and notheatrical or scenographical.• Predominance of the religious themes, with an ascetic or mysticalexpression, and treated with simplicity and credibility.• Absence of sensuality.• Influence of the realism and tenebrism of italian origin.• Other themes are: the portrait, the mythology, the “bodegon”,specially in Zurbarán and Sánchez Cotán, Velázquez incorporatedthe landscapes, the pagan fable and the historical genre.• There are three artistic sources: Valencia (Ribera y Ribalta),Sevilla (Zurbarán, Murillo y Valdés Leal) and Madrid (Velázquez).
• The best exponent of the current spanish tenebristawas Jose Ribera who was born in Jativa (Valencia) in 1611.• He was established in Italy, received the nickname of “spagnoleti”,nevermore would return to Spain, settling in Naples in 1616.• His work flourishes in Italy.• He was looking for simple works with religious themes, portrait ormythological to exalt the monarchy.• He was the best representative of the tenebrism.• His style was care and natural.
• It was painted in1630.• It is one of the bestworks of Rivera.• This work representimbalance, because inthe left side ofthe picture we cansee strength, and inthe right, weakness.• It is a work with greatrealism andexpressiveness.
In his works also showed the ugly and deformed with dignityand realism:
•Other important workshighlighted by the beautyof women are :• “La Virgen en la Inmaculada” (1635), “el triunfo de María Magdalena” (1636), and some holy ones as Santa Inés (1641).•These works are from the most crucial period of his artistic career.•From the decade of the 40s, it exceeds the starting tenebrismo.
• Born in Fuente de Cantos, he moved to Sevilla in 1614, forming inthe workshop of Pedro Diaz de Villanueva.• He is the main representative of the religious themes.• His work is very abundant, and we can differentiate two periods: a first period in which there is a presence of tenebrism and spiritualism; and a second period from mid century with soft anddelicate forms.•This period coincides with a crisis in the career of Zurbarán, which also coincides with the climax of Murillo.
• The most known works of Zurbaran are the saints of the ReligiousOrders, which gives to his figures a great naturalist and a religiousspirit.• His conventual works can be divided in three series: • “La vision de San Pedro De Nolasco” was painted in 1628. (Since 1637) (1638-1645).
• Other important theme are the paingtings of “Santas y Mátires” where the saints or Martyrs are dressed like great ladies.•And the other one important theme is“Naturaleza Muerta”, where theobjects are in a black backgrowndto project them. This was a typicalpaint, the “bodegones”.
• Other of his themes was the historical themes:
• Borned in Sevilla, where he lived most of his life.• He began his training for ten years with Juan del Castillo, butwas influenced by Zurbarán and Ribera. The influenceof these teachers is evident in his early works.• Is one of the most popular painters in and out of Spain.• His painting was delicate and soft.• Murillo didn t paint saints, his painting is closer to the familiar,to the intimate.
• This work has a tenebristtendency• Is a natural and tenderdomestic scene.• The work is composed oftwo pyramidal structures.• This work has also atenebrist tendendency andis a natural domesticscene, where we see thechild with more light thanthe rest of the work.
• In a lot of his works, he painteda virgin dressed in white whichrepresents the purity of theVirgen Maria.• Another common element on hisworks was the number of angels.• The blue mantle represents theeternity.
These are two examples of the naturalness of his works,representing daily scenes.
DIEGO RODRÍGUEZ DE SILVA Y VELÁZQUEZ (1599-1660)Two stages:1. Formation stage (1617-1622)2. Mature stage (1623-1660)
FORMATION STAGE:The characteristics of this period are the tenebrism, withstrong contrasts between lights and shadows, predominanceof earthy colours, and simplicity in the composition. Old woman frying eggs 1618 National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh
MATURE STAGE:This period can also be subdivided in three: • 1623-1631: First “madrileña” stage and first trip to Italy: he travelled to the Court and focused his in paintings in the portrait genre.These portraits werecharacterized by: simplicity in the composition realism elegance statism Philip IV
MEETING WITH THE FLEMISH ARTIST RUBENSHis meeting with Rubens orientated his paintings to the humanism andmythology. Rubens encouraged him to study in Italy. The main characteristic of his myttholigic painting is it’s burlesque and ironic conception. The Triumph of Bacchus
First trip to Italy (1629-1631) During his first trip to Italy he will see all the romans and venetians renaissance painters’ works. His paintings will have the italian painters’influence. The forge of Vulcan
• 1631-1648: Second “madrileña” stage:When he returned form Italy his style became softer and more colorful.The italian influence made his drawing became looser, he started usingthe aerial perspective. We can find: Religious paintings Portraits: Christ on the cross The Conde-duque de Olivares on horseback
Jesters portraits Pablo de ValladolidThe Surrender of Breda (The Lances)1635 Museo del Prado, Madrid
• 1648-1660: Second trip to Italy and thrid “madrileña” stageHis second trip to Italy was between 1649 and 1651. Velázquez had theroyal comission of acquiring paintings and antiquities for the hispanic royalgaleries.In this period, he improvedthe technique, he captured theaerial perspective, he used lessamount of pictorical paste in hisloose brushstroke and he tookcare of the ambience and details. The pavilion Ariadna in the Medicci garden in Rome Museo del Prado, Madrid
• The last “madrileña” stage and the culmination of Velázquez: Veláquez returned to the Court and to Madrid in 1651 after three years in Italy. This last stage is the stylistic culmination of the sevillian master. From this period belong some portraits as: La reina Doña MarianaInfante Felipe PrósperoKunsthistorisches Museum, de Austria Vienna Museo del Prado, Madrid