CHARLESIII: The EnlightmentDepotism Patricia Baños Avila Elisa María del álamo García Paula Salamanca Hernando Sofía Gil Martínez Sara Gutiérrez Gutiérrez Jose Luis Rioboo Rubio
Historical settingThe eighteenth century also called the Ageof Enlightenment, comprises the years 1701-1800, inclusive. It arose during theintellectual movement known as theEnlightenment.After the political and military chaos lived inthe seventeenth century, the eighteenthcentury, not without conflict, will see aremarkable development in the Europeanarts and sciences, the old social structuresbased on feudalism and serfdom, will bequestioned and ultimately eliminated, while,especially in England, started the IndustrialRevolution and Europes economic takeoff.
In the eighteenth century witnessed the final phase of the Baroque and Classicism inherited from the seventeenth century and the emergence of the Rococo: Evolution of the Baroque, in which arise new forms of great originality that deviate completely from Renaissance classical canon. It is characterized by profuse decoration, with plenty of curved lines. Are also other movements such as Neoclassicism and Preromanticism. In music, composers as Vivaldi, Handel, Bach, Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven, who return to a simpler music style gallant. In the literature there is a more rationalist movement: Voltaire and other Enlightenment literature advocate a useful, instructive and rational, contrary to the fantasies and a firm basis in the facts or true. His ideas spread throughout the continent.
The French Revolution (1789) bringsabout changes in society, confidence inreason and the idea ofprogress, the abolition of class differencesand proclaims the equality of the men.The bourgeoisie reaches social primacyand strengthens its power . All this leadsto a political weakening of the CatholicChurch as practices of “regalismo” or theseparation of church and state and thediscrediting of the Inquisition.
The society of the XVIII century The society of the XVIII century was divided in three statements. These statements were fixed so people could not move from one to another. The first statement was the nobility; they owned the majority of the land and had reserved the top positions in the Church, Army, Navy, Politics… The second state was the clergy, they owned the 40% of the land and their aim in society was the spiritual care and the education. The third state was composed by the rest of the population and can be subdivided in two groups: the
The cities of the XVIII century were not paved and were poorly lit, there lived the king, in the palace and around him the royal court and the nobility. In the poor neighborhoods of the outside lived the craftsmen and the workers. The economy of the XVIII century was not very developed and depended primarily on agriculture and livestock. The agriculture until themiddle of the century wasnot very developed becauseof the wars, diseases and thebad techniques to cultivate.It was with the reforms introduced by Charles IIIwhen the agriculture started to grow.
The livestock was also very important to the Spanish economy, not only because of the large number of cattle that existed but because of the importance the wool had for the commerce. It was of a very extraordinary quality and was exported out of Spain mainly to Flandes. Other economic sectors were the crafts workshops; they clustered in association called “gremios” according to their specialty for example the shoemakers or the tailors. The commerce was not very developed because there was not enough money to buy and the transports were not very good. The exchanges were made practically through
Life of Charles IIIBIRTHOn January 20, 1716 , Charles III wasborn in the old and huge Álcazar, fruit ofthe marriage of Philip V with his secondwife, Elizabeth Farnese a woman with astrong personality and her own politicalopinión
CHILHOODHis childhood was spent based on the rulesestablished by the Spanish royal family forthe education of young children. Until theage of seven years was entrusted to the careof women, Maria Antonia of Salcedo. CharlesIII would receive a proper education tobecome a good leader in a future. Aneducation based on thereligion, art, languages, military, also it wascombined with the courtly dance, music andriding to forge the personality of a Youngeducated in the the values of the Catholicsupremacy
On July 3, 1735 in Palermo with onlynineteen years old Charles III wasproclaimed King of the Two Sicilies. He livedin Naples for a quarter century, there, hebegan a reform policy in a complicatedcountry dominated by the privileged clases.In Naples he formed his large family, withhis beloved wife Maria Amalia de SajoniaDuring his reign in Naples, Charles setdefinitely his character and reign model,always helped by his personal adviserBernardo Tanucci and always protected bytheir parents from Madrid.
The reign In general terms he learned to be amoderate King in the action ofgovernment, a sovereign who knew howto animate a reformist policy, he got thatthe kingdom was increasingly more Italianand had some consideration in theinternational situation.Charles III was a very pious king, with asense of life certainly providentialaccused. Their thinking, their languageand their actions were always imbued withthe Catholic religion
Charles had always kept the helm of the Spanish ship and always he was who set his course, Esquilache, Campomanes, Arandaand Florida Blanca, among otherswere able to see that.
The Age of the EnlightmentThis age is situated in the XVIIIs. Moreover, it receivedthe nomenclature of Illustration. This concept meansan intellectual movement of renewal in which makes acritical review of the main important ideas and valuesthat governed before this age. This was because theywanted to forget the darkness, all beliefs with rationalbasis, the politic and religious privileges, etc.Focusing on King Charles III, who was the bestSpanish Enlightenment king par excellence, servedhis royal learning as king of Naples. At this time, theEnlightened was a period in charge of changing thewhole society through the application of the reason(the main idea) in the political, economical and socialproblems. Not with standing, Charles had to carry out theeconomical changes but the Enlightened had seriousproblems to penetrate in his kingdom and thepopulation offered a resistance.
The church was financing publiccharities when the government decreedthat those actions were antisocial justwith the reason of that the publiccharities were to discourage initiative.Because of that, they were afterabolished. For this reason, there weremany problems with the Jesuits becausethey were whoparticipated in thesuperior educationand because of that,which one had to disappear.
However, not all were negative aspects,Charles III had one of the best governmentsin the history. The economic recoveryincreases, but he couldn´t improveeverything, for example, the land use or theagrarian reform. He also wanted to create themedia class but it was impossible becausethe population was closed to the bourgeoisvision.After losing Great Britain in the Seven Year´sWar and having allied with France, Spain withCharles III recovered many lands lost inprevious events. But that conquest he camein a waking when his son Charles IV accededto the throne.
During the Enlightenment,many artists of whole fields hadtheir main splendor as FranciscoJosé Goya, a painter whosetechnique was frescoes, the brushand many others.There were many other highlightpersonalities in other fields. Forexample, in literature wasimportant Fray Benito Jerónimo Feijoo, IgnacioLuján, Francisco de Isla, Torres Villarroel… Inphilosophy stood outDescartes, Hume, Rousseau, Kant between othersand there were also important the creation of theencyclopedia by Diderot and D´Alembert and theideas of Montesquieu, Rousseau and Voltaire.
The Enlightened Despotism The enlightened despotism was a form ofgovernment was trying to reconcile theabsolutism with new ideas of theEnlightenment, trying to do to combine theinterests of the monarchy to the welfare ofthe governed. It was developed during thesecond half of the eighteenth century.
The Esquilache Riot- During the easter of 1766 in Madrid and in other areas of Spain. The discontent of the common people because of the bad situation of the Spanish agriculture; the discontent of the soldiers because of the bad situation of the army and the navy; and the discontent of the clergy and the upper classes because the government attempted to establish new land reforms to help the poor. This widespread discontent was pointing at the government in general, and at the Marquis of Esquilache in
The riot caused, among otherconsequences, king Charles’ escape toAranjuez, the prompt dismissal of theMarquis of Esquilache and the search ofthe real culprits of the riot. After thereturn of the king to Madrid
The financial field In the financial field, established theBanco de San Carlos, the forerunner ofthe future Bank of Spain. During thisperiod, it appears the peseta, though notthe official currency until 1868. It wasintended that the capital was subscribedby individuals, but investors werereluctant. Therefore, it is forced to buyshares various officials and institutions
Economic Societies of Friends of the CountryThe Sociedades Económicas de Amigos del País(Economic Societies of Friends of the Country) wereprivate associations established in various citiesthroughout Enlightenment Spain, and to a lesser degreein some of her colonies (PuertoRico, Cuba, Guatemala, Chile, Venezuela,the Philippinesand elsewhere).In both Spain and the colonies, the SociedadesEconómicas were incubators for modern forms ofsocialization, in which people (mostly men) gatheredpublicly to discuss the issues of the day. This representsa departure from the French Enlightenmentssalon, which was a private gathering in someones home.The Sociedades generally organized themselvesformally, maintaining minutes of meetings, and having aset structure of officials to discharge variousorganziational duties.
The Suppression of the Societyof Jesus because of itsResistance to PoliticalAbsolutism The Society of Jesus had been founded during the Renaissance era, when social mores were in considerable disorder. The Jesuits wanted to raise the moral level of the ordinary people. This meant that the members of the ruling classes, namely, emperors, kings, region al rulers, and members of the noble families would all have to reform their lives and stop seeking for only their own benefits.
The king demanded that the Jesuit superior general put a stop to such sermons against the mores of the times. In the following century, the Jesuits were expelled from one country after another: Spain, Portugal, and France, because they were opposed to political absolutism and to the Enlightenment. Finally,the Bourbon rulers inFrance and theHapsburg rulers in Austriaand Spain pressured PopeClement XIV to suppressthe Society of Jesus.
The city reform And finally the cities reform, their new distribution and the creation of roads that could communicate the different areas of Spain, this reform is the one that have most influenced in our lives because based on this net of roads, we have create step by step the net of roadsthat we have nowadays, thatnot just communicate thewhole Spain, also Spain with different