Al andalus


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Al andalus

  1. 1. THE ARABS ON THE IBERIAN PENINSULA From 711, until 1492 (Conquest of Granada by the Catholic Kings)
  2. 2. SUMMARY:Al-Andalus political evolution (ElimaBenito)Militar occupation and rivality (PaulaMárquez)Society and economy (GarbiñeAranguren)Art and culture (Patricia del Barco)
  4. 4. IN THEIR VICTORY COINCIDED TWO FACTORS The height of the expansion of the Islam The decadence of the visigoth kingdom
  5. 5.  Muslims began to conquer the iberian peninsula coming from the south. Two important muslims: Musa and Tarik (his subordinate). Musa was callen for the witizanos to combat against the visigoth king Rodrigo. In 711 Musa sent 7000 soldiers with Tarik. Tarik did not obey the instructions that he had received of Musa , he entered in a new territory invaded and he continued his conquest. Musa arrived to Algeciras in 712 because he was jealous of his subordinate. Musa continued to the north and when he was in Lugo he received orders to come to Damasco and he left his government to his son Abd-al-Azz.
  6. 6.  Conquested territories by capitulation: the most important with Teodomiro in 713. Capitulation:when muslims could not conquer a territory they used to sign a pact of capitulation giving visigoths a relative autonomy even they could sometimes govern this territory.
  7. 7. THE POPULATION IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA MUSLIM POPULATION:• Bereberes: Morocco, Argelia, Tunisia and Libya. They settled in unpopulated areas.• Arabs: in the most populated areas. They were: -Yemenies: Arabian Peninsula. They arrived with Musa. -Syrians: north of the Arabian Peninsula, Irak and Syria. MULADIES: hispanogoths who were converted to the Islam. NON-MUSLIM POPULATION:• Mozarabs: christians who lived in a muslim territory.• Jews
  9. 9. AL-ANDALUS, POLITICAL EVOLUTION Primacy and glory, VIII-X Century Political Disruption and loss of land, XI-XIII Century The final withdrawal, XIII- XV Century
  10. 10. PRIMACY AND GLORY Dependent emirate („valiato‟) 711-756. - Initial settlement - Ib.Peninsula  simple province of the Caliphate ofDamascus - Governed by a Emir (depend political, religiousand militarily on the Caliph) - Great political instability - Military campaigns: a) Covadonga Battle, 722 b) Poitiers Battle, 732
  11. 11. The independent emirate of Bagdag, 756- 929 - Revolt led by Persian Groups  pushed out the Umayyad - New Caliph Abul-Abbas  new dynasty, the Abbasid  translate thecapital of the Caliph to Bagdag. - Abd al-Rahman I, Umayyad member  Ib.Peninsula establish himselfas the Emir of Córdoba ( independent militarily and politically but notreligious)Caliph of Cordoba, 929-1031 - Abd-al-Rahman III  929 he proclaimed himself Caliph - Golden age of al-Andalus, above all during the reign of Al-HakamII - Most remarkable figure Militarily Almanzor  Caliphate underhis command became military dictatorship. - Died Almanzor political turmoil and fighting between rivalfactions marked the final phase of the caliphate  endedup disintegrating into numerous Taifa kingdoms
  12. 12. POLITICAL DISSRUPTION AND LOST OF LANDS Taifa Kingdoms, 1031.1090- Beginning of XI century  some territories independent- In 1031 a rebellion in Cordoba overthrew the last Caliph- Hisam III  fragment into a multiplicity of Taifa kingdoms- Stage is characterized by a number of features: 1. Frequent disputes between the different Taifakingdoms 2. High initial number was reduced theincorporation of smaller with larger ones 3. Depended on the payment of pariahs 4. His political weakness did nottranslate, however, not in economic nor in cultural decline
  13. 13. - Military advance and the growing strength of the Christian kingdoms Taifa kingdoms saw the need to agree to make common cause andseek outside helpAlmoravid Unification, 1090-1145⁻ Christian conquer of Toledo –> Kings of Sevilla, Granada andBadajos call Almorávides.⁻Yusuf Ibn Tashfin beat 1086 Alfonso VI –Z battle of Zallaqah.⁻1090 return  objetive :incorporate to the Almoravid Empire the Taifakingdoms⁻However, the power of the Almoravids fails to fully consolidateThe second Taifa kingdoms, The Almohad unification, 1145-1237- 1145, the decomposition of the Almoravid power had caused in Al-Andalus a return to a political fragmentation  second Taifa kingdom- Almohads became to incorporate the new Taifa kingdomspostalmoravids- The complete unification reached in 1172 Seville turned in thecapital.- `Battle: Las Navas de Tolosa‟ 1212 fall down of the Almohads- Weakening Almohad power the thirdTaifa Kingdoms.- However, Christian advance  succumbing all, except of theGranada kingdom.
  14. 14. THE FINAL WITHDRAWAL, XIII- XV CENTURY The Nasrid kingdom of Granada ,1237-1492- Founded by Muhammad I- Arab lineage of Narsi or Nasrid- He rebelled against the Almohads and proclaimed his-self sultan in 1232 in his hometown, Arjona .- Recognized his authority  went into Granada in 1237.- Two and a half centuries of existence  constant internal fighting, payment of pariahs and vassalage- Catholic Monarchs  war of conquest of ten-year 1482-1492- Final incorporation of the kingdom of Granada to the Castilian crown.
  16. 16. SOCIETY Al-Ándalus was made up for 3 religious groups: Christians, Muslims and Jews. The unification of the religious level, had several ethnic divisions. Distinction between the Berbers and the Arabs
  17. 17. Treatment of non-Muslims non-Muslims : ahl al-dhimma (people under protection) Adults pay a tax("Jizya " )except old people, women, children and the disabled. Al-Ándalus :a key center of Jewish life. Jewish were allowed to practice their religion. These regulations served to define the relationship between the two communities, and not to oppress the Jewish population.
  18. 18. Social InteractionUmayyad conquest the Iberian Peninsulaand signaled a period known asthe ”Convivencia”(culture of tolerance)But discrimination by Muslims did occur atthe local level.The Muslim elite respected Christians andJews under Islamic law .
  19. 19. Social Mobility and Conversion Conversion to Islam :higher rate of social scale for Christians and Jews. Many wished to be at higher ranking government positions. Half of the Christians in Al-Andalus have converted to Islam by the 10th century, more than 80% by the 11th century. These Christians(Mozarabs )adopted the Arabic language and customs.
  20. 20. EconomyRevitalization of the economy and cities -Improvements in agriculture:• Economical base :agriculture.• Irrigation techniques and the use of water-wheels.• New crops :rice, citrus, sugar cane, saffron or cotton.• Big landowners live in the cities and have a luxury life thank to the benefits received from the exploitation of the land.• No more ruralization.
  21. 21. The economic importance of the cities. Cities had an important economic role:industrial production and trade. Islamic city: were not a base of political organization, were a simple human concentration around the mosque and the market (“zoco”) This double function, religious and above all commercial, determinate the Islamic structure of the city.
  23. 23.  The center :”medina”.Where mayor mosque was. First belt :”alcaceria”. Streets dedicated to the luxury trade, (silks, jewelry…) which served as accommodation for the merchants. Second belt: residential neighborhoods. the suburbs(arrabales/ar-rabad) neighborhood located outside the city along the wall(muralla) At last :”zoco”. Was a huge free space dedicated to the permanent market, whose location varied from one city to another.
  24. 24. THE CRAFT. The craft, and luxury products: developed a demand because of the demands for refined urban population on the power. The most important industry :textile. Arabs introduced silk industry ,fabrics of wool, cotton and linen. The paper: Chinese invention introduced in Europe by the Arabs. Whose manufacture was cheaper than parchment (“pergamino”), so books were cheaper and had a market in the Islamic world.
  25. 25.  Promoted foreign trade and monetary circulation. Al-Ándalus kept commercial relationships with the Christian territories. The Muslim control of the south and east parts of the Peninsula ,so developed the Mediterranean trade. Major export :oil. Control of Sudan gold: rich monetary circulation and revitalized commercial exchanges. Muslims imposed a change: urban renaissance, active trade and abundant money supply.
  27. 27. GENERAL INFORMATION: It started with Mahoma‟s preaching (VIIth century). It has been spread along many centuries over a huge territorie. It had a great influence on Spanish culture. Because of their religion, painting and sculpture were not developed at all.
  28. 28. ARCHITECTURE Not really tall buildings. Mozarabic, islamic or “gallonadas” vaults. Alfiz. Poor materials. Care of indoor decoration. Use of horseshoe arches. Most representative: the mosque Examples: “Córdoba mosque”, “Torre del oro”, “La alhambra”.
  29. 29. LANGUAGE Arabic elements, are after Latin ones the most important on Spanish. Particle “al-”: almohada (pillow) Ending “-í”: Iraní (Iranian) Prefix “a-”: Ablandar (to soften).
  30. 30. THE END Garbiñe Aranguren Patricia del Barco Elima Benito Paula Márquez.