3. the restoration


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3. the restoration

  1. 1. The Restoration
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>The years between 1833 and 1843 was the so called liberal period. A period of civil war in which the liberal state was constructed. Because of this civil war, María Cristina had to support herself on the liberals. With time, the liberals each time turn more conservative, interested as they are in the conservation of power of the bourgeoisie elites. The Plan of the Duke of Rivas of 1837 is an expression of a more conservative educational policy, more directed to the children of the elites, more to secondary education. The more conservative liberals, the moderates, rule Spain in the period between 1845 and 1854. The influence of this Plan can also be seen in the Plan Pidal of 1845. The moderate period ends with the Vicalvarada of 1854, when O’Donnel and Espartero took over power. After the Vicalvarada, Spain was ruled by the Unión liberal and the moderates. In this period the Ley Moyano (1857) was approved, which can be considered as a consolidation of the plans of the Duke of Rivas and the plan Pidal. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ley Moyano <ul><li>Primary education is only free for children whose parents cannot pay for the matriculation </li></ul><ul><li>The liberty of education is limited. Private schools need first an authorization of the state. </li></ul><ul><li>The State only has the monopoly on university education, which is maintained until 1983 </li></ul><ul><li>Secularization of education, though the Church regained some influence. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary education was now obligatory from the age of 6 till 9. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>There were three levels of education: primary education, secondary education and university level. </li></ul><ul><li>The accessibility of primary education </li></ul><ul><li>The state establishes the minimum conditions which should be fulfilled by the teachers on all its levels. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a dual system of private and public education. Private school should fulfill a minimum of conditions established by the state (teachers should have their titles, minimum age for the teachers etc) </li></ul><ul><li>The schools are subjected to local and provincial councils. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Sexenio and Restoration <ul><li>Economic crisis at the end of the 1860’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stagnation cotton supply because of the American Civil War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand for Spanish raw material diminished </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Railway fever </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Political crisis because large segments of the bourgeoisie did no longer identify with the moderates </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Coup in 1868. Elizabeth II was forced to abdicate. A new king, Amadeo de Saboya was chosen </li></ul><ul><li>The First Republic was proclaimed in 1873. </li></ul><ul><li>The period ended with the Restoration. Main figure: Cánovas del Castillo </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The political system consisted of a peaceful alternation between the conservative and the Liberal Party. The system was based on the caciquismo </li></ul><ul><li>The central government in Spain in the nineteenth century had little real influence on a local level. A lot of villages lived in isolation. In rural communities in the south the landowners controlled political life. These local bosses negotiated with the central government in order to get certain privileges for the communities they controlled. In turn, they guaranteed that the outcome of the elections would be that which was established in advance by the central government. They could do this by a series of tricks: letting disappear the polls, buying the votes, keeping secret the places where the people could vote. So liberals and conservatives alternated through elections of which the outcome had been arranged in advance. </li></ul><ul><li>Growing influence of the Church on education. Conservative laws of Orovio. Expulsion of the krausistas . </li></ul>
  8. 8. Instituto Libre de Enseñanza <ul><li>The ILE was created in 1876, and attracted above all teachers who had been influenced by the ideas of the German philosopher Karl Krause, who was above all famous for his panentheistic doctrine. </li></ul><ul><li>The ideas of the Krausistas ideas involved a secular view on the world and a criticism of dogmatism. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>The theories of Krause were popularized by Julián Sanz del Río and his disciple Francisco Giner de los Ríos. They thought in the ideas of Krause an alternative to more orthodox catholic ideas, and were because of that criticized by the more conservative politicians which supported Cánovas del Castillo. The ideas of the Krausistas ideas involved a secular view on the world and a criticism of dogmatism. They criticized the dominant role of the Church in society and wanted education to be non denominational and tolerant with any religion. The school was to be a place of concord. The ILE had as a goal to modernize society, to imbue it with new values. This change should be achieved through education, which had to form new men, with a new attitude towards culture and life. </li></ul><ul><li>The new pedagogical ideas which emerged at the end of the nineteenth century in Europe were first adopted in Spain by the ILE. We think above all of the ideals of natural education, invented by Rousseau, but also of the ideas of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, who emphasized self activity and the role of intuition in the learning process and also of his friend Friedrich Froebel, the creator of preschool education. Giner emphasized the role of intuition, active learning methods, the importance of play in education, of creativity and of the role of art in education. The importance of Krausismo was present in his ideas regarding excursions to nature. This should be seen in relation with panentheism. Excursion to nature were an educational but also a religious experience. We can say that pedagogy, as a scientific discipline, emerged together with the ILE. In these times the first congresses about pedagogy were organized in which the participants discussed about the formation of the teachers, the role of the administration on education, the education of women etc. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>One of the institutes which were created by the ILE was the Museo Pedagógico Nacional, which had as a goal the renovation of the outdated educational practices in Spain. The museum organized expositions and published catalogues, but also organized conferences etc. It dedicated also attention to the architecture of the schools, and the furniture which had to be used in the classrooms. The principal figure and the first director of the Museum was Manuel Cossío, who was also the first university teacher in Pedagogy in Spain. He was above all interested in children education. He was known for defending the unity between primary and secondary education. This was a central idea of the ILE. During the second part of the nineteenth century the secondary school was considered as a preparation for higher education. It was meant above all for the children of the middle class. As a consequence, there was no real connection between primary and secondary school and this is what the ILE wanted to change. </li></ul><ul><li>Other institutes of the ILE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Junta de Amplicación de Estudios, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instituto Escuela, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Residencia de Estudiantes </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Regenerationism <ul><li>Regenerationism criticized the economic backwardness of the country, the old agrarian and industrial structures, the caciquismo , the illiteracy, and the political system of alternation between the conservatives and the liberals. </li></ul><ul><li>Regeneration should be possible by the recovery of the national roots of Spain, in order to build the country anew by modernizing the cultural, economic and social structures. Recovery through education . </li></ul><ul><li>Different scenarios of regeneration: some thought that Spain should approach to the other Western European countries, like Ortega y Gasset, others thought that the power of Spain was its spiritual deepness. According to these intellectuals, Spain was related to the rest of the European countries like Don Quijote to Sancho Panza. Spain was spiritual, had high ideals, the rest of Europe was merely materialistic. Spain should make Europe more Spanish instead of the other way around. That was the idea of Unanumo. Joaquin Costa denounced that Spain was like Africa. Education was the way to make an end to this backwardness. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Social Catholicism <ul><li>Social Catholicism was a movement within the Church which dealt especially with the social problems present at the turn of the century </li></ul><ul><li>Initiatives of popular education organized by the Church for the lower social classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Escuelas Ave María in Granada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institución Teresiana </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Church as well promoted youth movements, Sunday and evening schools, and all kinds of activities which had as a goal the diffusion of culture under the working classes. </li></ul>