Understandingthebasicsofpronunciation

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trabajo fina. ejercicio de pronunciacion de la lengua inglesa ejercicio que deben llevar a cabo los alumnos del curso avanzado

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Understandingthebasicsofpronunciation

  1. 1. Understanding the Basics of Pronunciation
  2. 2. The Vocal Organs
  3. 3. Exercise #1 Click here and read the explanations on each of the vocal organs. Notice which organs are involved in the production of sounds like /s/, /g/, /θ/, /ʃ/, /j/
  4. 4. How can consonant sounds be classified? Place of articulation Form of articulation Voicing
  5. 5. Place of Articulation Bilabial: Two lips. E.g. /m/, /p/ Labiodental: Lower lip and upper front teeth. E.g. /f/, /v/ Dental: Tongue tip or blade and upper front teeth. E.g. /θ/, /ð/ Alveolar: Tongue tip or blade and alveolar ridge. E.g./t/, /d/
  6. 6. Place of Articulation Retroflex: Tongue tip or blade and the back of the alveolar ridge. E.g. /r/ Palato-alveolar: Tongue blade and the back of the alveolar ridge. E.g. /ʃ/ Palatal: Front of the tongue and hard palate. E.g./j/ Velar: back of the tongue and soft palate. E.g. /g/, /ŋ/
  7. 7. Exercise #2 Click here to see the complete classification of sounds according to their place of articulation and get familiar with the phonetic symbols for each sound.
  8. 8. Manner of Articulation  Oral stop / Plosive: Complete closure of the articulators involved so that the airstream cannot escape. When the articulators come apart, the airstream is released in a small burst of sound. E.g. /p/, /b/.  Nasal: The airstream is prevented from going out through the mouth, so it goes out through the nose. E.g. /m/, /ŋ/  Fricative: close approximation of two articulators so that the airstream is partially obstructed and turbulent airflow is produced. E.g. / z/, /θ/, /ð/  Approximant: an articulation in which one articulation is close to another, but without the vocal tract being narrowed to such an extent that a turbulent airstream is produced. E.g. /j/
  9. 9. Manner of Articulation  Lateral approximant: obstruction of the airstream at a point along the center of the oral tract with incomplete closure between one or both sides of the tongue and the roof of the mouth. E.g. /l/  Affricate: a combination of a stop followed by a fricative. E.g. /tʃ/  Tap: It exists in many forms of American English in the middle of words like in pity or lady, usually when t or d are between two vowels. It’s a single tap against the alveolar ridge.
  10. 10. Exercise # 3 Click here to see the complete classification of sounds according to their manner of articulation and practice the sounds by clicking on the symbols.
  11. 11. Voicing Voiced Voiceless Follow the links and read the explanations for these categories there. Notice the difference between them.
  12. 12. Exercise # 4 Click here and practice with the exercises provided. Focus on the sounds you find the most difficult.
  13. 13. How can vowels sounds be classified? Front-back position of the tongue Height of the body of the tongue Lip rounding
  14. 14. Front-Back Position of the Tongue Front vowels: The highest point of the tongue is in the front of the mouth. /i/, / /, /e/, /æ/ɪ Central vowels: The tongue is in its neutral rest position. /ə/, / /ʌ Back vowels: The tongue is close to the upper or back surface of the vocal tract. / /, / /, /u/, / /ɔ ʊ ɑ
  15. 15. Height of the Body of the Tongue High: The body of the tongue is raised up to the roof of the mouth. /i/, / /, / /,ɪ ʊ /u/ Mid: The body of the tongue is raised up to the middle of the mouth. /ə/, / /,ʌ /e/, / /ɔ Low: The body of the tongue rests in the lower part of the mouth. / /, /æ/ɑ
  16. 16. Lip Rounding Rounded: Pronounced forward movement of the corners of the lips. E.g./u/, / /ɔ Unrounded: Soft forward movement of the lips. E.g. /i/, /æ/
  17. 17. The Articulation of Vowel Sounds
  18. 18. Exercise # 5 Practice the different vowel sounds by following the links below. Notice how each sound is produced: Simple vowels (monophthongs): Complex vowels (diphthongs): A comparative study of vowels:
  19. 19. Sounds Phenomena 1. Sounds are linked:  Consonant to consonant: same place of articulation –E.g..Bus stop, stop boasting. Different place of articulation –E.g.Bought some, waited for.  Consonant to vowel: Red apple, famous actor  Vowels to vowels: Go over, See her
  20. 20. Sounds Phenomena 2. Sounds are reduced: Or: /ər/ Have: / əv/ 3. Sounds are deleted: /h/ in him/her /th/ them
  21. 21. Sounds Phenomena 4.4. Sounds are altered: Gotta Wanna Gonna 5. Sounds are contracted: Isn’t, haven’t, I’ll, won’t, they’re, they’ve…
  22. 22. Suprasegmentals Vowels and consonants can be thought of as segments of which speech is composed. Together they form syllables, which go to make utterances. Superimposed on the syllables are other features known as suprasegmentals. They are characterized by the fact that they must be described in relation to other items in the same utterance. These include:  Stress  Intonation
  23. 23. Stress Variations in stress are caused by an increase in the activity of the respiratory muscles (so that a greater amount of air is pushed out of the lungs) and in the activity of the laryngeal muscles (so that there is a significant change in pitch) Functions  Grammatical: To distinguish between a noun and a verb as in “(an) insult” Vs “to insult”.  Pragmatic: For contrastive emphasis as in “I want a red pen, not a black one”.
  24. 24. Exercise # 6 1. I said she might consider a new haircut. 2. I said she might consider a new haircut. 3. I said she might consider a new haircut. 4. I said she might consider a new haircut. 5. I said she might consider a new haircut. 6. I said she might consider a new haircut. 7. I said she might consider a new haircut. a. Not just a haircut. b. It's a possibility. c. It was my idea. d. Not something else. e. Don't you understand me? f. Not another person. g. She should think about it. it's a good idea. Say the sentence aloud using the stress word marked in yellow. Once you have spoken the sentence a few times, match the sentence version to the meaning in front. You will find the answers to this quiz on the following page. If you want to do further practice of word stress patterns, click here.
  25. 25. Intonation Intonation is the system of levels (rising and falling) and variations in pitch sequences within sentences. It varies depending on the speaker’s attitude. Pitch changes due to variations in laryngeal activity can occur independently of stress changes. When they do, they can affect the meaning of the sentence as a whole.
  26. 26. Exercise # 7 Listen to the conversation that you will find by clicking here and take the quiz. Notice how intonation allows us to add particular shades of meaning to what we say. Click here for information on how to teach stress and intonation patterns

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