Energy and Buildings –the environmental impactDr Andy WrightInstitute of Energy and Sustainable DevelopmentDe Montfort University
Overview• Challenges– Energy– Climate change mitigation• Demand reduction is part of the solution• Priorities• Examples• Solutions
Key messages• Resurgence in oil & gas production (fracking), especially USA, falling prices• The world is still failing to make the global energy system more sustainable• Energy efficiency is widely recognised as a key option in the hands of policymakers but is not reaching its full economic potential.– tackling the barriers to energy efficiency…can unleash this potential andrealise huge gains for energy security, economic growth and theenvironment. These gains are not based on achieving any major orunexpected technological breakthroughs, but just on taking actions toremove the barriers obstructing the implementation of energy efficiencymeasures that are economically viable.• The climate goal of limiting warming to 2°C is becoming more difficult andmore costly with each year– Almost four-fifths of the CO2 emissions allowable by 2035 are already locked-in byexisting power plants, factories, buildings, etc.
Global energy useInternational Energy Agency – Key world statistics 2010KyotoFossilfuels
Breakdownnot much has changed in 35 years except that consumption has doubled!International Energy Agency – Key world statistics 2010
World energy system 2010Source: World energy outlook 2012
Past & future energy demandSource: World energy outlook 2012
Projections – total primary energy supplyunder two IEA scenariosInternational Energy Agency – Key world statistics 2010~50%fossil fuelreductionfrom 1990
Climate Change• Need to limit ‘expected’ temperature riseto 2°C, with a 4°C rise very unlikely• The world needs to reduce greenhousegas emissions by at least 50% by 2050• UK has committed to an 80% reduction on1990 levels (=77% reduction on 2008 levels)• Buildings have a major part to play
Source: Committee on climate changeall for buildingsmostly forbuildingsCarbon dioxide target - UK
2013: Coldest springfor 50 yearsJuly 2012: 100 flood alerts as UKbraces for a months rain in 24 hoursMay 2012: Worcester
Energy efficiency must be a priority• it reduces energy costs• it reduces carbon dioxide• it improves energy security• it is usually much cheaper than ‘cleanenergy’• (sometimes it costs nothing)• …so why is it so difficult?
“The agenda is now dominated by energyand security. It is relatively easy to cutcarbon by using lots of clean energy, but itis no longer acceptable as it dramaticallypushes up cost” – Ant Wilson, AECOM• We need to make our new buildings muchmore efficient in use as well as in design• But we also need to make the existingstock much more efficient• These issues are now (at last) firmly partof government policy
Energy efficiency deconstructedneed?building fabriccontrolsystem efficiencyclean energy supply
Examples – non-domestic buildingsfrom analysis of half-hourly gas,electricity and water dataWe now have unprecedented access to highfrequency energy and environmental dataAre we using it effectively?
Failure modes• Heating (or cooling) out of season– Winter cooling or summer heating• Heating when building unoccupied– Typically overnight, weekends• Baseloads– Gas – lack of control– Water – usually a leak (not obvious in building)– Electricity – equipment, lights left on• Excessive consumption (continuous)– Often gas with no time control and poor thermostatic control• Most of these are much less likely in dwellings, becauseoccupants would notice
Library: Heating control – gas onwhen clearly unoccupied1 week:redsummerblackwinter
Office: water as occupancy proxyno water: unoccupied
Weekend unoccupied heatingTotal 282 sites (2004)Sites with completedata 168Unusualconfigurations 114Flatlining or missingchannel 83Gas water electricityFeb 2004 all available 85No unnecessaryweekend gas heating 59Unoccupied weekendheating gas 26Saturday AND Sunday unoccupied gas:fixed 24 hour pattern 4continuously on 4Saturday OR Sundayunoccupied gas 18Sunday unoccupiedonly gasfixed 24 hour pattern 8continuously on 9Saturday unoccupiedonly gasfixed 24 hour pattern 1KeyNot usedWorking correctlyEnd nodes - faulty control31% problems100% data available21%9%1.2%20%69% OK
Energy use in industryOver the past few years, awide range of cheap, reliable,non-invasive monitoringequipment has becomeavailableThese includestandalone loggersclip-on electricity CTsinfra-red cameraswireless systems
Why is energy efficiency difficult?which is more complex – the aircraft or the buildings?
Conclusions: How to makebuildings more efficient• Make better use of data we already collect• Exploit new monitoring technology tounderstand what’s going really on• Understand what the occupants are doing,and why• Revaluate investment decisions – whydemand a 2 or 3 year payback?• Treat buildings more like aircraft (thenthey might function as they’re designed)