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The Analects of Confucius
Book 3
論語
www.brownbeat.net
Putting the World to Rites
www.brownbeat.net
Ceremony Spirit
Governance
Culture
lǐ
禮
Supporting Cast
www.brownbeat.net
• Lin Fang/林放
• Zixia/子夏
• Zigong/子貢
• Wangsun Jia /王孫賈
• Duke Ding /定公
• Duke Ai/哀公
• G...
Chapter I
When he heard that the head of the Ji Family used eight
rows of dancers to perform in the ceremonies at his
ance...
Chapter II
When the Three Families performed the Yong ode while the vessels
were being removed at the end of their ancestr...
Chapter III
Confucius said: “If a man has no goodness,
what can he have to do with the rites?
If a man has no goodness,
wh...
Chapter IV
Lin Fang asked: “What is the essence of the rites?”
Confucius said: “That is a big question! For festive ceremo...
Chapter V
Confucius said: “The Yi and Di tribes with chieftains are not equal
to the various states in our land that don’t...
Chapter VI
The head of the Ji Family was about to set off to
carry out a sacrifice on Mount Tai.
Confucius said to Ran Qiu...
Chapter VII
Confucius said: “A leader avoids competing with others.
But if he does have to compete, it should be at archer...
Chapter VIII Part 1
Zixia asked: “What do these verses mean: ‘Ah, the lovely
dimples of her artful smile! Ah, the black an...
Chapter VIII Part 2
Confucius said: “Painting comes after plain white silk.”
Zixia said: “Are the rites also something tha...
Chapter IX
Confucius said: “How can I talk about the rites of the Xia Dynasty?
The state of Qi has not preserved sufficien...
Chapter X
Confucius said: “After the opening libation has been performed
at the sacrifice to the great imperial ancestor,
...
Chapter XI
Sacrifice requires presence: you should sacrifice to the
spirits as if they are there.
Confucius said: “If I am...
Chapter XII
When someone asked about the meaning of the
sacrifice to the great imperial ancestor,
Confucius replied: “I do...
Chapter XIII
Wangsun Jia asked: “What does this saying mean: ‘Better pray to
the kitchen god rather than the house god.’?”...
Chapter XIV
Confucius said: “The Zhou dynasty modeled itself upon
the two previous dynasties. What a great civilization!
I...
Chapter XV
When Confucius visited the Grand Ancestral Temple,
he asked about everything that was happening there.
Someone ...
Chapter XVI
Confucius said: “In archery, it does not matter
whether you pierce the target,
because archers may have differ...
Chapter XVII
Zigong wished to do away with the sacrifice of a sheep
for the ceremony welcoming the new moon.
Confucius sai...
Chapter XVIII
Confucius said: “When someone serves his lord
in full accordance with the rites,
people regard him as a syco...
Chapter XIX
Duke Ding asked: “How should a lord treat his ministers?
How should ministers serve their lord?”
Confucius rep...
Chapter XX
Confucius said: “The first poem in the Book of Songs is
joyful without being wanton and sad without being painf...
Chapter XXI Part 1
Duke Ai asked which wood should be used for
the altar of the spirits of the earth.
Zai Yu replied: “The...
Chapter XXI Part 2
When Confucius heard of this,
he said: “You do not explain away what has already been done;
you do not ...
Chapter XXII Part 1
Confucius said: “Guan Zhong was a man of truly mediocre capabilities.”
Someone objected: “Wasn’t Guan ...
Chapter XXII Part 2
“Even though only the ruler of a state can place a screen to
mask the view of his gate, he also had on...
Chapter XXIII
Confucius was talking about music with the music master of Lu.
He said: “We can know this much about music:
...
Chapter XXIV Part 1
A border official at the town of Yi requested
a meeting with Confucius.
He said: “Whenever a leader ha...
Chapter XXIV Part 2
The disciples arranged the meeting, and coming out of it
the official said: “Sirs, why worry about his...
Chapter XXV
Confucius described the music of the Emperor Shun as
being perfectly beautiful and perfectly good and the
musi...
Chapter XXVI
Confucius said: “How can I bear to even contemplate
a person who lacks tolerance when in high office,
reveren...
Appendix
Book 3
論語
www.brownbeat.net
Appearance Analysis
www.brownbeat.net
Confucius
(子)
Lin Fang
(林放)
Ran Qiu
(冉求)
Zixia
(子夏)
Zigong
(子貢)
Zai Yu
(宰予)
Chapter ...
Themes Analysis
www.brownbeat.net
Leader
(君子)
Learning
(學)
Governance
(政)
Chapter I
Chapter II
Chapter III
Chapter IV
Chap...
Primary Values Analysis
www.brownbeat.net
Goodness
(仁)
Virtue
(德)
Rites
(禮)
Chapter I
Chapter II
Chapter III Y Y
Chapter I...
Secondary Values Analysis
www.brownbeat.net
Filial Piety
(孝)
Loyalty
(忠)
Trustworthiness
(信)
Rightness
(義)
Chapter I
Chapt...
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New English translation of Book 3 of the Analects of Confucius

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The key theme of this book is the appropriate application the rites - the cultural glue that ensures the smooth operation of society.

Latest update: 4 September 2016

For more information, please visit www.brownbeat.net.

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New English translation of Book 3 of the Analects of Confucius

  1. 1. The Analects of Confucius Book 3 論語 www.brownbeat.net
  2. 2. Putting the World to Rites www.brownbeat.net Ceremony Spirit Governance Culture lǐ 禮
  3. 3. Supporting Cast www.brownbeat.net • Lin Fang/林放 • Zixia/子夏 • Zigong/子貢 • Wangsun Jia /王孫賈 • Duke Ding /定公 • Duke Ai/哀公 • Guan Zhong/管仲 • Emperor Shun/韶 • King Wu/武 Disciples Contemporary Figures Historical Figures
  4. 4. Chapter I When he heard that the head of the Ji Family used eight rows of dancers to perform in the ceremonies at his ancestral temple, Confucius commented: “If he is capable of that, what isn’t he capable of?” www.brownbeat.net 孔子謂季氏, 「八佾舞於庭,是可忍也,孰不可忍也?」 Book 3, The Analects
  5. 5. Chapter II When the Three Families performed the Yong ode while the vessels were being removed at the end of their ancestral sacrifices, Confucius said: “‘The lords are in attendance, the Son of Heaven sits solemnly on his throne.’ How can such words be used in the halls of the Three Families?” www.brownbeat.net 三家者以雍徹。子曰:「『相維辟公, 天子穆穆』,奚取於三家之堂?」 Book 3, The Analects
  6. 6. Chapter III Confucius said: “If a man has no goodness, what can he have to do with the rites? If a man has no goodness, what can he have to do with music?” www.brownbeat.net 子曰:「人而不仁,如禮何? 人而不仁,如樂何?」 Book 3, The Analects
  7. 7. Chapter IV Lin Fang asked: “What is the essence of the rites?” Confucius said: “That is a big question! For festive ceremonies, simplicity is better than extravagance; for funerals, genuine grief is better than excessive formality.” www.brownbeat.net 林放問禮之本。 子曰:「大哉問!禮,與其奢也,寧儉; 喪,與其易也,寧戚。」 Book 3, The Analects
  8. 8. Chapter V Confucius said: “The Yi and Di tribes with chieftains are not equal to the various states in our land that don’t have them.” www.brownbeat.net 子曰:「夷狄之有君,不如諸夏之亡也。」 Book 3, The Analects
  9. 9. Chapter VI The head of the Ji Family was about to set off to carry out a sacrifice on Mount Tai. Confucius said to Ran Qiu: “Can you not stop this?” Ran Qiu replied: “I cannot.” Confucius said: “Oh no! Has it ever been said that the spirit of Mount Tai has even less knowledge of the rites than Lin Fang?” www.brownbeat.net 季氏旅於泰山,子謂冉有曰:「女弗能救與?」 對曰:「不能。」 子曰:「嗚呼!曾謂泰山不如林放乎?」 Book 3, The Analects
  10. 10. Chapter VII Confucius said: “A leader avoids competing with others. But if he does have to compete, it should be at archery. As he bows and exchange courtesies before the contest and enjoy drinks after it, he still remains a leader even when competing.” www.brownbeat.net 子曰:「君子無所爭,必也射乎!揖讓而升, 下而飲。其爭也君子。」 Book 3, The Analects
  11. 11. Chapter VIII Part 1 Zixia asked: “What do these verses mean: ‘Ah, the lovely dimples of her artful smile! Ah, the black and white of her beautiful eyes! It’s on plain white silk that colors sparkle.’” www.brownbeat.net 子夏問曰:「巧笑倩兮,美目盼兮, 素以為絢兮。何謂也?」 Book 3, The Analects
  12. 12. Chapter VIII Part 2 Confucius said: “Painting comes after plain white silk.” Zixia said: “Are the rites also something that comes afterwards?” Confucius said: “You have opened up my eyes to the true meaning of these verses! It is only with a man like you that I can discuss the Book of Songs!” www.brownbeat.net 子曰:「繪事後素。」曰:「禮後乎?」 子曰:「起予者商也!始可與言詩矣。」 Book 3, The Analects
  13. 13. Chapter IX Confucius said: “How can I talk about the rites of the Xia Dynasty? The state of Qi has not preserved sufficient evidence. How can I talk about the rites of Yin Dynasty? The state of Song has not preserved sufficient evidence. There are not enough written records and learned men; if there were, I could obtain evidence from them.” www.brownbeat.net 子曰:「夏禮,吾能言之,杞不足徵也; 殷禮,吾能言之,宋不足徵也。 文獻不足故也。足,則吾能徵之矣。」 Book 3, The Analects
  14. 14. Chapter X Confucius said: “After the opening libation has been performed at the sacrifice to the great imperial ancestor, I have no desire to watch the rest of the ceremony.” www.brownbeat.net 子曰:「禘自既灌而往者,吾不欲觀之矣。」 Book 3, The Analects
  15. 15. Chapter XI Sacrifice requires presence: you should sacrifice to the spirits as if they are there. Confucius said: “If I am not fully present at the sacrifice, it’s as if I didn’t attend the sacrifice at all.” www.brownbeat.net 祭如在,祭神如神在。 子曰:「吾不與祭,如不祭。」 Book 3, The Analects
  16. 16. Chapter XII When someone asked about the meaning of the sacrifice to the great imperial ancestor, Confucius replied: “I do not know. Anyone who knows that would rule the world as easily as I can put this here.” Then he pointed his finger towards the palm of his hand. www.brownbeat.net 或問禘之說。子曰:「不知也。知其說者之於 天下也,其如示諸斯乎!」指其掌。 Book 3, The Analects
  17. 17. Chapter XIII Wangsun Jia asked: “What does this saying mean: ‘Better pray to the kitchen god rather than the house god.’?” Confucius said: “This is nonsense. If you sin against Heaven, you have no god you can pray to.” www.brownbeat.net 王孫賈問曰:「與其媚於奧,寧媚於灶, 何謂也?」子曰:「不然,獲罪於天,吾所禱也。」 Book 3, The Analects
  18. 18. Chapter XIV Confucius said: “The Zhou dynasty modeled itself upon the two previous dynasties. What a great civilization! I follow the Zhou.” www.brownbeat.net 子曰:「周監於二代,郁郁乎文哉!吾從周。」 Book 3, The Analects
  19. 19. Chapter XV When Confucius visited the Grand Ancestral Temple, he asked about everything that was happening there. Someone said: “Who said this guy was an expert on the rites? When he visited the Grand Ancestral Temple, he had to ask about everything that was happening.” Hearing this, Confucius said: “Exactly, this is the rites.” www.brownbeat.net 子入太廟,每事問。 或曰:「孰謂鄹人之子知禮乎?入太廟,每事問。」 子聞之,曰:「是禮也。」 Book 3, The Analects
  20. 20. Chapter XVI Confucius said: “In archery, it does not matter whether you pierce the target, because archers may have different levels of strength. This was the way of the ancients.” www.brownbeat.net 子曰:「射不主皮,為力不同科, 古之道也。」 Book 3, The Analects
  21. 21. Chapter XVII Zigong wished to do away with the sacrifice of a sheep for the ceremony welcoming the new moon. Confucius said: “You love the sheep; I love the rites.” www.brownbeat.net 子貢欲去告朔之餼羊。 子曰:「賜也!爾愛其羊,我愛其禮。」 Book 3, The Analects
  22. 22. Chapter XVIII Confucius said: “When someone serves his lord in full accordance with the rites, people regard him as a sycophant.” www.brownbeat.net 子曰:「事君盡禮,人以為諂也。」 Book 3, The Analects
  23. 23. Chapter XIX Duke Ding asked: “How should a lord treat his ministers? How should ministers serve their lord?” Confucius replied: “A lord should treat his ministers in accordance with the rites; ministers should serve their lord with loyalty.” www.brownbeat.net 定公問:「君使臣,臣事君,如之何?」 孔子對曰:「君使臣以禮,臣事君以忠。」 Book 3, The Analects
  24. 24. Chapter XX Confucius said: “The first poem in the Book of Songs is joyful without being wanton and sad without being painful.” www.brownbeat.net 子曰:「關睢,樂而不淫,哀而不傷。」 Book 3, The Analects
  25. 25. Chapter XXI Part 1 Duke Ai asked which wood should be used for the altar of the spirits of the earth. Zai Yu replied: “The men of Xia used pine; the men of Yin used cypress; the men of Zhou used chestnut, for they said the people should fear.” www.brownbeat.net 哀公問社於宰我。宰我對曰:「夏后氏以松, 殷人以柏,周人以栗,曰,使民戰栗。」 Book 3, The Analects
  26. 26. Chapter XXI Part 2 When Confucius heard of this, he said: “You do not explain away what has already been done; you do not argue about affairs that have already been concluded; you do not condemn what has already happened.” www.brownbeat.net 子聞之,曰:「成事不說,遂事不諫, 既往不咎。」 Book 3, The Analects
  27. 27. Chapter XXII Part 1 Confucius said: “Guan Zhong was a man of truly mediocre capabilities.” Someone objected: “Wasn’t Guan Zhong frugal?” Confucius replied: “Guan Zhong had three households, each one staffed by a huge retinue. How could he be called frugal?” “But didn’t he know the rites?” www.brownbeat.net 子曰:「管仲之器小哉。」或曰:「管仲儉乎?」 曰:「管氏有三歸,官事不攝,焉得儉? 然則管仲知禮乎?」 Book 3, The Analects
  28. 28. Chapter XXII Part 2 “Even though only the ruler of a state can place a screen to mask the view of his gate, he also had one installed. Even though only the ruler of a state can use a special stand to place his inverted cup on when meeting with another ruler, Guan Zhong had one too. If you say Guan Zhong knew the rites, then who doesn’t know them?” www.brownbeat.net 曰:「邦君樹塞門,管氏亦樹塞門。 邦君為兩君之好,有反坫,管氏亦有反坫。 管氏而知禮,孰不知禮?」 Book 3, The Analects
  29. 29. Chapter XXIII Confucius was talking about music with the music master of Lu. He said: “We can know this much about music: it begins with playing in unison; from there it flows harmoniously, clearly, and continuously until it reaches the end.” www.brownbeat.net 子語魯大師樂,曰:「樂其可知也:始作, 翕如也;從之,純如也,皦如也, 繹如也,以成。」 Book 3, The Analects
  30. 30. Chapter XXIV Part 1 A border official at the town of Yi requested a meeting with Confucius. He said: “Whenever a leader has come to these parts, I have never failed to meet him.” www.brownbeat.net 儀封人請見,曰:「君子之至於斯也, 吾未嘗不得見也。」 Book 3, The Analects
  31. 31. Chapter XXIV Part 2 The disciples arranged the meeting, and coming out of it the official said: “Sirs, why worry about his dismissal? The world has been without the Way for a long while. Heaven is going to use your master like the wooden clapper of a bell.” www.brownbeat.net 從者見之。出曰:「二三子何患於喪乎? 天下之無道也久矣,天將以夫子為木鐸。」 Book 3, The Analects
  32. 32. Chapter XXV Confucius described the music of the Emperor Shun as being perfectly beautiful and perfectly good and the music of King Wu as being perfectly beautiful but not perfectly good. www.brownbeat.net 子謂韶,「盡美矣,又盡善也。」謂武, 「盡美矣,未盡善也。」 Book 3, The Analects
  33. 33. Chapter XXVI Confucius said: “How can I bear to even contemplate a person who lacks tolerance when in high office, reverence when performing the rites, and grief when in mourning?” www.brownbeat.net 子曰:「居上不寬,為禮不敬,臨喪不哀, 吾何以觀之哉?」 Book 3, The Analects
  34. 34. Appendix Book 3 論語 www.brownbeat.net
  35. 35. Appearance Analysis www.brownbeat.net Confucius (子) Lin Fang (林放) Ran Qiu (冉求) Zixia (子夏) Zigong (子貢) Zai Yu (宰予) Chapter I Y Chapter II Y Chapter III Y Chapter IV Y Y Chapter V Y Chapter VI Y Y Y Chapter VII Y Chapter VIII Y Y Chapter IX Y Chapter X Y Chapter XI Y Chapter XII Y Chapter XIII Y Chapter XIV Y Chapter XV Y Chapter XVI Y Chapter XVII Y Y Chapter XVIII Y Chapter XIX Y Chapter XX Y Chapter XXI Y Y Chapter XXII Y Chapter XXIII Y Chapter XXIV Y Chapter XXV Y Chapter XXVI Y Appearances (number) 26 2 1 1 1 1 Appearances (percentage) 100.00% 7.69% 3.85% 3.85% 3.85% 3.85%
  36. 36. Themes Analysis www.brownbeat.net Leader (君子) Learning (學) Governance (政) Chapter I Chapter II Chapter III Chapter IV Chapter V Chapter VI Chapter VII Y Chapter VIII Chapter IX Chapter X Chapter XI Chapter XII Chapter XIII Chapter XIV Chapter XV Chapter XVI Chapter XVII Chapter XVIII Chapter XIX Chapter XX Chapter XXI Chapter XXII Chapter XXIII Chapter XXIV Y Chapter XXV Chapter XXVI Appearances (no) 2 0 0 Appearances (%) 7.69% 0.00% 0.00%
  37. 37. Primary Values Analysis www.brownbeat.net Goodness (仁) Virtue (德) Rites (禮) Chapter I Chapter II Chapter III Y Y Chapter IV Y Chapter V Chapter VI Chapter VII Chapter VIII Y Chapter IX Y Chapter X Chapter XI Chapter XII Chapter XIII Chapter XIV Chapter XV Y Chapter XVI Chapter XVII Y Chapter XVIII Y Chapter XIX Y Chapter XX Chapter XXI Chapter XXII Y Chapter XXIII Chapter XXIV Chapter XXV Chapter XXVI Y Appearances (no) 1 0 10 Appearances (%) 3.85% 0.00% 38.46%
  38. 38. Secondary Values Analysis www.brownbeat.net Filial Piety (孝) Loyalty (忠) Trustworthiness (信) Rightness (義) Chapter I Chapter II Chapter III Chapter IV Chapter V Chapter VI Chapter VII Chapter VIII Chapter IX Chapter X Chapter XI Chapter XII Chapter XIII Chapter XIV Chapter XV Chapter XVI Chapter XVII Chapter XVIII Chapter XIX Y Chapter XX Chapter XXI Chapter XXII Chapter XXIII Chapter XXIV Chapter XXV Chapter XXVI Appearances (number) 0 1 0 0 Appearances (percentage) 0.00% 3.85% 0.00% 0.00%

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