Adaptation Theories


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Adaptation Theories

  1. 1. Adaptation Theories
  2. 2. Sister Callista Roy October 14, 1939 -Adaptation Model
  3. 3. Central Theme• The person in constant interaction with the changing environment Person Environment
  4. 4. Health• A state or process of being or becoming an integrated and whole person
  5. 5. Nursing• A theoretical system of knowledge that prescribes a process of analysis and action related to the care of the ill or potentially ill persons.
  6. 6. 4 Adaptive Modes1. Physiological-physical mode – physical responses & interactions with the environment  Maintenance of physiologic integrity (oxygenation, nutrition, eliminatio n, activity & rest & protection)
  7. 7. 4 Adaptive Modes2. Self-concept-group identity mode  Need to know the self with a sense of unity  Beliefs & feelings about oneself  Central to the person’s behavior  Components:  Physical self = body sensation & body image  Personal self = self-consistency, self-ideal, & the moral-ethical-spiritual self
  8. 8. Personal SelfPhysical Self
  9. 9. 4 Adaptive Modes3. Role function mode  A category of behavior for both individuals and groups  Role – a set of expectations of how a person in a particular position will behave in relation to a person who holds another position  Underlying need = social integrity/role clarity
  10. 10. 4 Adaptive Modes4. Interdependence mode  Applies to adaptive behavior for both individuals and groups  Behavior is assessed as it relates to interdependent relationships of individuals & groups  Focuses on the giving and receiving of love, respect & value with significant others & support systems
  11. 11. Myra Estrin Levine 1920-1996The Conservation Principle: A Model for Health
  12. 12. Central ThemeAdaptation, Conservation and Integrity• Adaptation – process by which, over time, people maintain their wholeness or integrity as they respond to environmental changes.• Conservation – product of adaptation.• Integrity – being in control of one’s life, having the freedom to choose, to move without constraint and to exercise decisions on all matters; the essence of wholeness
  13. 13. Adaptation• It varies and is specific.• It is explanatory rather than predictive.• It is a historical process: Responses are based on past experiences, personal and genetic.
  14. 14. Conservation• It defends the wholeness of living systems by ensuring their ability to confront change appropriately and retain their unique identity.• Its essence is the successful use of responses that cost the least.
  15. 15. Principles of Conservation• Conservation of energy of the individual• Conservation of the structural integrity of the individual• Conservation of the personal integrity of the individual• Conservation of the social integrity of the individual
  16. 16. Integrity• Structural integrity- focuses on healing process• Personal integrity – focuses on sense of self• Social integrity – involves a definition of self that goes beyond the individual and includes the wholeness of each person.
  17. 17. Person• Focus should be on the person’s wholeness• Continually adapts interactions with environment which results in conservation.• In need of nursing when suffering arises. Independence is set aside and accepts the services of another.
  18. 18. Health• Goal of conservation• Health and disease are patterns of adaptive change.• Successful adaptation is the one that achieves the best fit in the most conserving manner.
  19. 19. Environment• Social context is an important consideration of the wholeness of an individual.• Difficult to measure but it is vital because adaptation and conservation are based on human being’s interaction with the environment.
  20. 20. Environment: 3 Aspects• Operational – consists of undetected natural forces that impinge on the individual.• Perceptual – consists of information that is recorded by the sensory organs.• Conceptual – influenced by language, culture, ideas and cognition.
  21. 21. Nursing• To take care of others when they need to be taken care of although this need is only temporary• Takes place whenever there is an individual who needs care to some degree.