Change Management Lecture 1 & 2
Objectives <ul><li>Topics and learning objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul>...
Learning Objectives <ul><li>At the end of this lecture you will cover: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some generic principles of ch...
Overview <ul><li>This lecture is aimed for people on the Foundation Degree, who might / will be leading others through a c...
Introduction <ul><li>Organisations are in a perpetual state of change, due to external pressures and the need to innovate ...
What is Change? <ul><li>Before we can look at how to manage change it is important to understand exactly what we mean by ‘...
<ul><li>There are several types of change which can be put into four broad types of change experience. </li></ul><ul><li>I...
<ul><li>Adaptation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where we have to change our behaviour or attitudes at the behest of others.  </li...
<ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where we are responding to opportunities for developing competencies, poise and achie...
<ul><li>Most of resist the first (Imposition). </li></ul><ul><li>Are uncertain about the second (Adaptation) </li></ul><ul...
Exercise <ul><li>In the last year, which sorts of change have you experienced at work? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you think of ...
Emotions of Change <ul><li>As we have seen, there are different types of change with different meanings for different peop...
The Kubler-Ross Change Curve Sense of own Value Time 1. Shock 2. Denial 3. Anxiety 4. Apathy 5. Exploring Opportunities 6....
The Kubler-Ross Change Curve Sense of own Value Time 1. Shock 2. Denial 3. Anxiety 4. Apathy 5. Exploring Opportunities 6....
Stage 1 & 2 <ul><li>Shock and Denial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anyone in the denial phase may well be feeling shocked, confuse...
The Kubler-Ross Change Curve Sense of own Value Time 1. Shock 2. Denial 3. Anxiety 4. Apathy 5. Exploring Opportunities 6....
Stage 3 <ul><li>Anxiety / Resentment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some people will find the change threatening. </li></ul></ul><u...
<ul><ul><li>This can show itself in a manner of ways: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Territorial fighting </li></ul></ul><...
<ul><ul><li>Typical responses or thoughts from people experiencing resentment include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Th...
The Kubler-Ross Change Curve Sense of own Value Time 1. Shock 2. Denial 3. Anxiety 4. Apathy 5. Exploring Opportunities 6....
Stage 4 <ul><li>Apathy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When individuals realise that the change is for real and that they can’t do a...
<ul><ul><li>Typical responses or thoughts during this stage are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ I don’t see why I should...
The Kubler-Ross Change Curve Sense of own Value Time 1. Shock 2. Denial 3. Anxiety 4. Apathy 5. Exploring Opportunities 6....
Stage 5 <ul><li>Exploring Opportunities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During this phase, individuals may experienced excitement an...
<ul><ul><li>People exploring opportunities will say things like: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ I don’t know whether thi...
The Kubler-Ross Change Curve Sense of own Value Time 1. Shock 2. Denial 3. Anxiety 4. Apathy 5. Exploring Opportunities 6....
Stage 6 <ul><li>Welcoming the Future </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment arises when people have accepted the “new ways of do...
<ul><ul><li>People experiencing this stages will say things like: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ I think this could work...
The Kubler-Ross Change Curve Sense of own Value Time 1. Shock 2. Denial 3. Anxiety 4. Apathy 5. Exploring Opportunities 6....
Summary <ul><li>It is also important to remember that whilst the stages are common for most of us – what is often variable...
<ul><li>Those in the  denial ,  anxiety / resentment  or  apathy  stages will need your help. </li></ul><ul><li>Some peopl...
Exercise <ul><li>Spend a few minutes thinking about your team. </li></ul><ul><li>Which stage might each of them be in at t...
Progression <ul><li>On the following slides are some activities you can use to help your team move through the change proc...
Denial (Progression) <ul><li>Show people the facts </li></ul><ul><li>Give specific examples of how things will change </li...
Anxiety / Resentment (Progression) <ul><li>Give them opportunity to air their grievances  </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate what ...
Apathy (Progression) <ul><li>Provide encouragement in small but regular ways </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasises their work is im...
Exploring Opportunities (Progression) <ul><li>Emphasise the key activities </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how their role fits i...
Welcoming the Future (Progression) <ul><li>Determine long term goals </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasise success </li></ul><ul><li...
Summary <ul><li>So far we’ve look at identifying the emotions and concerns of individuals as they go through change. </li>...
Process of Change <ul><li>The change process starts with an awareness of the need for change, followed by analysis and pla...
Background <ul><li>K Beckhard (1969) recognised that a programme of change should incorporate specific processes. </li></u...
<ul><li>This can be simply put as: </li></ul>Current State Desired State 3. How do we get there? 1. Where do we want to be...
<ul><li>Where do we want to be? </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to have a good understanding of the vision and to consid...
<ul><li>A Rich Picture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the process of pictorially representing the feelings, facts and figur...
<ul><li>The 7’s Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is a form of structured brainstorming.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It giv...
7’s Diagram Structure Shared Values Staff Style Skills Systems Strategy
2. What are we now? <ul><li>Analysis tools such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SWOT (Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities, Threat...
3. How do we get there? <ul><li>Further analysis of the factors stopping or working against the change is useful in helpin...
<ul><li>The key factors that you need to identify are the forces that are driving you from your current position towards y...
Team Technical Skill Set Good Processes Realistic Targets Strong links to other depts Current Position Low morale Staff on...
<ul><li>Here we are looking at a situation where the team is not performing to their optimum level. </li></ul><ul><li>You ...
Stakeholder Analysis <ul><li>In order to reach your desired state you need to be fully aware of your stakeholders and how ...
<ul><li>The 7’s model can be used ot identify stakeholders as can a brainstorming session. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember the ...
Key Stakeholders <ul><li>Once you have your list of Stakeholders you need to identify you Key Stakeholders. </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Power = Level of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Position (they hold / status) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource (they con...
Mechanisms for Managing Change <ul><li>Karl Lewin (1951) also talked about mechanisms for managing change: </li></ul><ul><...
Exercise <ul><li>In groups, discuss what Lewin’s Unfreeze – Change – Re-freeze model might actually look like in practice....
Action Plan <ul><li>The final section of stage 3 (How do we get there) is to consider putting all of your analysis and sol...
<ul><li>Action Planning is really about setting objectives – SMART objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific </li></ul></...
<ul><li>Examples of good and poor objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At the end of the training the learner will be able to...
Driving Change <ul><li>Having looked at some of the key tools for analysis and implementation of change, we now need to co...
Exercise for the following lecture <ul><li>Think back on your personal experiences of implementation of change. </li></ul>...
Overcoming Resistance to Change <ul><li>Resistance to change can be difficult to overcome </li></ul>
Exercise for the following lecture <ul><li>Find out what barriers there are with respect to change </li></ul><ul><li>Find ...
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Wcm Cm Lecture 1 & 2 2

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Wcm Cm Lecture 1 & 2 2

  1. 1. Change Management Lecture 1 & 2
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Topics and learning objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>What is change? </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions of change </li></ul><ul><li>Process of change </li></ul><ul><li>How do we get there </li></ul><ul><li>Driving Change </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Objectives <ul><li>At the end of this lecture you will cover: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some generic principles of change in today’s business environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify key areas to consider when planning change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help you to examine your own reactions to change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable you to maximise your leadership capabilities and implement change effectively </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Overview <ul><li>This lecture is aimed for people on the Foundation Degree, who might / will be leading others through a change process as part of their job role. </li></ul><ul><li>This may include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementing change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysing benefits and barriers to change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Management situations </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>Organisations are in a perpetual state of change, due to external pressures and the need to innovate and adapt to new demands and circumstances. </li></ul><ul><li>To survive and thrive, businesses have to grow. </li></ul><ul><li>They must: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop new products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expand into new markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-organise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-engineer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce new technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change working practices </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. What is Change? <ul><li>Before we can look at how to manage change it is important to understand exactly what we mean by ‘change’ </li></ul><ul><li>Dictionary Definition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A cause to be different; To give a completely different forms or appearance to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To give and receive reciprocally; interchange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To exchange for or replace with another, usually of the same kind of category </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To put a fresh covering on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>There are several types of change which can be put into four broad types of change experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Imposition. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where the initiative comes from someone else and we have to alter our ways of doing things to comply with outside requirements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This undermines our sense of being able to handle things and we worry about the implications. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New rules and laws are the obvious examples. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Adaptation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where we have to change our behaviour or attitudes at the behest of others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This can be very difficult and leads to people leaving or retiring. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples are changes in attitudes about age, gender and taking on a business orientation rather than a public service one. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where we are responding to opportunities for developing competencies, poise and achievement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of which would be acting up or job changes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where we are the instigator and in control of the process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples would be introducing new standards at work, developing a new technique or trying something to see whether it will work </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Most of resist the first (Imposition). </li></ul><ul><li>Are uncertain about the second (Adaptation) </li></ul><ul><li>Are delighted with the third (Growth) </li></ul><ul><li>And excited by the fourth (Creativity) </li></ul><ul><li>!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>As a manager you will undoubtedly experience all of these and will have to support your staff through them as well. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Exercise <ul><li>In the last year, which sorts of change have you experienced at work? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you think of someone who responds well to change? </li></ul><ul><li>What about somebody who responds badly to change </li></ul><ul><li>What characteristics would you say describes each of them? </li></ul><ul><li>What motivational tools / values can be used with these. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Emotions of Change <ul><li>As we have seen, there are different types of change with different meanings for different people. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result of this one might assume the way people respond to change and the emotions they demonstrate would be different. </li></ul><ul><li>However, as we can see from the Kulber-Ross model on the next slide, there is a pattern that we naturally follow when faced with change. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Kubler-Ross Change Curve Sense of own Value Time 1. Shock 2. Denial 3. Anxiety 4. Apathy 5. Exploring Opportunities 6. Welcome the future
  14. 14. The Kubler-Ross Change Curve Sense of own Value Time 1. Shock 2. Denial 3. Anxiety 4. Apathy 5. Exploring Opportunities 6. Welcome the future
  15. 15. Stage 1 & 2 <ul><li>Shock and Denial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anyone in the denial phase may well be feeling shocked, confused or overwhelmed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This can affect their performance as they refuse to acknowledge the consequences of change and reject it irrationally. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically, people at these stages will think or respond in some of the these ways: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ I can’t believe it!” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ We’ll just carry on doing things the way we always have done” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Just keep you head down and everything will be OK” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Kubler-Ross Change Curve Sense of own Value Time 1. Shock 2. Denial 3. Anxiety 4. Apathy 5. Exploring Opportunities 6. Welcome the future
  17. 17. Stage 3 <ul><li>Anxiety / Resentment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some people will find the change threatening. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It might impact not just on their work but their whole family life. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because of this they can experience depression, frustration or anxiety. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When people feel under attach, one response is to become defensive. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><ul><li>This can show itself in a manner of ways: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Territorial fighting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dips in performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attempts to disrupt the new ways of working </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><ul><li>Typical responses or thoughts from people experiencing resentment include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ They can’t do this to us” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ The managers don’t understand what we’re trying to do” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ This is stupid, it’ll never work!” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. The Kubler-Ross Change Curve Sense of own Value Time 1. Shock 2. Denial 3. Anxiety 4. Apathy 5. Exploring Opportunities 6. Welcome the future
  21. 21. Stage 4 <ul><li>Apathy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When individuals realise that the change is for real and that they can’t do anything to prevent it, they may experience feelings of apathy and helplessness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There can be an atmosphere of “going through the motions”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This may be carrying out their work, but there is little ownership and not much energy or enthusiasm </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><ul><li>Typical responses or thoughts during this stage are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ I don’t see why I should bother” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ What does it matter? No one cares about us anyway” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ We’ll just keep our heads down” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. The Kubler-Ross Change Curve Sense of own Value Time 1. Shock 2. Denial 3. Anxiety 4. Apathy 5. Exploring Opportunities 6. Welcome the future
  24. 24. Stage 5 <ul><li>Exploring Opportunities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During this phase, individuals may experienced excitement and enthusiasm, as well as confusion, a lack of coherence and some frustration as they discard some of their old ways of working and experiment with new ideas. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><ul><li>People exploring opportunities will say things like: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ I don’t know whether this is my responsibility” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ This may have worked in the past but I’m not sure it’s still appropriate” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Why don’t we give my idea a try to make this happen?” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. The Kubler-Ross Change Curve Sense of own Value Time 1. Shock 2. Denial 3. Anxiety 4. Apathy 5. Exploring Opportunities 6. Welcome the future
  27. 27. Stage 6 <ul><li>Welcoming the Future </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment arises when people have accepted the “new ways of doing things around here”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They will have a fairly clear focus as to what they should be doing and the emphasis will be on co-operation, teamwork and goal setting </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><ul><li>People experiencing this stages will say things like: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ I think this could work really well” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ The change has been worthwhile” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ I can now see what it is we’re trying to do” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. The Kubler-Ross Change Curve Sense of own Value Time 1. Shock 2. Denial 3. Anxiety 4. Apathy 5. Exploring Opportunities 6. Welcome the future
  30. 30. Summary <ul><li>It is also important to remember that whilst the stages are common for most of us – what is often variable is the speed at which we go through each of them. </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent on the person and the change being faced, it might be a case of minutes or years through the change curve! </li></ul><ul><li>People in the welcoming stage and perhaps the Exploring stage are likely to be productive at work because their attitude is positive </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Those in the denial , anxiety / resentment or apathy stages will need your help. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people find themselves “stuck” in one of these stages without any idea of how to move on. </li></ul><ul><li>As you go through these lectures, you will find tip, hints and processes to help you move them on. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Exercise <ul><li>Spend a few minutes thinking about your team. </li></ul><ul><li>Which stage might each of them be in at the moment </li></ul><ul><li>Identify some ways in which you might be able to help people through each stage of the change process and write down your ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>When you complete this, spend some time thinking about which stage you are in yourself. </li></ul><ul><li>What support might you need? </li></ul><ul><li>When </li></ul>
  33. 33. Progression <ul><li>On the following slides are some activities you can use to help your team move through the change process. </li></ul><ul><li>How do they compare to your responses </li></ul>
  34. 34. Denial (Progression) <ul><li>Show people the facts </li></ul><ul><li>Give specific examples of how things will change </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasise the reason for change </li></ul><ul><li>Take them through the likely change process in the near future </li></ul><ul><li>Give them time to air their views, individually or together </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bury” old projects </li></ul><ul><li>Give them the change timetable </li></ul>
  35. 35. Anxiety / Resentment (Progression) <ul><li>Give them opportunity to air their grievances </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate what will happen if they don’t change </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasise the need for change </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasise the change can’t be reversed </li></ul>
  36. 36. Apathy (Progression) <ul><li>Provide encouragement in small but regular ways </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasises their work is important. </li></ul><ul><li>AS questions to gain their views </li></ul><ul><li>Give them meaningful tasks to complete </li></ul><ul><li>Give them work where they can have some quick wins </li></ul>
  37. 37. Exploring Opportunities (Progression) <ul><li>Emphasise the key activities </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how their role fits in with other </li></ul><ul><li>Provide clear goals </li></ul><ul><li>Provide regular feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage communication </li></ul>
  38. 38. Welcoming the Future (Progression) <ul><li>Determine long term goals </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasise success </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage those people who are responding well </li></ul>
  39. 39. Summary <ul><li>So far we’ve look at identifying the emotions and concerns of individuals as they go through change. </li></ul><ul><li>Next we’ll look at the practical processes of managing change </li></ul>
  40. 40. Process of Change <ul><li>The change process starts with an awareness of the need for change, followed by analysis and planning of what the change will look like and how it is to be achieved. </li></ul><ul><li>In this section we will have an overview of the models and tools to assist you in defining and implementing change. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Background <ul><li>K Beckhard (1969) recognised that a programme of change should incorporate specific processes. </li></ul><ul><li>He identified these as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting goals and defining the future state after the change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnosing the present condition in relation to those goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing strategies and actions plans for managing the transition </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>This can be simply put as: </li></ul>Current State Desired State 3. How do we get there? 1. Where do we want to be? 2. Where are we now?
  43. 43. <ul><li>Where do we want to be? </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to have a good understanding of the vision and to consider all of the likely factors to impact on your change. </li></ul><ul><li>Two very effective tools to help with these are the 7’s model and the process of Rich pictures. </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>A Rich Picture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the process of pictorially representing the feelings, facts and figures of a subject – often by using an analogy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is often an opportunity for pure and creative thoughts to come to mind (‘a picture paints a thousand words’) </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>The 7’s Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is a form of structured brainstorming. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It give a framework of key areas to consider when planning or analysing a situation future or present. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By considering each area you should be able to add detail such as: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What does this look like? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who is involved? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How many? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At what level? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 46. 7’s Diagram Structure Shared Values Staff Style Skills Systems Strategy
  47. 47. 2. What are we now? <ul><li>Analysis tools such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SWOT (Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities, Threats) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PEST (Political, Economic, Social & Technology) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These are considered to be very effective at providing categories to consider when looking at internal (SWOT) and external (PEST) factors that might be impacting on your current situation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cause and effect model is also very good at clarifying roots of a problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Tools such as the 7’s model and rich picture can also be very effective in determining understanding of your current state. </li></ul>
  48. 48. 3. How do we get there? <ul><li>Further analysis of the factors stopping or working against the change is useful in helping to plan to remove them. </li></ul><ul><li>Force field analysis is an effective too to do just this. </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>The key factors that you need to identify are the forces that are driving you from your current position towards your desired position and the forces that are preventing you from reaching your desired position. </li></ul><ul><li>On the following slide is an example </li></ul>
  50. 50. Team Technical Skill Set Good Processes Realistic Targets Strong links to other depts Current Position Low morale Staff on long term sick High workloads Desired Position Driving Forces Opposing Forces Driving Forces Opposing Forces
  51. 51. <ul><li>Here we are looking at a situation where the team is not performing to their optimum level. </li></ul><ul><li>You can look at what positives and negatives there are an take action to reduce the negatives and increase the positives </li></ul>
  52. 52. Stakeholder Analysis <ul><li>In order to reach your desired state you need to be fully aware of your stakeholders and how to manage them. </li></ul><ul><li>Some Stakeholder Analysis is required. </li></ul><ul><li>This can be done at two levels: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify all stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prioritise key stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By Stakeholder, we man ‘anyone who has an interest in the change taking place.’ </li></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>The 7’s model can be used ot identify stakeholders as can a brainstorming session. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember the list you come up with will probably be added to as you progress with the change!! </li></ul>
  54. 54. Key Stakeholders <ul><li>Once you have your list of Stakeholders you need to identify you Key Stakeholders. </li></ul><ul><li>This can be done by categorising them on a power versus interest grid as shown below </li></ul>Low High Power Low High Interest X X X X X X X X
  55. 55. <ul><li>Power = Level of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Position (they hold / status) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource (they control) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge (on subject matter change is dealing with) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network (who they can influence) </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Mechanisms for Managing Change <ul><li>Karl Lewin (1951) also talked about mechanisms for managing change: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unfreezing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Altering the present stable balance of things which support existing behaviours and attitudes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developing new responses based on new information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-freezing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilising the change by introducing the new responses into the personalities of those concerned </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The model is particularly concerned with trying to change organisational cultures and the way individuals behave </li></ul>
  57. 57. Exercise <ul><li>In groups, discuss what Lewin’s Unfreeze – Change – Re-freeze model might actually look like in practice. </li></ul><ul><li>What actions might you take as a leaders? </li></ul><ul><li>What risks are there with this process? </li></ul><ul><li>How might you overcome them? </li></ul>
  58. 58. Action Plan <ul><li>The final section of stage 3 (How do we get there) is to consider putting all of your analysis and solutions into an action plan. </li></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>Action Planning is really about setting objectives – SMART objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timed </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>Examples of good and poor objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At the end of the training the learner will be able to saw timber into different lengths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Given a tenon saw, mitre black, pencil and ruler the learner will be able to cut pieces from a three metre length of 5cm x 8cm to any size stated in metres, centimetres and to be accurate to within 2 mm. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As can be seen the second objective is much more specific. </li></ul><ul><li>This detail adds clarity and ensures that everyone fully understands what is expected of them. </li></ul>
  61. 61. Driving Change <ul><li>Having looked at some of the key tools for analysis and implementation of change, we now need to consider how to ensure the change succeeds and is driven through. </li></ul><ul><li>To do this we need to understand why change sometimes fails – why there is resistance to change </li></ul>
  62. 62. Exercise for the following lecture <ul><li>Think back on your personal experiences of implementation of change. </li></ul><ul><li>How did people react? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you think that was? </li></ul><ul><li>How could the change have been implemented better? </li></ul><ul><li>Please note you might be required to discuss this in the lecture so please either use false names of something which is not sensitive. </li></ul>
  63. 63. Overcoming Resistance to Change <ul><li>Resistance to change can be difficult to overcome </li></ul>
  64. 64. Exercise for the following lecture <ul><li>Find out what barriers there are with respect to change </li></ul><ul><li>Find out how these are shown in resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Find out how to overcome these </li></ul><ul><li>Please note that you may be required to discuss these, therefore, please ensure that the material is not sensitive. </li></ul>

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