Richa rate of corrosion

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Richa rate of corrosion

  1. 1. 1 Rate of corrosion of metals NAME: RICHA AGRAWAL CLASS: XII-B SUB:CHEMISTRY
  2. 2. 2 KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA AFS BIDAR KARNATAKA INVESTIGATORY PROJECT
  3. 3. 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The success and completion of the project required the help and guidance of many people and their valuable time. I respect and thank Mr. krishnakumar K.K. , school principal for giving me the opportunity to do this project providing all the nedd and help required by me for completion.
  4. 4. 4 I owe my profound gratitude to Mr. D Giridhar, chemistry teacher who assisted me in doing the project successfully and Mr Subhash, lab attendant for providing all the necessities during the execution of project. I am thankful to all my friends who encouraged me for the successful completion of project and helped in the retrieval of the information.
  5. 5. 5 INTRODUCTION Corrosion is a general term used to describe various interactions between a material and its environment leading to degradation in the material properties. THE CONSEQUENCES OF CORROSION: The consequences of corrosion are many and varied and the effects of these on the safe, reliable and efficient operation of equipment or structures are often more serious than the simple loss of a mass of metal.
  6. 6. 6 Failures of various kinds and the need for expensive replacements may occur even though the amount of metal destroyed is quite small. Some of the major harmful effects of corrosion can be summarized as follows: • Hazards or injuries to people arising from structural failure or breakdown (e.g. bridges, cars, aircraft). • Loss of time in availability of profile-making industrial equipment. • Reduced value of goods due to deterioration of appearance. • Contamination of fluids in vessels and pipes (e.g. beer goes cloudy when small quantities of heavy metals are released by corrosion).
  7. 7. 7 PREVENTION FROM CORROSION • BY PAINTING: the surface which is exposed to air is painted. Since paints contain oil, it forms a thin protective layer on the metal and prevents it from corrosion. • ALLOYING: Alloying means mixing two or more metals homogenously with each other. Metals which are not affected by moisture when alloyed with some other metal, prevents corrosion. • ELECTROPLATING: It is a process of coating a protective layer of metal on another metal by the means of electrolysis.It prevents the metal layer coming in contact with air and moisture and thus prevents corrosion
  8. 8. 8 AIM To study the rate of corrosions for different metals.
  9. 9. 9 MATERIALS REQUIRED • Beakers-15 • Iron sheets of 2# size-6 • Aluminum rods of 2# size-6 • Brass rods of 2# size-6 • Zinc sheets of 2# size-6
  10. 10. 10 • Measuring cylinders • Chemical Balance • Weight • Box. CHEMICALS: • Hydrochloric acid • Sodium hydroxide
  11. 11. 11 THEORY • Corrosion is a serious problem of some metals like iron, zinc, aluminum and alloys like brass which are commonly used in day today life. • Apart from reducing the life of articles made up of these metals or alloys the chemical substances formed out of corrosion have serious public health problems.
  12. 12. 12 • Replacement of machines or their parts and many other articles in industrial and public dealing lead to huge expenditure. • Hence, how to reduce or avoid corrosion of articles made up of metals or alloys has been a major subject of study in the field of chemistry and electrochemistry.
  13. 13. 13 PROCEDURE • Mix 9 ml. of conc. HCl with 241 ml. of water to form 250 ml. of solution. • Take this solution in seven different beakers. • Mark each beaker serially from 1 to 7. • Take the weights of three iron sheets, three aluminum rods, three brass rods and three zinc Sheets.
  14. 14. 14 • Now keep iron sheets, aluminum rods, zinc sheets and brass rod in separate beakers. • Then take iron + brass, iron + aluminium, iron + zinc, aluminium + zinc and brass + zinc and keep them in different beakers. • Allow the reactions to occur for 24 hours. • Note the maximum and minimum temperatures.
  15. 15. 15 • Now at the end of reaction take out the metals and keep them in sun for sometime so that they get dried up quickly. • Take the weights of each specimen and note the difference. • Similarly repeat 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 and 8 steps in a basic solution.
  16. 16. 16 OBSERVATION TABLE TABLE NO 1: S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Specimen (with acid) Brass Iron Zinc Aluminium Iron + Aluminium Brass + Zinc Iron +Zinc Initial Weight (in gm) Final Weight (in gm) 8 8 8 8 15 15 15 5 6 6.50 7.10 12.30 13.00 14.10
  17. 17. 17 TABLE NO 2: Initial Weight (in gm) Final Weight (in gm) 1. Specimen (with base) Brass 8 5.80 2. Iron 8 6.20 3. Zinc 8 7.10 4. Aluminium 8 7.60 5. Iron + Aluminium 15 12.90 6. Brass + Zinc 15 13.60 7. Iron +Zinc 15 14.40 S.No
  18. 18. 18 RESULTS • The rate of corrosion observed in acidic medium or the mass consumed during the corrosion is in the decreasing order from brass to aluminum. Brass has the highest corrosion rate while aluminium has the least corrosion rate. Brass > Iron > Zinc > Aluminium • When coupling of these metals was done each couple showed some difference in their corrosion with respect to each metal kept alone.
  19. 19. 19 Iron + Aluminium couple has the highest rate of corrosion while iron + Zinc couple has the lowest rate of corrosion. Rate of corrosion of each couple is in the order of: Iron + Aluminium > Brass + Zinc> Iron + Zinc • Rate of corrosion in basic medium is in the decreasing order from Brass to Aluminium. The order of rate of corrosion is as below: Brass > Zinc >Iron > Aluminium
  20. 20. 20 • When these metals were coupled the rate of corrosion was in the decreasing order from : Brass+ Aluminium > Brass + Zinc > Iron + Aluminium • Temperature and time of reaction were constant i.e., temperature was 21° C and time of reaction was 24 hours.
  21. 21. 21 CONCLUSIONS • Corrosion is a serious problem of some metals like iron, zinc, aluminium and alloys like brass which are commonly used in day today life. • Apart from reducing the life of articles made up of these metals or alloys the chemical substances formed out of corrosion have serious public health problems. • Replacement of machines or their parts and many other articles in industrial and public dealing lead to huge expenditure.
  22. 22. 22 • Hence, how to reduce or avoid corrosion of articles made up of metals or alloys has been a major subject of study in the field of chemistry and electrochemistry. • The study of the rate of corrosion of different metals or alloys showed gradual decrease in their masses in acidic medium. The decrease is in the order of brass, iron, zinc, aluminium. • The present experiments are in full agreement with the well known electrochemical reaction. Some of the typical reactions as occur with iron are llustrated.
  23. 23. 23 a) The reactions at respective electrodes are: At cathode: Fe Fe2+ + 2e-. in acid the equilibrium is HCl H+ + ClAt anode: The water which is in equilibrium H2O H+ + OH-. b) The e.m.f of these metals are in the order of Al : Zn : Fe .
  24. 24. 24 • In acid there are replaceable H+ ions which react with metals and H2 gas is evolved. This is because all the metals are highly electronegative in nature. When these two come in contact they react very easily and form stable compounds. Thus the rate of corrosion is very high. • The rate of corrosion in basic medium is very less as compared to acidic medium. The availability of e- is very less for the conversion of H+ to H2 gas state. • That is why there will not be replaceable ‘H’ ion. If there is no replaceable H+ ion then the corrosion will be possible. Hence the rate of corrosion is very slow.
  25. 25. 25 BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS REFERENCES: • NCERT textbook • Lab manual WEBSITES REFERENCES: • icbse.com • Google.com • wikipedia
  26. 26. 26 THE END

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