low cost construction

63,576 views

Published on

Published in: Real Estate, Business
1 Comment
40 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
63,576
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
18
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
4,806
Comments
1
Likes
40
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

low cost construction

  1. 1. LOW COST CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES PROPOSED TECHNIQUES &LITERATURE STUDIES
  2. 2. FUNICULAR ROOFFUNICULAR ROOFS-AN ALTERNATE TO RCC ROOFSTHE FUNICULAR SHELL ROOF IS ONE SUCH COMPRESSIONSTRUCTURE, WHICH ENSURES CONSERVATION OF NATURALRESOURCES BY UTILISING WASTE MATERIALS EFFECTIVELY ANDOPTIMISING THE USE OF EXPENSIVE STEEL AND CEMENT.FURTHER, THE ARCH DISTRIBUTESTHE POINT LOAD IN ALL DIRECTION EQUALLY THUS, IS ABLE TOWITHSTAND IMPACT LOADING AT ANY POINT.•DIAGONAL G RID OF FUNICULAR SHELL GIVES THE ILLUSION OFA LARGER SPACE.•ELIMINATE USE OF HIGH-ENERGY STEEL REINFORCEMENTUSED IN THE CONVENTIONAL RCC ROOF.•ALLOWS EFFICIENT USE OF WASTE MATERIALS AND PROVIDESPERSONALITY, COLOUR AND TEXTURE.• MINIMISES REQUIREMENT OF INTERNAL PLASTERS.• PROVIDES ROOFING AT A LOWER COST.
  3. 3. ! A DOUBLY CURVED STRUCTURE ON EDGEBEAM ENSURES OPTIMAL UTILISATION OF STEELAND CEMENT.! CAN BE DEMOULDED EVERY 48 HOURS.! A SIMPLE YET SPLENDID ROOFING SYSTEMUSING NATURAL MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGYAS OPPOSED TO THE MONOTONOUS ANDCOMPLEX CONVENTIONAL SYSTEM.! FUNICULAR SHELLS CAN TAKE ANY SHAPE-SQUARE, RECTANGLE, TRAPEZIUM, TRIANGULAROR ANY OTHER SHAPE. THE KNACK LIES IN THECASTING OF THE MOULD.! THE UPPER HALF OF THE EDGE BEAM ISREQUIRED TO HOLD THE STIRRUPS. IT IS CASTALONG WITH THE FUNICULAR SHELL;THEREFORE, IT CAN ALSO BE A TRIANGULARSECTION.! THE FUNICULAR SHELL CAN CARRY VARIOUSCONDUITS, TOILET PIPES IN THE AREA ABOVETHE BRICK -BAT LAYER. THESE CAN RUN ALONGTHE PERIPHERY WHERE THE MAXIMUM DEPTHIS AVAILABLE.! FUNICULAR SHELL ROOF FACILITATES THEINSTALLMENT OF FIXTURES LIKE- CEILING FANS,LIGHT FIXTURES ETC. A SKYLIGHT CAN BEINTRODUCED IN THE ROOF. THIS CAN BEACHIEVED BY LEAVING A HOLLOW WHILECASTING, USING THE INHERENT STRENGTH OF ARING IN COMPRESSION.! THE FUNICULAR SHELL ALLOWS AMPLEFLEXIBILITY IN DESIGN
  4. 4. GEODESIC DOMES•THE BASIC TRIANGLE OF AN ICOSAHEDRON IS SUBDIVIDEDINTO SMALLER TRIANGLES AND EACH NODE LIFTED TO MEETTHE SURFACE OF THE SPHERE.• THE MORE THE SUB-DIVISIONS, THE SMOOTHER THE DOME.EACH SIDE OF THE SUBDIVIDED TRIANGLE RESULTS IN A CHORDFACTOR, WHICH IS MULTIPLIED BY THE RADIUS TO GIVE THESTRAIGHT LENGTH OF EACH MEMBER.•EVEN THOUGH AN ICOSAHEDRON HAS BEEN TAKEN AS THEBASIC STARTING CONFIGURATION, ANY POLYHEDRA CAN BEUSED BUT THE NUMBER OF VARIATIONS IN PLATE IS LIKELY TOINCREASE DEPENDING ON THE POLYHEDRA TAKEN FOR THEBASIC GEOMETRY.•THE NUMBER OF VARIATIONS IN THE JOINT PLATES IS EVIDENT.
  5. 5. GEODESIC DOMES! SIMPLE MILD STEEL PLATES ARE USED, WHICH ARE EASY TOFABRICATE CONSIDERING ONLY A HOLE AND A SLOT HAVE TOBE MADE IN IT.! SINCE THE PLATES ARE DEPRESSING THE STRUCTURAL STEELNO SUB-STRUCTURE IS REQUIRED TO ACCOMMODATEROOFING MATERIAL! THE TOP OF THE STRUCTURAL MEMBER SERVES FOR THE SEATOF THE ROOFING MATERIAL.! A SIMPLE HOLE AND SLOT IN THE PLATES PROVIDE FORVARIATIONS IN ANGLES. THE HOLE FIXES THE DISTANCE ANDTHE SLOT PROVIDES ADJUSTMENT FOR THE ANGLES.! BY CURVING THE INNER AND OUTER PLATES AND MOVINGTHE SLOT AND THE HOLE BY FEW MILLIMETRES CLOSERTO THE CENTRE, THE BOLTS ARE MADE TO CONVERGETOWARDS THE CENTRE OF THE SPHERE.! MEMBERS CAN BE DOUBLED IN DEPTH IF REQUIRED.
  6. 6. A FRAMES•ARE WELDED FROM INCEPTION.THESE MEMBERS ARE MORE RESILIENTTHAN REINFORCED CEMENTCONCRETE AND HAVE A LARGERSTRENGTH EVEN WITHOUT THECONCRETE COMPONENT.•THIS FORM OF REINFORCEMENTCONSUMES 30% LESS STEEL.•THEY PROVIDE FOR A SIMPLEASSEMBLY OF BEAMS WITHCONTINUITY BARS AT JUNCTIONS INVARIOUS DIRECTIONS AND REQUIREMINIMUM FORMWORK FOR FILLING.•THEY ARE STABLE WITHOUTCONCRETE AS CONCRETE IS REDUCEDTO A FILLER MATERIAL.•THE MEMBERS CAN BE FILLED WITHCONCRETE AT ANY POINT OF TIMESUBSEQUENTLY.
  7. 7. SWARAN SINGH BLOCK•TAKE A SIMPLE, MANUALLYOPERATED BLOCK MAKING MACHINEAS AVAILABLE WITH MOST OF THEBUILDING CENTRES•TAKE A STIFF PVC SHEET OR REDMUD PLASTIC SHEET CUT TO THESIZE OF THE BASE OF THE MOULD.• COAT IT WITH USED MOBIL OIL TOPREVENT ADHESION ANDFACILITATE EASY DEMOULDINGFROM THE SURFACE OF THE BLOCK.•STONE PIECES OF DIFFERENTCOLORS AND ARRANGE THEM INPATTERNS AS MAY BE DESIRED FORTHE PURPOSE OF ARTICULATION OFMATERIALS.•PREPARE A 1: 3 MIX OF CEMENTAND SAND MORTAR. POUR THEMORTAR EVENLY OVER THE STONECHIPS•THE VIBRATION HELPSINTEGRATION OF THE STONE•PIECES WITH THE CEMENT MORTARTO FORM AN IMPERMEABLEDIAPHRAGM..•PREPARE ANOTHER MIX OF MUDWITH 2% CEMENT OR 5% LIME ORTHE COMBINATION OF THE TWO.THIS MIX FORMS THE MAJORPORTION OF THE BODY OF THEBLOCK. .
  8. 8. •TAKE A JUTE PIECE LITTLESMALLER THAN THE SIZE OFTHE BASE AND DIP IT INCEMENT SLURRY. PLACETHE JUTE PIECE IN THEMOULD AND FILL THE RESTOF THE MOULD WITH THESAME MIX TO ABOUT 2/3 RDOF THE MOULD AND ADDANOTHER LAYER OF JUTEDIPPED IN CEMENT SLURRY.•NOW FILL THE MOULD TOTHE TOP. LOCK THE LID ANDUSE THE COMPRESSOR TOCOMPRESS THE BLOCK•SURFACE OF THE WALL ANDWILL REQUIRE A FLASHCOAT LATER IF AT ALL, ONLYTO EVEN OUT THE SURFACE.
  9. 9. INTERLOCKING HOLLOW CONCRETE BLOCKS
  10. 10. VENE BLOCKS•THE VENE BLOCK IS ESSENTIALLY AN ADOBE BLOCK MAKINGMECHANISM THAT IS SIMPLE ANDEFFICIENT.•IT COMPRISES OF A MOULD MADE OF TIMBER. THE MOULD IS USEDTO MAKE THE ADOBE BLOCKS RIGHT WHERE THE WALL IS TO BEERECTED, AND RELIES ON A SIMPLE NON-MECHANISEDPROCEDURE.•THE MOULD IS PLACED WHERE REQUIRED AND THEN EARTH MIXTUREIS POURED IN AND COMPACTED WITHIN THE MOULD. ONCE THEMOULD IS FILLED AND ALL THE EARTH WITHIN COMPACTED, THEMOULD IS LIFTED OUT AND MOVED AHEAD TO MAKE THE NEXT BLOCK.•THE SAME PROCESS IS REPEATED. THE MOULD ENSURES THAT THEBLOCKS ARE LAID PRECISELY AND GIVES IT ACLEANER FINISH THAN THE ROUGH, HAND COMPACTED ADOBE WALLS.
  11. 11. •BY INTEGRATING THE RAM LOCHAN TILE INTO THE VENE BLOCKMAKING PROCESS, PLACING THE TILE INTO THE MOULD BEFORE WESTART COMPACTING THE EARTH, WE PROTECT THE ADOBE WALLFROMEROSION.•THE RAM LOCHAN TILE IS A FABRICATED ON SITE A SIMPLE MOULD.TO ACCOMMODATE THIS 10 MM TILE TILE, THE SIZE OF THE VENEBLOCKMOULD IS INCREASED SLIGHTLY.• BOTH THE REGULAR AND THE CORNER MOULDS ARE MODIFIED INTHIS MANNER. THE RAM LOCHAN TILE IS ALSO MODIFIEDTO ALLOW FOR TWO DOVETAIL LOCKS.•FOR THE CORNERS ONE OF THE DOVETAILS IS MADE SHORTER TOALLOWFOR A CLEAN JOINT.THE LOWER DOVETAIL OF THE TILE ALLOWS FOR APRECISE OVERLAPPING OF THE TILES.•THE RAM LOCHAN TILE IS INSERTED INTO THE VENEBLOCK MOULD DURING CONSTRUCTION AND IS MADETO OVERLAP THE LOWER COURSE BY HALF AN INCH ,
  12. 12. FILLER SLAB
  13. 13. COST REDUCTION TECHNIQUES1 FOUNDATION• NORMALLY THE FOUNDATION COST COMES TO ABOUT 10 TO 15% OF THE TOTAL BUILDING AND USUALLY FOUNDATION DEPTH OF 3 TO 4 FT. IS ADOPTED FOR SINGLE OR DOUBLE STOREY BUILDING AND ALSO THE CONCRETE BED OF 6″(15 CMS.) IS USED FOR THE FOUNDATION WHICH COULD BE AVOIDED.• IT IS RECOMMENDED TO ADOPT A FOUNDATION DEPTH OF 2 FT.(0.6M) FOR NORMAL SOIL LIKE GRAVELY SOIL, RED SOILS ETC.,• USE THE UNCOURSED RUBBLE MASONRY WITH THE BOND STONES AND GOOD PACKING.• SIMILARLY THE FOUNDATION WIDTH IS RATIONALIZED TO 2 FT. (0.6M).• TO AVOID CRACKS FORMATION IN FOUNDATION THE MASONRY SHALL BE THOROUGHLY PACKED WITH CEMENT MORTAR OF 1:8 BOULDERS AND BOND STONES AT REGULAR INTERVALS.• IT IS FURTHER SUGGESTED TO ADOPT ARCH FOUNDATION IN ORDINARY SOIL FOR EFFECTING REDUCTION IN CONSTRUCTION COST UP TO 40%.• THIS KIND OF FOUNDATION WILL HELP IN BRIDGING THE LOOSE POCKETS OF SOIL WHICH OCCURS ALONG THE FOUNDATION.• IN THE CASE OF BLACK COTTON AND OTHER SOFT SOILS IT IS RECOMMEND TO USE UNDER REAM PILE FOUNDATION WHICH SAVES ABOUT 20 TO 25% IN COST OVER THE CONVENTIONAL METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION.
  14. 14. REAMED PILE FOUNDATION
  15. 15. ARCH FOUNDATION
  16. 16. 2 WALLING•WALL THICKNESS OF 6 TO 9″ IS RECOMMENDED FOR ADOPTION INTHE CONSTRUCTION OF WALLS ALL-ROUND THE BUILDING AND 41/2 ”FOR INSIDE WALLS.• IT IS SUGGESTED TO USE BURNT BRICKS WHICH ARE IMMERSED INWATER FOR 24 HOURS AND THEN SHALL BE USED FOR THE WALLS3 RAT – TRAP BOND WALL•IT IS A CAVITY WALL CONSTRUCTION WITH ADDED ADVANTAGE OFTHERMAL COMFORT AND REDUCTION IN THE QUANTITY OF BRICKSREQUIRED FOR MASONRY WORK.•BY ADOPTING THIS METHOD OF BONDING OF BRICK MASONRYCOMPARED TO TRADITIONAL ENGLISH OR FLEMISH BOND MASONRY, ITIS POSSIBLE TO REDUCE IN THE MATERIAL COST OF BRICKS BY 25% ANDABOUT 10TO 15% IN THE MASONRY COST.•BY ADOPTING RAT-TRAP BOND METHOD ONE CAN CREATEAESTHETICALLY PLEASING WALL SURFACE AND PLASTERING CAN BEAVOIDED.
  17. 17. COMPARISON
  18. 18. • 4 CONCRETE BLOCK WALLING• IN VIEW OF HIGH ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY BURNT BRICK IT IS SUGGESTED TO USE CONCRETE BLOCK (BLOCK HOLLOW AND SOLID) WHICH CONSUMES ABOUT ONLY 1/3 OF THE ENERGY OF THE BURNT BRICKS IN ITS PRODUCTION.• BY USING CONCRETE BLOCK MASONRY THE WALL THICKNESS CAN BE REDUCED FROM 20 CMS TO 15 CMS.• CONCRETE BLOCK MASONRY SAVES MORTAR CONSUMPTION, SPEEDY CONSTRUCTION OF WALL RESULTING IN HIGHER OUTPUT OF LABOUR, PLASTERING CAN BE AVOIDED THEREBY AN OVERALL SAVING OF 10 TO 25% CAN BE ACHIEVED.
  19. 19. 5 SOIL CEMENT BLOCK TECHNOLOGY•IT IS AN ENERGY EFFICIENT METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION WHERE SOILMIXED WITH 5% AND ABOVE CEMENT AND PRESSED IN HANDOPERATED MACHINE AND CURED WELL AND THEN USED IN THEMASONRY.•THIS MASONRY DOESN’T REQUIRE PLASTERING ON BOTH SIDES OFTHE WALL.•THE OVERALL ECONOMY THAT COULD BE ACHIEVED WITH THE SOILCEMENT TECHNOLOGY IS ABOUT 15 TO 20%
  20. 20. •6 DOORS AND WINDOWS•IT IS SUGGESTED NOT TO USE WOOD FOR DOORS AND WINDOWSAND IN ITS PLACE CONCRETE OR STEEL SECTION FRAMES SHALL BEUSED FOR ACHIEVING SAVING IN COST UP TO 30 TO 40%.•SIMILIARLY FOR SHUTTERS COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE BLOCKBOARDS, FIBRE OR WOODEN PRACTICAL BOARDS ETC., SHALL BE USEDFOR REDUCING THE COST BY ABOUT 25%.•BY ADOPTING BRICK JELLY WORK AND PRECAST COMPONENTSEFFECTIVE VENTILATION COULD BE PROVIDED TO THE BUILDING ANDALSO THE CONSTRUCTION COST COULD BE SAVED UP TO 50% OVERTHE WINDOW COMPONENTS.•ALUMINIUM, IRON, CONCRETE FRAMES CAN BE USED•7 LINTELS AND CHAJJAS•THE TRADITIONAL R.C.C. LINTELS WHICH ARE COSTLY CAN BEREPLACED BY BRICK ARCHES FOR SMALL SPANS AND SAVECONSTRUCTION COST UP TO 30 TO 40% OVER THE TRADITIONALMETHOD OF CONSTRUCTION.• BY ADOPTING ARCHES OF DIFFERENT SHAPES A GOODARCHITECTURAL PLEASING APPEARANCE CAN BE GIVEN TO THEEXTERNAL WALL SURFACES OF THE BRICK MASONRY.
  21. 21. LAURIE BAKERLAURIE BAKER, AN ARCHITECT FROMBIRMINGHAM, NOW SETTLED INTHIRUVANANTHAPURAM, HASEFFECTIVELY COMBINED TRADITIONALTECHNIQUES WITH INDIGENOUSINNOVATIONS AND HAS MANAGED TOBRING DOWN THE COST OFCONSTRUCTION BY HALF.HIS TECHNIQUES NOT ONLY USE CHEAPERMATERIALS BUT ALSO ELIMINATEREDUNDANT DETAILS FROM THE DESIGN.CONCRETE IS RARELY USED. MANGALORETILES ARE USED FOR THE ROOF WHICHMAKES IT LIGHT AND INEXPENSIVE.
  22. 22. • HIS APPROACH AND SIMPLE PRINCIPLES TO LOW COST HOUSING ARE GANDHIAN, WHICH CAN BE ADOPTED BY EVERY BUILDER. THE FOLLOWING ARE THE MAINSTAY OF DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF HIS HOUSES.• PLANNING OF SPACE– LESSER WALLS, MULTIPLE USES OF SPACE, SHORT SPANS OF ROOF, AGGLOMERATION OF BUILDING SERVICES, FLEXIBILITY IN GROWTH.• LOCAL BUILDING MATERIAL– BRICKS, TILES, LIME, SURKHI, TIMBER, THATCH, STONE, PALM, MUD.• BRICKS AND JALIS – PLAY OF LIGHT AND SHADE, UNIDIRECTIONAL VISION.• UNPLASTERED WALLS.• LINTELS AND ARCHES.• ATTENTION TO DETAILS.
  23. 23. • BAKER’S WORKS INCLUDE, PRIVATE RESIDENCES, SOME INSTITUTIONAL BUILDINGS, LIKE ‘CENTER FOR DEVELOPMENT STUDIES’, KERALA. HE IS VERY ACTIVE IN THE WORKS OF ALL THE BUILDING CENTERS WORKING IN KERALA AS WELL AS IN THE OTHER PARTS OF COUNTRY. RATHER IT WAS HIS INITIAL EFFORT TO PROMOTE THE LOW COST HOUSING IN INDIA, WHERE HOUSING IS A BIG PROBLEM.• HIS TECHNIQUES NOT ONLY USE CHEAPER MATERIALS BUT ALSO ELIMINATE UNNECESSARY DETAILS FROM THE DESIGN. CONCRETE IS SPARINGLY USED. MANGALORE TILES ARE USED FOR THE ROOF WHICH MAKES IT LIGHT AND INEXPENSIVE.• HIS PROJECTS FOR LOW COST BUILDINGS INCLUDE1. CENTER FOR DEVELOPMENT STUDIES – TRIVANDRUM2. THE HAMLET, LAURIE BAKERS HOME THIRUVANANTHAPURAM,
  24. 24. CENTER FOR DEVELOPMENT STUDIES - TRIVANDRUM -1975• LESLIE BAKER’S ‘MASTERPIECE,’ THE CENTRE FOR DEVELOPMENT STUDIES IN KERALA, IS A 10 ACRE CAMPUS AT A COST OF RS15 LAKHS, DEMONSTRATED THE EFFECTIVENESS OF HIS PLAN.• THE INSTITUTE INCLUDES A RESEARCH INSTITUTE. A GRADUATE SCHOOL DEDICATED TO UTILIZING THE STUDY OF ECONOMICS TO HELP THE POOR.
  25. 25. MAIN FEATURES OF THIS BUILDING:• HE DESIGNED THE BUILDINGS AT THE CENTRE TO PRACTICALLY COOL THEM.• HE RENDERS JALIS, A PERFORATED WOODEN SCREEN FOUND IN TRADITIONAL INDIAN ARCHITECTURE, IN BRICK;• THE OPEN GRILLWORK ALLOWS COOL BREEZES TO WAFT INTO THE INTERIOR WHILE FILTERING HARSH, DIRECT SUNLIGHT.• SOME BUILDINGS INCLUDE A SERIES OF SMALL COURTYARDS CONTAINING SHALLOW POOLS IN THE CENTER, WHOSE EVAPORATION HELPS COOL THE AIR.• PAYING CLOSE ATTENTION TO THE EXISTING SITE AS HE BEGAN TO DESIGN THE PROJECT, BAKER LEFT AS MANY COCONUT PALM TREES IN PLACE AS POSSIBLE TO CAST COOLING SHADE ONTO THE CAMPUS.
  26. 26. • THE COMPUTER CENTRE AT THE CENTRE FOR DEVELOPMENT STUDIES, THIRUVANANTHAPURAM. HERE BAKER EVOLVED AN INNOVATIVE SYSTEM OF CURVED DOUBLE WALLS TO SAVE ON COST AND TO CONSERVE THE ENERGY .• IN EVALUATING THE CAMPUS FOR THE CENTRE, BAKER PLANNED ROADS ALONG THE LOWER, WHILE FOOTPATHS WERE ROUTED ALONG NATURALLY OCCURRING ELEVATED AREAS; FOLLOWING THE NATURAL TOPOGRAPHY HELPS TO LIMIT EROSION AND DESPOILMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT.
  27. 27. • BRICKWALLS WERE LEFT UNPLASTERED AND BRICK CORBELLING WAS USED RATHER THAN MORE EXPENSIVE CONCRETE LINTELS.• WITH HIS MASTERY OVER HIS MEDIUM, BAKER CREATES A VARIETY OF TEXTURES AND PATTERNS BY SIMPLE MANIPULATION OF THE WAY IN WHICH BRICKS ARE PLACED IN THE WALL.• THE ARCHITECTURE OF THIS ACADEMIC COMPLEX WAS CONCEIVED AS A DEMONSTRATION OF ECONOMICALLY RESPONSIBLE BUILDING PRACTICES.
  28. 28. BAKER’S HOUSE “THE HAMLET”• BAKER’S OWN RESIDENCE IS CALLED ‘THE HAMLET’. IT HAS BEEN BUILT IN THIRUVANANTHAPURAM, BUILT ON A STEEPLY SLOPING AND ROCKY HILLSIDE THAT HARDLY HAD ANY VEGETATION WHEN BAKER STARTED CONSTRUCTING.• BAKER HAS TRULY ADOPTED HIS MOTTO TO “MAKE LOW- COSTERY A HABIT AND A WAY OF LIFE” BY REUSING EVERYTHING, FROM BRICK TO GLASS BOTTLES, AS BUILDING MATERIALS.• KEY FEATURES OF HIS HOUSEARE:ALL THE WALLS ARE MADE OFMUD BRICKS.TIMBER SALVAGED FROM AN OLDBOAT JETTY.
  29. 29. • ONE OF THE OTHER SIGNATURE ELEMENTS OF HIS DESIGN INCLUDES THE USE OF CIRCULAR WALLS, WHICH USE FAR LESS BRICK THAN RECTANGULAR WALLS.• IN ADDITION, WHEN HE DOES USE CONCRETE FOR A ROOF, HE EMBEDS CHIPPED OR BROKEN TERRA COTTA ROOFING TILES INTO THE MIXTURE.• THESE TILES, WHICH NORMALLY WOULD BE THROWN AWAY, CONTRIBUTE TO THE STRENGTH OF THE ROOF, ALLOW LESS OF THE EXPENSIVE CONCRETE TO BE USED, AND REDUCE THE STRUCTURAL LOAD OF THE BUILDING.• HE USED BROKEN TILES FOR THE OUTER PAVED AREA OF HIS GARDEN.
  30. 30. • HE MADE AN EXTENSIVE USE OF TIMBER IN HIS HOUSE, LIKE IN THE LIVING ROOM OF HOUSE, THE DETAILING IN WOOD AND MUD BRICKS ARE WONDERFUL.• THE LIVING ROOM, AN INTEGRATION OF NEW BUILDING AND SALVAGED TIMBER FROM TRADITIONAL BUILDINGS THAT WERE BEING DEMOLISHED.• BAKERS INNOVATIVE USE OF DISCARDED BOTTLES, INSET IN THE WALLS GIVING A VERY GOOD EFFECT OF LIGHT AND CREATING AN ILLUSION OF STAINED GLASS.

×