PS 240 Marxism

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PS 240 Marxism

  1. 1. MarxismDr. Christopher S. Rice
  2. 2. 2effects of his career in Journalism
  3. 3. He came to appreciate the centralsocial and political importance of economics
  4. 4. He ceased to be a liberal and became a radical
  5. 5. The Economic and PhilosophicalManuscripts of 1844
  6. 6. Hegel and hisinfluence on Marxism
  7. 7. Hegel’s Philosophy of History
  8. 8. Geist
  9. 9. Alienation(entfremdung)
  10. 10. Dialectic the process whereby opposite views or forces come into conflict, which eventually leads to the overcoming orreconciliation of the opposition in a new and presumably higher form
  11. 11. THESIS +ANTITHESIS =SYNTHESIS
  12. 12. The Master-Slave Dialectic• The master becomes master by physically conquering another, whom he then enslaves.• Seeing oneself through the eyes of the Other.• The master and slave are engaged in a symbiotic relationship.• The master and slave are engaged in a conflictual relationship.• The true relationship revealed through resistance.• A Happy Conclusion…
  13. 13. History as the Storyof Human Labor and Struggle
  14. 14. “The historyof allhithertoexistingsociety is thehistory ofclassstruggles.”
  15. 15. Materialist vs. Idealist
  16. 16. Material Forces of Production +Social Relations of Production =Material Production
  17. 17. Material Forces of Production
  18. 18. Social Relations of Production
  19. 19. The Dialectic of Class
  20. 20. Class determined byrelation to the forces of production
  21. 21. Dominating Class has 2 important advantages:•Monopoly on the power, agents of coercion•Control of the Mental Means of Production
  22. 22. False Consciousness
  23. 23. Base & Superstructure
  24. 24. Marx’s Materialist Conception of Society (Ball and Dagger, “Socialism and Communism: More to Marx”) IDEOLOGICAL SUPERSTRUCTURE IDEAS, IDEALS, BELIEFS (Morality, Law, Religion, Etc.) SOCIAL RELATIONS OF PRODUCTION BASE MATERIAL FORCES OF PRODUCTION (“Productive Forces”)
  25. 25. “Religion is the opiate of the masses”
  26. 26. “Religious distress is at thesame time the expression ofreal distress and the protestagainst real distress. Religionis the sigh of the oppressedcreature, the heart of aheartless world, just as it is thespirit of a spiritless situation. Itis the opiate of the people…
  27. 27. “The abolition of religion asthe illusory happiness of thepeople is required for their realhappiness. The demand togive up the illusions about itscondition is the demand togive up a condition that needsillusions…
  28. 28. The criticism of religion istherefore in embryo thecriticism of the vale of woe, thehalo of which is religion.Criticism has plucked theimaginary flowers from thechain, not so that man will wearthe chain without any fantasyor consolation…
  29. 29. …but so that he will shake offthe chain and cull the livingflower.Karl MarxContribution to the Critique of HegelʼsPhilosophy of Right.
  30. 30. PossessiveIndividualism
  31. 31. Marx’s Critique of Capitalism
  32. 32. “The bourgeoisie, historically, has played a mostrevolutionary part.”
  33. 33. Capitalism’s 3important progressive functions
  34. 34. 1. Merchant capitalists hastened the demise of feudalism2. Capitalism has made men masters over nature3. Capitalism requires constant innovation and change
  35. 35. So why should Capitalism be replaced???
  36. 36. 3
  37. 37. Capitalism isOutmoded
  38. 38. Capitalism creates Alienation
  39. 39. 4 ways in which workers are alienated under capitalism:1. They are alienated from the product of their labor because they are forced to sell their labor and do not own what they produce.2. They are alienated from the activity of production itself because the capitalist system of mass production kills the creative spirit, leaving workers unable to find satisfaction in their labor.3. Workers are alienated from their unique and distinctively human nature and potential, particularly the power to create and enjoy beauty, by the dulling effect of living in a capitalist society.4. Capitalism alienates workers from each other because it forces them to compete for jobs & wages.
  40. 40. Capitalism isSelf-subverting
  41. 41. Why capitalism isDOOOOOOOMED!
  42. 42. Capitalism contains within itselfthe seeds of its own destruction
  43. 43. Bourgeois-Proletariat Dialectic•The Worker is enslaved by the Capitalist, though at first, he or she does not know it•The Worker wakes from a “False Consciousness”•The Dialectic turns…•Establishing the classless society
  44. 44. Bourgeois-Proletariat Dialectic•The Worker is enslaved by the Capitalist, though at first, he or she does not know it•The Worker wakes from a “False Consciousness”•The Dialectic turns…•Establishing the classless society
  45. 45. Bourgeois-Proletariat Dialectic•The Worker is enslaved by the Capitalist, though at first, he or she does not know it•The Worker wakes from a “False Consciousness”•The Dialectic turns…•Establishing the classless society
  46. 46. Bourgeois-Proletariat Dialectic•The Worker is enslaved by the Capitalist, though at first, he or she does not know it•The Worker wakes from a “False Consciousness”•The Dialectic turns…•Establishing the classless society
  47. 47. The Revolutionary Sequence COMMUNISM WITHERING AWAY OF THE STATE DICTATORSHIP OF THE PROLETARIAT SEIZURE OF STATE POWER REVOLUTIONARY CLASS CONSCIOUSNESS IMMISERATION OF THE PROLETARIAT ECONOMIC CRISES
  48. 48. Engels &Feminism
  49. 49. Women’s oppressionhistorical, not natural
  50. 50. Modes of Production &Matrilineal societies
  51. 51. Marriage is a Bad Deal
  52. 52. Architecture vs. Capitalism
  53. 53. “Capitalism, he discovered, produced only ugly, pretentious luxury goods for slave owners and ugly, shoddy goods for slaves.” - A.L. Morton
  54. 54. The Arts & Crafts Movement
  55. 55. “I have tried to produce goodswhich should be genuine as faras their mere substances areconcerned, and should have onthat account the primarybeauty in them which belongsto naturally treatedsubstances.”William Morris
  56. 56. Artistic CriticismSocial Criticism
  57. 57. Morris Transforms
  58. 58. Morris’ Marxism
  59. 59. The problem of political action: “Making Marxists”
  60. 60. Morris’ Principles•It is right and necessary that all men should have work to do which shall be worth doing, and be of itself pleasant to do; and which should be done under such conditions as would make it neither over-wearisome nor over- anxious.•Nothing should be made by men’s labour which is not worth making; or which must be made by labour degrading to the makers.
  61. 61. Morris’ Principles•It is right and necessary that all men should have work to do which shall be worth doing, and be of itself pleasant to do; and which should be done under such conditions as would make it neither over-wearisome nor over- anxious.•Nothing should be made by men’s labour which is not worth making; or which must be made by labour degrading to the makers.
  62. 62. Morris’ Principles• No one who is willing to work should ever fear want of such employment as would earn for him all due necessities of mind and body. – Honourable and fitting work – Decency of Surroundings – Leisure• It is NECESSARY to human well-being that “In a well ordered state of Society every man willing to work should be ensured honourable and fitting work, a healthy and beautiful house, and full leisure for mind and body.”
  63. 63. Morris’ Principles• No one who is willing to work should ever fear want of such employment as would earn for him all due necessities of mind and body. – Honourable and fitting work – Decency of Surroundings – Leisure• It is NECESSARY to human well-being that “In a well ordered state of Society every man willing to work should be ensured honourable and fitting work, a healthy and beautiful house, and full leisure for mind and body.”
  64. 64. Lenin’s Contributions to Marxism
  65. 65. Vanguard Party
  66. 66. Marx vs. Lenin
  67. 67. The Party’s chief role is toagitate, organize, andeducate the workers,teaching them where their“true” interests lie.
  68. 68. The Intellectuals MUST Lead!
  69. 69. No faith in the“working-class mentality”
  70. 70. • Monopoly arose out of the concentration of production at a very advanced stage of development.• Monopolies have accellerated the capture of the most important sources of raw materials.• Monopoly has sprung from the banks (creation of a financial oligarchy).• Monopoly has grown out of colonial policy.
  71. 71. Imperialism
  72. 72. Four Conclusions:1. Confirmed his suspicions and hatred of the “revisionist” Marxists who proposed gradual change by working through parties within the current system.2. Members of the working-class in the West have been infected with a “trade union mentality,” in effect becoming “bourgeoisie” themselves, and unreliable for bringing the Marxian revolution.3. The (Vanguard) Party plays the indispensable role of raising the consciousness of the working class.4. The revolution will come FIRST to those areas most immiserated and led by an active vanguard party.
  73. 73. Maoism:Marxism “through a glass, darkly”
  74. 74. Heavily influenced byLenin’s Imperialism
  75. 75. Mao proposed to rely on the Chinese agrarian peasantry for 2 reasons:1. Poor peasant farmers were an overwhelming majority of the Chinese population, and if organized and mobilized, would provide an almost irresistible force.2. They were the poorest and most oppressed segment of the population. They had nothing to lose but everything to gain from revolution against their oppressors.
  76. 76. Urban Proletariat Peasantry
  77. 77. Mao vs. Marx•Subjective •Material or Conditions Objective•Consciousness Conditions•Political Will
  78. 78. The Class Struggle recast…
  79. 79. Importance of the Vanguard Party

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