Computação Física e Conhecimento Livre           idéias e ferramentas experimentais para a próxima década                 ...
30 e poucos anos em 1 slideREDE: computadores            WEB: páginas                idéias 2.0                           ...
O QUE É COMPUTAÇÃO FÍSICA?• integra de maneira direta e discreta ambientes virtuais e realidade  física, ampliando as pote...
likely to get a bunch of blank stares. Why should we care?RELAÇÃO HOMEM-COMPUTADOR       beings is reflected by its input ...
EXEMPLOS
MY LITTLE PIECE OF PRIVACE                     Niklas Roy, 2010        EXEMPLOS
MY LITTLE PIECE OF PRIVACE                     Niklas Roy, 2010        EXEMPLOS
SHIT HAPPENS       Daniel Dias, 2010
SHIT HAPPENS       Daniel Dias, 2010
LASER HARP     Steve Hobley, 2009EXEMPLOS
LASER HARP     Steve Hobley, 2009EXEMPLOS
MARIO BROS 8X8px            Chloe Fan, 2009   EXEMPLOS
MARIO BROS 8X8px            Chloe Fan, 2009   EXEMPLOS
FLOATING ORCHESTRA               Poietic Studio, 2011    EXEMPLOS
FLOATING ORCHESTRA               Poietic Studio, 2011    EXEMPLOS
DANCER BOTEXEMPLOS
DANCER BOTEXEMPLOS
BREATHING    Guto Nóbrega, 2010EXEMPLOS
BREATHING    Guto Nóbrega, 2010EXEMPLOS
BLINKING JACKET          Leah Buchley, 2008   EXEMPLOS
BLINKING JACKET          Leah Buchley, 2008   EXEMPLOS
INPUT              entrada de informação.  chamados de conversores analógico para digital.      também conhecidos como SEN...
QUADRO COMPARATIVO                         plataformas de conversão analógico-digitalpreço        fácil de usar           ...
POSSÍVEIS INPUTS                                                                                Shopping — Chapter 2      ...
Shopping — Chapter 2             25                                                                                       ...
A PLACA DE PROTÓTIPOS
POSSÍVEIS PROCESSAMENTOS
A diode is like a one-way street: it only allows electricity to flow in one direction and not                             ...
O QUE É ARDUINO?                     arduino.cc                  um Ambiente deum Hardware       Desenvolvimento   uma Com...
COMPARANDO O ARDUINO  Arduino Capabilities            =Intel 286       Arduino
POTENCIAL DO ARDUINO• 1 kByte de RAM• 32 kBytes de memória Flash• 16 MHz (Apple II: 1 MHz / Intel 286: 12.5 MHz / Intel Co...
GÍRIAS DO UNIVERSO ARDUINO  • SKETCH: programa escrito na IDE do próprio arduino,    geralmente salvo em formato *.pde  • ...
LAYOUT DO ARDUINO                          DIGITAL                LED       IN/OUT             REFERENCIAUSB              ...
TIPOS DE ARDUINO  ARDUINO UNO       ARDUINO MEGA   ARDUINO LYLYPADARDUINO BLUETOOTH   ARDUINO NANO   ARDUINO ETHERNET
REFERÊNCIAS NO ASSUNTO
DEMONSTRAÇÃO
OBRIGADO!  @ricardopalmieri
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computacao fisica e conhecimento livre

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apresentacao base para apresentar o conceito de computacao fisica para estudantes de design e artes integradas.

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computacao fisica e conhecimento livre

  1. 1. Computação Física e Conhecimento Livre idéias e ferramentas experimentais para a próxima década por Ricardo Palmieri ricardopalmieri@gmail.com
  2. 2. 30 e poucos anos em 1 slideREDE: computadores WEB: páginas idéias 2.0 XX: coisascompartilhamento de pacotes compartilhamento de links compartilhamento de instantes 80’s 90’s 00’s 10’s livre tradução do original de Kevin Kelly (co-fundador da revista WIRED)
  3. 3. O QUE É COMPUTAÇÃO FÍSICA?• integra de maneira direta e discreta ambientes virtuais e realidade física, ampliando as potencialidades de comunicação e interação em rede.• engloba disciplinas que permitem construir equipamentos computacionais que interagem com e respondem à, realidade física analógica que nos rodeia, usando softwares e hardwares para este fim.• desenvolve sistemas digitais, que inclui computadores, controladores e softwares que, ligados a sensores e atuadores, permitem construir sistemas e aparelhos autômatos, que percebem a realidade e respondem com ações físicas a ela.
  4. 4. likely to get a bunch of blank stares. Why should we care?RELAÇÃO HOMEM-COMPUTADOR beings is reflected by its input and output devices. In the c this means a mouse, a keyboard, a monitor, and speakers. T look like a hand with one finger, one eye, and two ears (see computer reacts to us, we have to change how it sees us. Figure I.1 How the computer sees us. The human being as seen through the computer’s input devic Vonnegut’s Tralfamadorians from The Sirens of Titan look mu is as alien to ours as this poor creature’s. It can’t walk, dance,
  5. 5. EXEMPLOS
  6. 6. MY LITTLE PIECE OF PRIVACE Niklas Roy, 2010 EXEMPLOS
  7. 7. MY LITTLE PIECE OF PRIVACE Niklas Roy, 2010 EXEMPLOS
  8. 8. SHIT HAPPENS Daniel Dias, 2010
  9. 9. SHIT HAPPENS Daniel Dias, 2010
  10. 10. LASER HARP Steve Hobley, 2009EXEMPLOS
  11. 11. LASER HARP Steve Hobley, 2009EXEMPLOS
  12. 12. MARIO BROS 8X8px Chloe Fan, 2009 EXEMPLOS
  13. 13. MARIO BROS 8X8px Chloe Fan, 2009 EXEMPLOS
  14. 14. FLOATING ORCHESTRA Poietic Studio, 2011 EXEMPLOS
  15. 15. FLOATING ORCHESTRA Poietic Studio, 2011 EXEMPLOS
  16. 16. DANCER BOTEXEMPLOS
  17. 17. DANCER BOTEXEMPLOS
  18. 18. BREATHING Guto Nóbrega, 2010EXEMPLOS
  19. 19. BREATHING Guto Nóbrega, 2010EXEMPLOS
  20. 20. BLINKING JACKET Leah Buchley, 2008 EXEMPLOS
  21. 21. BLINKING JACKET Leah Buchley, 2008 EXEMPLOS
  22. 22. INPUT entrada de informação. chamados de conversores analógico para digital. também conhecidos como SENSORESPROCESSAMENTO tratamento dos dados fase de decisões formais e de resultados OUTPUTsaída das informações chamados de conversores digital para analógico. também conhecidos como ATUADORES
  23. 23. QUADRO COMPARATIVO plataformas de conversão analógico-digitalpreço fácil de usar difícil de usar habilidade tecnológica
  24. 24. POSSÍVEIS INPUTS Shopping — Chapter 2 17 Figure 2.4 Capacitors in schematic (unpolarized and polarized) and actual capacitors (left to right: ceramic, tanatlum, electrolytic capacitors). 19 Common Components Shopping — Chapter 2 Figure 2.7 Transistor and relay schematics, and measured in farads (F). A farad is really a lot of charge, so most of the capacitors you’ll use transistors. will be measured in microfarads (mF or µF), picofarads (pF), or nanofarads (nF). Capacitors Shopping — Chapter 2 all have two leads. Some capacitors are unpolarized, meaning that it doesn’t matter which 15 side you connect to where. Figure 2.4 shows a variety of capacitors, both polarized and Resistors If you are using a polarized capacitor, a + or – sign should be printed on the unpolarized. outside of the capacitor itself. The + side of the capacitor goes toward the higher voltage in Figure circuit, andthan– side but you’ll start by using them as electronic switches. We’ll your 2.2of more the that, goes toward lower voltage. capable Schematicthem infor explain symbol in lots of different chapters. Capacitors come more depth in latershapes and are made of different materials (for a resistor and a pile of resistors. ceramic, tantalum, or electrolytic), in the examplespretty much the same thing. example, two types of transistors you’ll use but they all do in this book. The first type There are Tantalum and electrolytic capacitors are higher qualitythe advanced section, you willto you will use is the very common 2N2222 transistor. In and last longer. Pay attention your schematic diagrams; if a polarized capacitor is called for, make sure to use one. The use a TIP120 Darlington transistor, which you’ll use for switching devices that use a most commonof current. It looks identical to the 5-volt voltage regulator µF ceramic below large amount values you’ll need for this book are 22pF, 0.01µF, and 0.1 mentioned or Wires Common Compo electrolytic capacitors, and 1µF and 10µF electrolytic to confuse them. The transistors but performs a very different function, so be sure not capacitors. themselves will usually have some markings to indicate their type. Keep the packaging for Diodesthe left, and thethe three leads. Figure 2.7 on the right. types of transistor in this distinguishing between book on two most common relays shows the two Figure 2.5 relay to start with is a 5-volt reed relay. It can be switched with 5 volts at 20 The best Diode schematic power), which is just right for the output of a typical microcontroller, and milliamps (coil and general-purpose can then turn on a 120 volt, 0.5 amp load such as a 60-watt light bulb. Reed relays usually diodes. look like little tubes that barely fit in your breadboard. You can get reed relays from Digi-
  25. 25. Shopping — Chapter 2 25 26 Part I — The Basicsa Macintosh user, you’ll need to get one that’s got software drivers that work with yourmachine. We recommend the Keyspan USA19HS because it’s compatible with every Wire Strippers FERRAMENTASMacintosh1 operating system through OSX 10.3, and it’s got a DB-9-style serial connectorlike most PCs. It also works on PCs. It’s the model shown in Figure 2.17. There are lots of different types of wire strippers. Their purpose is to take the plastic insulation off without cutting the wire inside. Get whichever you like, as long as the ones you get can strip the insulation from the standard 22 AWG hookup wire.Tools Wire CutterThere are only a few tools you’ll use all the time when building electronic projects. Like Many pliers and strippers already have a cutting edge in them, but a separate pair ofwith any hobby, you might develop tool lust, and start buying all kinds of esoteric tools diagonal cutters is useful for making clean cuts.that you don’t necessarily need at first. Feel free to indulge your lust in the future, but fornow, stick with these staples. Your pocketbook will thank you. Mini-Vise or Helping HandsFigure 2.18 Figure 2.19An array of the tools A Mini-vise (left) and helping hands (right). Toolsyou’ll use all the time.Left to right: diagonalcutters, screwdriver,wire stripper, needle-nose pliers. The trickiest part of soldering is that you need to hold four items: the two components or wires to be soldered, the solder, and the soldering iron. Unfortunately, we only have two hands. A vise or a pair of clamps to act as a spare set of hands helps. Some vises have clamps or vacuum seals on the bottom to hold them to the table, but for soldering, your vise does not have to be very strong or secure, as long as it stays put on the table. “Third hands” are another alternative. These have two alligator clips mounted on swivel bearings to holdSoldering Iron the two components to be soldered. They allow more flexibility than a vise, but are moreEven if you use a breadboard, you will need a soldering iron for your more permanent delicate. If you have cash to spare, it’s often useful to have both, as shown in Figure 2.19.connections. Get a soldering iron with a stand and a sponge. Since the iron gets very hotwhen you use it, a stand gives you a safe place to put it down without starting a fire. A Small Screwdriverssponge allows you to clean the tip, which makes for much faster and reliable soldering. Get Precision drivers in both Philips and slotted heads always come in handy.an iron with a narrow point tip in order to do fine soldering; 1/32" tips will do you well. Shopping — Chapter 2 27 Drill and Drill BitsSolder If you have a handheld drill, you’ll use it frequently. A few common bit sizes you might useFigure 2.20 core solder, 22 AWG or higher. Solder is measured using the same standard asGet rosin are 7/64", 1/8", 5/16", and 1/4".wire, so higher numbers mean thinner solder. Anything thicker than 22AWG tends to beA basic multimeter.awkward for electronics work. Get lead-free solder if you can, as it’s safer for you. Multimeter A multimeter is a device used to test various electrical properties of a component or in aNeedle-Nose Pliers circuit. It’s one of the most important debugging tools you can have when you’re buildingBreadboards get cramped, and it’s often difficult to get your fingers on one wire or component circuits. Make sure your meter can measure voltage, resistance, and continuity. Manywithout disturbing the others. Needle-nose pliers are essential for solving this problem. meters can measure more than this, but these are the most common properties you’ll1 measure with a meter. The meter in Figure 2.20 is basic, but functional for everything It is not common to program these microcontrollers on a Macintosh, as we mentioned previously, but after you finishprogramming you may want to reuse the USB-to-serial adaptor to talk to your own software. That software might be you’ll do in this book. Chapter 3, “Building Circuits,” explains a bit more about what arunning on a Macintosh, so it’s useful to have an adaptor that works on both platforms. meter is used for, if you’d like to know more before you buy. ToolsHot Glue GunA hot glue gun like the one in Figure 2.21 comes in handy for a multitude of reasons inphysical computing. Hot glue makes a decent insulator on some wires, and it holds theuniverse together.Figure 2.21
  26. 26. A PLACA DE PROTÓTIPOS
  27. 27. POSSÍVEIS PROCESSAMENTOS
  28. 28. A diode is like a one-way street: it only allows electricity to flow in one direction and not the other. This means that by definition diodes are polarized, meaning that they can only be placed in a circuit in one direction. Figure 2.5 shows two different types of diodes. the burly-looking ones on the right can carry more current. The two sides are called the cathode (–) and the anode (+). You may have to consult the packaging or look for + or – signs on the outside of the diode itself to tell one lead from another. Diodes have a band on one end that indicates the cathode and the forward current direction. Current will pass when it’s flowing toward the band from the other end of the diode and will block current POSSÍVEIS OUTPUTS in the other direction. You’ll use two types of diodes in this book: general-purpose diodes, such as the 1N4002, shown in Figure 2.5, and light-emitting diodes. An LED (Light-Emitting Diode) is a diode that also emits light in the process. Figure 2.6 shows a number of LEDs in different colors. The shorter leg is the cathode (–), and the longer leg is the anode (+). Figure 2.6 LED schematic and LEDs. LEDs are the most common form of output from most microcontrollers because they take very little power to turn on. The first program you will write on a microcontroller will light an LED. The cheapest LEDs are not very bright, but it’s possible to get LEDs bright enough to read by. They’re used in outdoor video displays, stoplights, and many other places because they can offer a lot of light for relatively little power. There are also infrared LEDs that are invisible to human eyes, but work very well for wireless signaling. These are the main component in most remote controls. Though it’s tempting to get super bright LED for every application, the cost can add up. It’s best to keep a handful of the cheapest LED’s in your toolbox to use whenever you need an indicator light. LEDs rated at or below 5 volts and 20 milliamps or with a forward voltage rating between 2.5 and 5 volts will work for most microcontroller applications. Avoid the flashing LEDs. Transistors and Relays Transistors and relays are switching devices. Normal switches can be thrown by your finger, but these can be thrown by an electronic signal from your microcontroller. Think of them as small switches that activate larger switches. When you put a small amount of22 Part I — The Basics current through the small switch (the base in a transistor, or the coil in a relay), it activates the large switch, letting a large amount of current flow through it. Transistors are actuallyFigure 2.12An RC servomotor.but most hobby shops do, and our online suppliers do as well. The bigger ones might be toomuch for your power supply, but if you buy the cheapest one they sell, you’ll be fine. The
  29. 29. O QUE É ARDUINO? arduino.cc um Ambiente deum Hardware Desenvolvimento uma Comunidade
  30. 30. COMPARANDO O ARDUINO Arduino Capabilities =Intel 286 Arduino
  31. 31. POTENCIAL DO ARDUINO• 1 kByte de RAM• 32 kBytes de memória Flash• 16 MHz (Apple II: 1 MHz / Intel 286: 12.5 MHz / Intel Core 2: 3 GHz)• inputs e outputs• 13 pinos digitais: • 5 analog input + • 6 analog output (somente PWM [pulse width modulation])
  32. 32. GÍRIAS DO UNIVERSO ARDUINO • SKETCH: programa escrito na IDE do próprio arduino, geralmente salvo em formato *.pde • PIN: pequenos slots para a conexão de cabos ou componentes na placa arduino • DIGITAL: valores de on/1/HIGH ou off/0/LOW • ANALOG: valores em intervalos entre 0 e 255
  33. 33. LAYOUT DO ARDUINO DIGITAL LED IN/OUT REFERENCIAUSB ATMEGAAUXILIAR POWER ANALOG ANALOG POWER IN
  34. 34. TIPOS DE ARDUINO ARDUINO UNO ARDUINO MEGA ARDUINO LYLYPADARDUINO BLUETOOTH ARDUINO NANO ARDUINO ETHERNET
  35. 35. REFERÊNCIAS NO ASSUNTO
  36. 36. DEMONSTRAÇÃO
  37. 37. OBRIGADO! @ricardopalmieri

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