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Historia de israel aula 32 e 33 holocausto e independência de israel [modo de compatibilidade]

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Produzido por Ricardo Cardoso
www.projetoaliyah.com.br contato@projetoaliyah.com.br

Published in: Spiritual
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Historia de israel aula 32 e 33 holocausto e independência de israel [modo de compatibilidade]

  1. 1. Módulo IIHistória de Israel Aula 32
  2. 2. Sumário: Os Campos de Concentração O Fim do Massacre A Aliyah Bet
  3. 3. lkhdCampos de Concentração e Extermínio O Plano da “Solução Final” Deportação em massa dos guetos; Transporte em trens lotados como gados; Milhares morreram antes de chegar aos campos, de fome, sede e frio; Havia inúmeros campos de concentração e 6 principais campos de extermínio;
  4. 4. lkhdOs Campos da Morte Ao chegar aos campos, os judeus eram separados de acordo com a idade e saúde física; Os mais jovens e fortes eram mantidos para realizarem trabalhos forçados; Mulheres, crianças, idosos e deficientes físicos eram enviados para as câmaras de gás e os crematórios; Para evitar o pânico, informavam às vítimas que elas receberiam um banho desinfetante As vítimas eram despidas e deixavam todos os seus pertences; Era utilizado o gás tóxico Zyklon B; Os corpos eram levados por prisioneiros judeus para os fornos crematórios (os kapos); kapos);
  5. 5. lkhd
  6. 6. lkhdAuschwitz-Auschwitz-Birkenau Maior dos campos de extermínio; Localizado na cidade de mesmo nome, na Polônia; Era um complexo constituído por 3 campos: Auschwitz I – Era o centro administrativo do complexo; Auschwitz II (Birkenau) - Campo de extermínio onde (Birkenau) morreram aproximadamente um milhão de judeus; Auschwitz III (Monowitz) - Campo de trabalho escravo (Monowitz) usado para a empresa IG Farben; Farben; Na entrada do campo lia-se a frase: "Arbeit macht lia- frei" (o trabalho liberta); Os próprios judeus (kapos) auxiliavam a manter a (kapos) ordem no campo;
  7. 7. lkhdAuschwitz-Auschwitz-Birkenau O campo foi comandado por Rudolf Hoss, que foi Hoss, condenado a morte e executado em 1947; No campo foram realizados experimentos pelo médico Josef Mengele Esterilização em mulheres judias; Experimentos com gêmeos; O campo tinha 4 câmaras de gás e 4 crematórios, que podiam receber até 2.500 prisioneiros por turno; Os corpos eram levados das câmaras para os crematórios por judeus (os Sonderkommando); Sonderkommando) No auge de sua utilização, cerca de 6.000 judeus foram assassinados por dia em Auschwitz; Auschwitz;
  8. 8. lkhd
  9. 9. lkhdO Fim do Massacre A Descoberta dos Campos da Morte Os soviéticos foram os primeiros a descobrir os Campos, em 1944; A Rapidez do avanço impediu os nazistas de esconderem as evidências do extermínio; Tentativa fracassada de destruição dos campos e cremação dos corpos; Os poucos sobreviventes encontrados pareciam esqueletos vivos Trabalho escravo; Falta de alimentos; Doenças;
  10. 10. lkhdAs Marchas da Morte Muitos sobreviventes foram obrigados a marchar para o oeste, rumo a Alemanha; Milhares morreram devido à exaustão, a fome e ao frio;O Resultado do Massacre O saldo final do massacre foi de 6 milhões de judeus 2/3 da população judaica da Europa e 1/3 da população judaica mundial foram exterminados; Entre os mortos haviam grandes políticos, cientistas, escritores e artistas;
  11. 11. lkhd JUDEUS NA EUROPA ANTES E DEPOIS DO HOLOCAUSTOPAÍS ANTES DE 1939 DEPOIS DE 1945Rússia 3.000.000 2.000.000Polônia 3.000.000 120.000Romênia 850.000 300.000Alemanha 500.000 algumas centenasHungria 400.000 200.000Tchecoslováquia 360.000 50.000Áustria 200.000 3.000França 300.000 180.000Holanda 150.000 30.000Bélgica 100.000 30.000Grécia 75.000 10.000Itália 50.000 20.000
  12. 12. lkhdNÚMERO DE JUDEUS MORTOS NA EUROPA NO HOLOCAUSTO
  13. 13. lkhdA Aliyah Bet Imigrações ilegais para a Palestina realizadas após o fim da II Guerra Mundial; As Fronteiras Fechadas Poucos países abriram suas fronteiras para os judeus durante a Guerra; Os britânicos mantiveram sua política do Livro Branco; Os refugiados que tentavam entrar na Palestina eram levados para Chipre; Ficavam internados em campos de detenção, nos mesmos moldes dos campos de concentração nazistas;
  14. 14. lkhdCriação do Brihah (“fuga”, em hebraico) Organização que tinha por objetivo facilitar o êxodo de refugiados judeus para a Palestina; Aquisição de velhos navios e embarcações; Tentativa de furar o bloqueio naval britânico;O caso do “Êxodus 1947” “Êxodus Navegou para a Palestina com 4.500 sobreviventes; O navio foi obrigado a retornar a França e os judeus tiveram que retornar para a Alemanha; O episódio gerou uma grande comoção mundial; O caso inspirou o romance “Êxodus”, de Leon Uris, “Êxodus”, e o filme de mesmo nome;
  15. 15. lkhd
  16. 16. lkhdIntervalo
  17. 17. Módulo IIHistória de Israel Aula 33
  18. 18. Sumário: O Plano de Partilha As Ações nos Bastidores Osvaldo Aranha A Assembléia Geral da ONU A Declaração de Independência A Guerra de Independência
  19. 19. lkhdO Plano de Partilha Fim do Mandato da Palestina A Grã-Bretanha encontrava-se debilitada pela Grã- encontrava- guerra; Perdas de pessoal e financeiras em virtude dos conflitos entre árabes e judeus; Criação do Comitê Especial das Nações Unidas para a Palestina, em 1947 Aprovação do relatório final, em setembro; A Palestina seria dividida em 2 Estados: um judeu e um árabe; Jerusalém seria uma cidade internacional;
  20. 20. lkhd
  21. 21. lkhdAssembléia Geral das Nações Unidas Ocorreu em 29/11/1947; A Assembléia foi presidida pelo brasileiro Osvaldo Aranha; 56 dos 57 países membros encontravam-se encontravam- representados; 33 países votaram a favor, 13 votaram contra e 10 se abstiveram; Os países da Liga Árabe votaram contra e não reconheceram o novo Estado judaico; Houve tumultos entre árabes e judeus logo após o anúncio da aprovação da Partilha
  22. 22. lkhdOsvaldo Aranha Político e diplomata brasileiro, nascido em 15/02/1894, em Alegrete-RS; Alegrete-RS; Foi chefe da delegação brasileira na recém- recém-criada ONU; Fez um grande trabalho de bastidores em favor de Israel; Presidiu a sessão da ONU que aprovou a Partilha da Palestina; Recebeu a gratidão eterna dos judeus e do Estado de Israel; Há uma rua com seu nome em Tel Aviv; Aviv;
  23. 23. lkhdAté a Próxima Terça-feira!!!!!

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