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CANCER, ITS TYPES AND
ITS TREATMENT
Habiba , 03
Zarwa , 04
Eman, 06
Malaika, 11
Fariha , 15
Faqiha, 25
Maira, 41
May 22,20...
THROAT CANCER
Throat
What is Throat Cancer ?
Throat cancer refers to cancerous tumors that develop in your throat
(pharynx), voice box (larynx)...
 Cancer is diseases in which abnormal cells multiply and divide
uncontrollably in the body.
 These abnormal cells form m...
Throat cancer is often grouped into
two categories:
Pharyngeal Cancer
Laryngeal Cancer.
 Pharyngeal cancer forms
in the pharynx (the hollow
tube that runs from
behind your nose to the
top of your windpipe.
 L...
Types of throat cancer
 Nasopharyngeal cancer begins in the nasopharynx — the part of your
throat just behind your nose.
...
Symptoms of Throat Cancer
 a change in your voice
 trouble swallowing
 weight loss
 sore throat
Symptoms
 constant need to clear your throat
 persistent cough (may cough up blood)
 swollen lymph nodes in the neck
 ...
Causes
 Poor nutrition (oropharyngeal)
 Diet high in salt (nasopharyngeal)
 Diet low in vitamins A and E (hypopharyngea...
Causes
 Excessive alcohol use (hypopharyngeal; oropharyngeal)
 Workplace exposure to asbestos and/or other
inhalants (hy...
Stages of Throat Cancer
 Stage 0: The tumor has not invaded tissue beyond your
throat.
 Stage 1: The tumor is less than ...
Stages of Throat Cancer
 Stage 3: The tumor has grown and has spread to nearby
tissues and organs.
 Stage 4: The tumor h...
Treatment of Throat Cancer
Surgery
 There are many types of
surgery for throat cancer
including minimally invasive,
endo...
Chemotherapy
 These are drugs used to
shrink tumors and/or kill
cancer cells after surgery
and/or radiation treatment.
Ch...
Radiation therapy
 Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams from sources such
as X-rays and protons to deliver radiation ...
Natural Preventions
 1. Eat plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables,
Fresh fruit and vegetables, particularly raw, contain v...
OVARIAN CANCER
What is Ovarian Cancer?
 OVARY: female reproductive
glands produces egg(ova) for
reproduction
 Tumor: Abnormal growth of...
What is Ovarian Cancer?
 The most common type of Ovarian Cancer that starts from
epithelial cells –gland forming cells
A...
Who develops Ovarian Adenocarcinoma?
 15% Genetic Susceptibility known genetic susceptibility
 BRCA 1 / 2, HNPCC
 Lifet...
Who develops Epithelial Ovarian Cancer?
 Risk Factors
 increased age, (average
age at diagnosis 63
years old)
 never be...
Different Types of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer by Histology
How does Ovarian Cancer Present?
 Vague Symptoms
 Bloating, Distention, Changes in
Bowel and Bladder Function, Pelvic
/ ...
Stages of Ovarian Cancer
 >70% of women will present with
Advanced Stage Ovarian Cancer
 Cancer has spread throughout t...
Definition of Longevity
 Overall Survival
 Time from diagnosis to death
 Progression Free Interval/ Survival
 Interval...
Assessment of the Disease
 Symptoms / Physical Exam / Tumor Marker
 Imaging (CT scan)
 Ultrasound
 Screening
blood tes...
Treatment Approaches
 Chemotherapy
 kill cancer cells as they replicate
 Biologic Therapies
 Alter how the cancer cell...
How do we treat Ovarian Cancer?
 Current Approach -- Surgery and
Chemotherapy
Primary Tumor Reductive Surgery
(PDS)
 Su...
How do we treat Ovarian Cancer?
 Targeted Therapies
Researchers are working on therapies
that target the way ovarian canc...
Angiogenesis Inhibitors
Blocks the growth of
blood vessels in a
tumor, starving the
cancer of the nutrition
and oxygen it ...
AFTER TREATMENT
Early Menopause
When women have both ovaries removed, they can no
longer produce their own estrogen. This ...
Cancer Cell Function which may be altered
Conclusion:
Where we are at in Cancer Therapies?
7/16/2016
CBMS2006 39
Breast Cancer
40
BREAST CANCER
Breast Cancer is a cancer that develops from
breast tissues.In this cancer cells in the breast
grows out ...
Muscles
41
 Breast has no muscle tissue
 There are muscles underneath the
breasts separating them from the
ribs
Female Breast Anatomy
42
 Breasts consist mainly of fatty
tissue interspersed with
connective tissue
 There are also les...
Breast Gland
43
 Each breast has 15 to 20
sections (lobes) arranged like the
petals of daisy
 Inside each lobe are many
...
Ducts
44
 Lobes, Lobules and bulbs, are linked
by a network of thin tubes (ducts)
 Ducts carry milk from bulbs toward
da...
Blood Vessels
45
Oxygen, nutrients, and other life-sustaining
nourishment are delivered to breast tissue by
the blood in t...
Lymphatic System
46
 Lymph ducts: Drain fluid that
carries white blood cells (that
fight disease) from the breast
tissues...
Three Types of Vessels
47
Bacteria
Blood
Vessels
Cell life
2
Lymph
Nodes
Lymph
Vessels
3
MilkLobules Ducts Nipple
1
Signs and Symptoms
48
Most common: lump
or thickening in
breast. Often
painless
Change in color or
appearance of areola
Re...
Causes
7/16/2016CBMS2006
49
 type of breast cancer begins in the milk-production ducSome of
the cells begin growing abnor...
Normal Breast
50
Breast profile
A ducts
B lobules
C dilated section of duct to hold milk
D nipple
E fat
F pectoralis major...
7/16/2016CBMS200651
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is the most common type of non-
invasive breast cancer. Ductal means t...
Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC – 80% of
breast cancer)52
 The cancer has spread to the
surrounding tissues
 Carcinoma re...
Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC)
53
Illustration © Mary K. Bryson
Lobular cancer cells
breaking through the
wall
7/16/2016CBMS200654
This means that the cancer started in the cells that line the
lobules of the breast and has spread int...
Mammography
55
 Use a low-dose x-ray system to examine breasts
 Digital mammography replaces x-ray film by solid-state
d...
Mammography Equipment
56
57
Treatment Of Breast Cancer
1. Surgery
Surgery to remove the whole breast, called a mastectomy, or to
remove just the tu...
58
Conti…………….
3.Chemtoherapy
uses drugs to kill cancer cells. As these powerful medicines fight
the disease, they also ca...
COLON CANCER
Colon cancer is cancer of the large intestine (colon), the lower
part of your digestive system. Rectal cancer is cancer of...
Colorectal cancer
What is colorectal cancer ?
Colorectal cancer is a cancer that starts in the colon or
the rectum. These cancers can also b...
Colon polyp
A colon polyp is a small clump of cells
that forms on the lining of the colon.
Most colon polyps are harmless....
Causes
 In most cases, it's not clear what causes colon cancer. Doctors
know that colon cancer occurs when healthy cells ...
Risk factors
 Inherited syndromes that increase colon cancer risk. Genetic
syndromes passed through generations of your f...
Symptoms
 Signs and symptoms of colon cancer include:
 A change in your bowel habits, including diarrhea or constipation...
Stages of colon cancer
Treatment
Stage 1 ........
Stage I includes cancers that were part of a polyp. If the polyp is removed
completely during c...
 Stage 3........
Surgery to remove the section of the colon with the cancer along with
nearby lymph nodes (partial colect...
References
 www.cancerorg.com
 www.mayoclinic.org
 www.cancer.gov/types/colorectal
 www.medicinet.com/article
CERVICAL CANCER
INTRODUCTION
 Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women
worldwide.
 It is a disease that develop quit slo...
DEFINITION
CERVICAL CANCER
 Cervical cancer is a malignant tumour deriving from cells of
cervix uteri, which is the lower...
CAUSES
 Most cervical cancer is caused by a virus called human
papillomavirus, or HPV. You can get HPV by having sexual
c...
SIGN AND SYMPTOMS
 The most common symptoms and signs of cervical cancer are
abnormal vaginal bleeding,
 Increased vagin...
ASSESSMENT AND DIAGNOSTIC
FINDINGS
 Cervical cancer can be diagnosed using a Pap smear or other
procedures that sample th...
TREATMENT
 Treatment options for cervical cancer include
 radiation therapy
 surgery, and
 chemotherapy.
 Two vaccine...
Cancer and its types
Cancer and its types
Cancer and its types
Cancer and its types
Cancer and its types
Cancer and its types
Cancer and its types
Cancer and its types
Cancer and its types
Cancer and its types
Cancer and its types
Cancer and its types
Cancer and its types
Cancer and its types
Cancer and its types
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Cancer and its types

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Cancer and its types

  1. 1. CANCER, ITS TYPES AND ITS TREATMENT Habiba , 03 Zarwa , 04 Eman, 06 Malaika, 11 Fariha , 15 Faqiha, 25 Maira, 41 May 22,2016
  2. 2. THROAT CANCER
  3. 3. Throat
  4. 4. What is Throat Cancer ? Throat cancer refers to cancerous tumors that develop in your throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx) or tonsils. Your throat is a muscular tube that begins behind your nose and ends in your neck.
  5. 5.  Cancer is diseases in which abnormal cells multiply and divide uncontrollably in the body.  These abnormal cells form malignant growths called tumors.  Throat cancer refers to cancer of the voice box, the vocal cords, and other parts of the throat, such as the tonsils and the oropharynx.
  6. 6. Throat cancer is often grouped into two categories: Pharyngeal Cancer Laryngeal Cancer.
  7. 7.  Pharyngeal cancer forms in the pharynx (the hollow tube that runs from behind your nose to the top of your windpipe.  Laryngeal cancer forms in the larynx (your voice box). Pharyngeal Cancer Laryngeal Cancer.
  8. 8. Types of throat cancer  Nasopharyngeal cancer begins in the nasopharynx — the part of your throat just behind your nose.  Hypo pharyngeal cancer (laryngopharyngeal cancer) begins in the lower part of your throat, just above your esophagus and windpipe.  Glottis cancer begins in the vocal cords.  Supra glottic cancer begins in upper portion of the larynx & includes cancer that affects the epiglottis(that blocks food from going into your windpipe).
  9. 9. Symptoms of Throat Cancer  a change in your voice  trouble swallowing  weight loss  sore throat
  10. 10. Symptoms  constant need to clear your throat  persistent cough (may cough up blood)  swollen lymph nodes in the neck  wheezing  ear pain  Swelling of the eyes, jaw, throat or neck  hoarseness
  11. 11. Causes  Poor nutrition (oropharyngeal)  Diet high in salt (nasopharyngeal)  Diet low in vitamins A and E (hypopharyngeal)  Tobacco use (hypopharyngeal; oropharyngeal)
  12. 12. Causes  Excessive alcohol use (hypopharyngeal; oropharyngeal)  Workplace exposure to asbestos and/or other inhalants (hypopharyngeal)  Sun exposure It increases the risk of skin cancers, UV rays from the sun can increase the risk of developing cancer of the lips among those who spend a lot of time in sunlight.
  13. 13. Stages of Throat Cancer  Stage 0: The tumor has not invaded tissue beyond your throat.  Stage 1: The tumor is less than 7 cm and limited to your throat.  Stage 2: The tumor is slightly larger than 7 cm, but still limited to your throat.
  14. 14. Stages of Throat Cancer  Stage 3: The tumor has grown and has spread to nearby tissues and organs.  Stage 4: The tumor has spread to your lymph nodes and/or distant organs.
  15. 15. Treatment of Throat Cancer Surgery  There are many types of surgery for throat cancer including minimally invasive, endoscopic, laser, robotic, and tumor excision to allow normal function in swallowing and speech
  16. 16. Chemotherapy  These are drugs used to shrink tumors and/or kill cancer cells after surgery and/or radiation treatment. Chemotherapy is often used in combination with other therapies.
  17. 17. Radiation therapy  Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams from sources such as X-rays and protons to deliver radiation to the cancer cells, causing them to die.
  18. 18. Natural Preventions  1. Eat plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables, Fresh fruit and vegetables, particularly raw, contain vitamins and anti- oxidants  2. Don’t smoke  3. Cut down or stop your alcohol consumption.  4. Cut your exposure to asbestos.  5. Use Cosmetics ,medicines & shampoo carefully to make sure that none of them contain formaldehyde.
  19. 19. OVARIAN CANCER
  20. 20. What is Ovarian Cancer?  OVARY: female reproductive glands produces egg(ova) for reproduction  Tumor: Abnormal growth of cells o Malignant Tumor (Cancerous) spread to all parts of the body o Benign (non Cancerous) never spread beyond the ovary
  21. 21. What is Ovarian Cancer?  The most common type of Ovarian Cancer that starts from epithelial cells –gland forming cells Adenocarcinoma * * Other common adenocarcinomas are found in the breast, colon, lung, prostate, uterus, sometimes cervix  Other types of Ovarian Cancer start in the: “eggs”(germ cell tumors) body of the Ovary (stromal tumors)
  22. 22. Who develops Ovarian Adenocarcinoma?  15% Genetic Susceptibility known genetic susceptibility  BRCA 1 / 2, HNPCC  Lifetime risk up to 50% of developing Ovarian Cancer 85% spontaneous somatic mutation Lifetime risk < 2% of developing Ovarian Cancer
  23. 23. Who develops Epithelial Ovarian Cancer?  Risk Factors  increased age, (average age at diagnosis 63 years old)  never becoming pregnant, infertility  personal history of breast cancer.  Estrogen alone hormone replacement therapy  Protective  Having Tubal Ligation  Hysterectomy  Multiple pregnancies  Pregnancy before 35  Birth Control Pills  Low Fat Diet
  24. 24. Different Types of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer by Histology
  25. 25. How does Ovarian Cancer Present?  Vague Symptoms  Bloating, Distention, Changes in Bowel and Bladder Function, Pelvic / Abdominal Pain, Decreased Appetite  Symptoms persist and increase over time  Urinating more frequently  Vaginal bleeding
  26. 26. Stages of Ovarian Cancer  >70% of women will present with Advanced Stage Ovarian Cancer  Cancer has spread throughout the abdomen and sometimes beyond (lungs, liver)
  27. 27. Definition of Longevity  Overall Survival  Time from diagnosis to death  Progression Free Interval/ Survival  Interval between Treatment Response to Evidence of Progression  How is Progression defined?  Biochemical - CA125  Imaging -- CT / PET  Physical Exam  Increased Symptoms
  28. 28. Assessment of the Disease  Symptoms / Physical Exam / Tumor Marker  Imaging (CT scan)  Ultrasound  Screening blood test for elevated levels of a protein called CA-125  Laparoscopic Assessment Laparoscopy is a surgery that uses a thin, lighted tube put through a cut (incision) in the belly to look at the abdominal organs or the female pelvic organs. Laparoscopy is used to find problems such as cysts, adhesions, fibroids, and infection. Tissue samples can be taken for biopsy through the tube (laparoscope).
  29. 29. Treatment Approaches  Chemotherapy  kill cancer cells as they replicate  Biologic Therapies  Alter how the cancer cell is able to function and replicate  Radiation Therapy – rarely used in ovarian cancer
  30. 30. How do we treat Ovarian Cancer?  Current Approach -- Surgery and Chemotherapy Primary Tumor Reductive Surgery (PDS)  Surgery  Chemotherapy Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy (NACT)  Chemotherapy Surgery Chemotherapy Goal of Surgery remove all visible disease Goal of Chemotherapy kill all cancer
  31. 31. How do we treat Ovarian Cancer?  Targeted Therapies Researchers are working on therapies that target the way ovarian cancer grows. A process called angiogenesis involves the formation of new blood vessels to feed tumors. A drug called Avastin blocks this process, causing tumors to shrink or stop growing (seen in the illustration here). Avastin is approved for other cancers, but ovarian cancer researchers are still testing this therapy, which can have serious side effects.
  32. 32. Angiogenesis Inhibitors Blocks the growth of blood vessels in a tumor, starving the cancer of the nutrition and oxygen it needs to survive.Angiogenesis Inhibitor •One of the first ‘biologic’ treatments for ovarian cancer •Effective in several other cancers (colon, breast, lung) •Intravenous every 2-3 weeks •Limited side effects (symptoms) but significant potential toxicities (risk to
  33. 33. AFTER TREATMENT Early Menopause When women have both ovaries removed, they can no longer produce their own estrogen. This triggers menopause, no matter how young the patient. The drop in hormone levels can also raise the risk for certain medical conditions, including osteoporosis. It's vital that women have regular follow-up care after being treated for ovarian canceMoving On Women may find that it takes a long time for their energy to return after treatments end. Fatigue is a very common problem after treatment for cancer. Beginning a gentle exercise program is one of the most effective ways to restore energy and improve emotional well-being. Check with your health care team to determine which activities are right for you.
  34. 34. Cancer Cell Function which may be altered
  35. 35. Conclusion: Where we are at in Cancer Therapies?
  36. 36. 7/16/2016 CBMS2006 39 Breast Cancer
  37. 37. 40 BREAST CANCER Breast Cancer is a cancer that develops from breast tissues.In this cancer cells in the breast grows out of control.
  38. 38. Muscles 41  Breast has no muscle tissue  There are muscles underneath the breasts separating them from the ribs
  39. 39. Female Breast Anatomy 42  Breasts consist mainly of fatty tissue interspersed with connective tissue  There are also less conspicuous parts  lobes  ducts  lymph nodes
  40. 40. Breast Gland 43  Each breast has 15 to 20 sections (lobes) arranged like the petals of daisy  Inside each lobe are many smaller structures called lobules  At the end of each lobule are tiny sacs (bulbs) that can produce milk
  41. 41. Ducts 44  Lobes, Lobules and bulbs, are linked by a network of thin tubes (ducts)  Ducts carry milk from bulbs toward dark area of skin in the center of the breast (areola) Ducts join together into larger ducts ending at the nipple, where milk is delivered Duct Areola
  42. 42. Blood Vessels 45 Oxygen, nutrients, and other life-sustaining nourishment are delivered to breast tissue by the blood in the arteries and capillaries.
  43. 43. Lymphatic System 46  Lymph ducts: Drain fluid that carries white blood cells (that fight disease) from the breast tissues into lymph nodes under the armpit and behind the breastbone  Lymph nodes: Filter harmful bacteria and play a key role in fighting off infectionA network of vessels Lymph ductLymph node
  44. 44. Three Types of Vessels 47 Bacteria Blood Vessels Cell life 2 Lymph Nodes Lymph Vessels 3 MilkLobules Ducts Nipple 1
  45. 45. Signs and Symptoms 48 Most common: lump or thickening in breast. Often painless Change in color or appearance of areola Redness or pitting of skin over the breast, like the skin of an orange Discharge or bleeding Change in size or contours of breast
  46. 46. Causes 7/16/2016CBMS2006 49  type of breast cancer begins in the milk-production ducSome of the cells begin growing abnormally  These cells divide more rapidly than healthy cells do and may spread through the breast, to the lymph or to other parts of the body (metastasize)  The most common ts, but cancer may also occur in the lobules or in other breast tissue
  47. 47. Normal Breast 50 Breast profile A ducts B lobules C dilated section of duct to hold milk D nipple E fat F pectoralis major muscle G chest wall/rib cage Enlargement A normal duct cells B basement membrane (duct wall) C lumen (center of duct) Illustration © Mary K. Bryson
  48. 48. 7/16/2016CBMS200651 Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is the most common type of non- invasive breast cancer. Ductal means that the cancer starts inside the milk ducts, carcinoma refers to any cancer that begins in the skin or other tissues (including breast tissue) that cover or line the internal organs, and in situ means "in its original place." Ductal Carcinoma In Situ
  49. 49. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC – 80% of breast cancer)52  The cancer has spread to the surrounding tissues  Carcinoma refers to any cancer that begins in the skin or other tissues that cover internal organs Illustration © Mary K. Bryson Ductal cancer cells breaking through the wall
  50. 50. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC) 53 Illustration © Mary K. Bryson Lobular cancer cells breaking through the wall
  51. 51. 7/16/2016CBMS200654 This means that the cancer started in the cells that line the lobules of the breast and has spread into the surrounding breast tissue. Invasive lobular cancer can develop in women of any age. But it is most common in women between 45 and 55 years old. Invasive lobular breast cancer does not always form a firm lump. Invasive Lobular Carconima
  52. 52. Mammography 55  Use a low-dose x-ray system to examine breasts  Digital mammography replaces x-ray film by solid-state detectors that convert x-rays into electrical signals. These signals are used to produce images that can be displayed on a computer screen (similar to digital cameras)  Mammography can show changes in the breast up to two years before a physician can feel them
  53. 53. Mammography Equipment 56
  54. 54. 57 Treatment Of Breast Cancer 1. Surgery Surgery to remove the whole breast, called a mastectomy, or to remove just the tumor and tissues around it, called a lumpectomy or breast conserving surgery. 2.Radiation Therapy Which uses high-energy waves to kill cancer cells.
  55. 55. 58 Conti……………. 3.Chemtoherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells. As these powerful medicines fight the disease, they also can cause side effects, like nausea, hair loss, early menopause, hot flashes, and fatigue.
  56. 56. COLON CANCER
  57. 57. Colon cancer is cancer of the large intestine (colon), the lower part of your digestive system. Rectal cancer is cancer of the last several inches of the colon. Together, they're often referred to as colorectal cancers. Most cases of colon cancer begin as small, noncancerous (benign) clumps of cells called adenomatous polyps. Over time some of these polyps become colon cancer. Polyps may be small and produce few, if any, symptoms. For this reason, doctors recommend regular screening tests to help prevent colon cancer by identifying and removing polyps before they become colon cancer. Overview
  58. 58. Colorectal cancer
  59. 59. What is colorectal cancer ? Colorectal cancer is a cancer that starts in the colon or the rectum. These cancers can also be named colon cancer or rectal cancer, depending on where they start. Colon cancer and rectal cancer are often grouped together because they have many features in common. Cancer starts when cells in the body begin to grow out of control. Cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancer, and can spread to other areas of the body.
  60. 60. Colon polyp A colon polyp is a small clump of cells that forms on the lining of the colon. Most colon polyps are harmless. But over time, some colon polyps can develop into colon cancer, which is often fatal when found in its later stages.
  61. 61. Causes  In most cases, it's not clear what causes colon cancer. Doctors know that colon cancer occurs when healthy cells in the colon develop errors in their DNA.  Healthy cells grow and divide in an orderly way to keep your body functioning normally. But when a cell's DNA is damaged and becomes cancerous, cells continue to divide — even when new cells aren't needed. As the cells accumulate, they form a tumor.  With time, the cancer cells can grow to invade and destroy normal tissue nearby. And cancerous cells can travel to other parts of body.
  62. 62. Risk factors  Inherited syndromes that increase colon cancer risk. Genetic syndromes passed through generations of your family can increase your risk of colon cancer. These syndromes include familial adenomatous polyposis and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, which is also known as Lynch syndrome.  Obesity. People who are obese have an increased risk of colon cancer and an increased risk of dying of colon cancer when compared with people considered normal weight.  Smoking. People who smoke may have an increased risk of colon cancer.  Alcohol. Heavy use of alcohol may increase your risk of colon cancer.
  63. 63. Symptoms  Signs and symptoms of colon cancer include:  A change in your bowel habits, including diarrhea or constipation or a change in the consistency of your stool, that lasts longer than four weeks  Rectal bleeding or blood in your stool  Persistent abdominal discomfort, such as cramps, gas or pain  A feeling that your bowel doesn't empty completely  Weakness or fatigue  Unexplained weight loss
  64. 64. Stages of colon cancer
  65. 65. Treatment Stage 1 ........ Stage I includes cancers that were part of a polyp. If the polyp is removed completely during colonoscopy, with no cancer cells at the edges (margins) of the removed sample, no other treatment may be needed.  If the cancer in the polyp is high grade (see Colorectal cancer stages) or there are cancer cells at the edges of the polyp, more surgery may be advised Stage 2 ....... Surgery to remove the section of the colon containing the cancer along with nearby lymph nodes (partial colectomy) may be the only treatment needed. But your doctor may recommend adjuvant chemotherapy (chemo after surgery) .
  66. 66.  Stage 3........ Surgery to remove the section of the colon with the cancer along with nearby lymph nodes (partial colectomy) followed by adjuvant chemo is the standard treatment for this stage. Radiation therapy and/or chemo may be options for people who aren’t healthy enough for surgery .  Stage 4....... Stage 4 colon cancers have spread from the colon to distant organs and tissues. Colon cancer most often spreads to the liver, but it can also spread to other places such as the lungs, peritoneum (the lining of the abdominal cavity), or to distant lymph nodes. . Chemo is typically given as well, before and/or after surgery. In some cases, hepatic artery infusion may be used if the cancer has spread to the liver.
  67. 67. References  www.cancerorg.com  www.mayoclinic.org  www.cancer.gov/types/colorectal  www.medicinet.com/article
  68. 68. CERVICAL CANCER
  69. 69. INTRODUCTION  Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide.  It is a disease that develop quit slowly and begins with a precancerous condition know as dysplasia.  Dysplasia is easily detected in routine pap smear and it is easily treatable.  Cervical cancer is a malignant tumour deriving from cel of cervix.
  70. 70. DEFINITION CERVICAL CANCER  Cervical cancer is a malignant tumour deriving from cells of cervix uteri, which is the lower part, the neck of the womb,the female reproductive organ.
  71. 71. CAUSES  Most cervical cancer is caused by a virus called human papillomavirus, or HPV. You can get HPV by having sexual contact with someone who has it. There are many types of the HPV virus. Not all types of HPV cause cervical cancer.  Cervical cancer occurs when abnormal cells on the cervix grow out of control. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina.
  72. 72. SIGN AND SYMPTOMS  The most common symptoms and signs of cervical cancer are abnormal vaginal bleeding,  Increased vaginal discharge  Bleeding after going through menopause  Pain during sex  Pelvic pain
  73. 73. ASSESSMENT AND DIAGNOSTIC FINDINGS  Cervical cancer can be diagnosed using a Pap smear or other procedures that sample the cervix tissue.  Chest X-rays, CT scan, MRI, and a PET scan may be used to determine the stage of cervical cancer.  Cancer of the cervix requires different treatment than cancer that begins in other parts of the uterus.
  74. 74. TREATMENT  Treatment options for cervical cancer include  radiation therapy  surgery, and  chemotherapy.  Two vaccines, Gardasil and Cervarix are vaccines that are available to prevent HPV.

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