THIS WEEKS READINGS:Dowling, E., Nunes, R. & Trott, B. (2007). Immaterial and affective labour. Ephemera: theory & politics in organization, 7(1), 1-281.Fuchs, C. (2010). Labour in informational capitalism and on the Internet. The Information Society, 26 (3), 179-196.
IMMATERIAL AND AFFECTIVE LABOUR Capitalism has drastically transformed over the past few decades. This transformation has caused a change in the: a) nature, b) form, and c) organization of labour- Because of these developments, topics such as immaterial andaffective labour are increasingly becoming the objects of debate anddiscussion.- This paper is a space for engagement with several theories ofimmaterial and affective labour across many disciplines.
IMMATERIAL & AFFECTIVE LABOUR: NEGRI & HART “Since the production of services results in no material and durable good, we define the labor involved in this production as immaterial labor — that is, labor that produces an immaterial good, such as a service, a cultural product, knowledge, or communication.” Two main aspects:1.Manipulation of symbols (i.e. IT work, production of knowledge, problem-solving, etc.).2.Manipulation of affects (production of emotions, well-being, smiles, etc.).
NEGRI AND HART: POST-WORKERISM1. A shift in sovereignty from the nation- state to Empire2. The supposed end of imperialism3. The emergence of the multitude as the revolutionary subject of the post- Fordist era
MARK COTE AND JENNIFER PYBUS: MYSPACE AS IMMATERIAL LABOUR“Mark Cote and Jennifer Pybus look into thephenomenon of MySpace as a place in which youngadults „learn‟ to immaterial labour – in what that entails interms of developing and maintaining networks andfashioning a flexible „self-brand‟ that functions as thedigital interface of an individual‟s subjectivity – pointingto affect as the binding force that makes immaterialproduction cohere.”- (Dowling, Nunes, Trott 5)
?? QUESTION: ?? Would you consider social networking as a form of „labour‟? Consider the amount of work that we put into curating our own identities, can we classify profile creation and wall maintenance as a job?
KRISTIN CARLS AND EMMA DOWLING CONTROL MECHANISMS IN ‘SOCIAL’ JOBS Carls: Researching shop assistants in retail chains in Italy.Dowling: Conducting an inquiry into affective labour in the restaurant Industry. “While the kind of work done, they argue, is certainly more expressive and social than that of the assembly line, this does not necessarily mean that the autonomy this entails substantially subverts the relation with capital.” - (Dowling, Nunes, Trott 3)
?? QUESTION: ?? How have previously social places of employment (such as restaurants and shops) become standardized and impersonal?
CONCLUSION: “The most optimistic ideas put forward by books such as Empire (2001) were partly the product of a moment of intensification of struggle in the late 1990s. That many today should take a more sober – sometimes sombre – note reflects a less hospitable environment, where many of the advances of that period seemed to have been stalled or reached dead-ends.” - (Dowling, Nunes, Trott 5 )Questioning immaterial labour, due to considerations about the harsh realities of the modern job market. Negri and Hardt: too optimistic and idealistic?
Labour in Informational Capitalism and on the Internet.