Muscle System


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Created for the Unit of Competence: Confirm Physical Health Status as part of the Certificate IV in Massage Therapy

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Muscle System

  1. 1. The muscular system Content by Megan McDonald
  2. 2. Mens gymnastics
  3. 3. The muscular system
  4. 4. Muscle tissue <ul><li>Smooth </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal </li></ul>
  5. 5. Smooth muscle tissue Image CC courtesy of @akay on Flickr
  6. 6. Smooth muscle tissue <ul><li>Non striated </li></ul><ul><li>Involuntary </li></ul><ul><li>Walls of hollow organs i.e. stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Walls of tubes and passage ways i.e. bronchioles, blood vessels, oesaphagus </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cardiac muscle tissue Images CC courtesy of @akay on Flickr
  8. 8. Cardiac muscle tissue <ul><li>Striated </li></ul><ul><li>Involuntary </li></ul><ul><li>Fit together with tight junctions that promote fast conduction of electrical signals. </li></ul><ul><li>Heart </li></ul>
  9. 9. Skeletal muscle tissue <ul><li>Striated </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary </li></ul><ul><li>Attached to bone via tendons, fascia or skin. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Skeletal muscle function <ul><li>Produce heat </li></ul><ul><li>Produce movement </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain body posture </li></ul><ul><li>Assists in joint stability </li></ul>
  11. 11. Endomysium <ul><li>Connective tissue surrounding each muscle fibre. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Perimysium <ul><li>Membrane surrounding each fascicle. </li></ul><ul><li>Fascicle – bundle of muscle fibres. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Epimysium <ul><li>Tough connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounds entire muscle. </li></ul><ul><li>Extends to become tendons. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Fascia <ul><li>Outer fibrous sheath </li></ul><ul><li>Encloses a muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Separates muscles into compartments. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Excitation <ul><li>The ability to receive and respond to stimulus </li></ul>
  16. 17. Excitation <ul><li>Motor nerves stimulate the muscle cell at the Neuromuscular Junction </li></ul><ul><li>Neurotransmitter releases from motor nerve </li></ul><ul><li>An electrical impulses spreads along sarcolemma </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle contracts. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Contraction <ul><li>The ability to shorten when stimulated. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Contraction <ul><li>Each muscle fibre contains myofibrils. </li></ul><ul><li>Myofibrils made up of sarcomeres. </li></ul><ul><li>Sarcomeres are formed by two protein filaments that contract and shorten. </li></ul><ul><li>The protein filaments are Actin and Myosin. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Actin and Myosin. <ul><li>Actin – thin and light </li></ul><ul><li>Myosin – thick and dark </li></ul><ul><li>Arranged in bands that slide past each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium and Adenosine Triphosphate are required. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Sliding Filament Theory
  21. 22. Sliding filament theory 2
  22. 23. Attachments <ul><li>Each skeletal muscle has 2 attachments </li></ul><ul><li>Origin – Proximal Attachment </li></ul><ul><li>Insertion – Distal Attachment </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>When a muscle contracts one attachment moves toward another. </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Distal to proximal – concentric contraction </li></ul><ul><li>Proximal to distal – eccentric contraction. </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Prime Mover </li></ul><ul><li>Assistant mover </li></ul><ul><li>Neutraliser </li></ul><ul><li>Stabiliser </li></ul>
  26. 27. Activity 6.2 <ul><li>Purple workbook. </li></ul><ul><li>Label the diagram. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Activity 6.3 <ul><li>Marieb workbook chapter 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Qu 1. p.103 </li></ul><ul><li>Qu. 14 p. 110 </li></ul><ul><li>Qu. 15 p. 115 </li></ul>
  28. 29. Soft tissue injuries <ul><li>Grade I/Mild </li></ul><ul><li>Few ligaments torn </li></ul><ul><li>Stability maintained. </li></ul>Ligament Sprains 1.
  29. 30. Soft tissue injuries <ul><li>Grade II/moderate sprain </li></ul><ul><li>Partial rupture </li></ul><ul><li>Increased laxity </li></ul><ul><li>No gross instability </li></ul>Ligament Sprains 2.
  30. 31. Soft tissue injuries <ul><li>Grade III/severe sprain </li></ul><ul><li>Complete rupture </li></ul><ul><li>Gross instability </li></ul>Ligament Sprains 3.
  31. 32. Soft tissue injuries <ul><li>Grade I/mild strain </li></ul><ul><li>Few muscle fibres torn </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal loss of strength </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal pain on muscle contraction </li></ul>Muscle Strains 1.
  32. 33. Soft tissue injuries <ul><li>Grade II/moderate strain </li></ul><ul><li>About half of muscle fibres torn </li></ul><ul><li>Significant loss of strength and function </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate to severe pain on isometric contraction </li></ul>Muscle Strains 2.
  33. 34. Soft tissue injuries <ul><li>Grade III/severe strain </li></ul><ul><li>Complete tear of muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Significant weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Significant loss of function </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum to no pain on isometric contraction </li></ul>Muscle Strains 3.
  34. 35. Homework! <ul><li>Muscle chart </li></ul><ul><li>Quiz </li></ul>
  35. 36. Gymnastique Olympic