UNIT III - Class 16


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UNIT III - Class 16

  1. 1. Classical Composers Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)
  2. 2. Public Genres in the Classical Period The emphasis on communication and expression associated with the classical period saw the rise of distinctly classical styles in three important public genres: Opera The Concerto The Symphony
  3. 3. SONATA FORM <ul><li>Exposition </li></ul><ul><li>Main Theme (s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Tonic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less-stable – moves to new key ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary Theme (s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Key </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Optional: Closing Section </li></ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><li>Very unstable </li></ul><ul><li>Explores many different keys </li></ul><ul><li>“ Develops” (works out) various motives from the Exposition </li></ul><ul><li>Recapitulation </li></ul><ul><li>Main Theme (s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Tonic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ False” Transition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less-stable – but does not move to new key ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary Theme (s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Tonic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Optional: Closing Section </li></ul>Squall – Francesco Guardi
  4. 4. Middle Movements Typical Scheme: Movement 2 : Slow Movement Movement 3 : Minuet and Trio Sometimes the two middle movements are reversed (i.e., mvt. 2 is Minuet, mvt. 3 is Slow) Sometimes (especially early on) there is only one inner movement – so that the symphony represents the Slow-Fast-Slow multi-movement structure of the Italian Overture The Composer Luigi Cherubini and a Muse Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
  5. 5. Slow Movements <ul><li>Slow movements represent a quiet, introspective moment within a more extraverted composition </li></ul><ul><li>Some slow movements are light and fanciful, but some are heavy and brooding </li></ul><ul><li>The slow movement often served as the poetic center of the work, poised against the more constructive and demonstrative qualities of the outer movements </li></ul><ul><li>Slow Movement Form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow movements do not have a single set form, they may exemplify the following: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Through-Composed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sonata Form </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variation of Sonata Form </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theme and Variations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Binary Form </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Classical vs. Baroque Variations Baroque variations were generally built on a Ground Bass (a recurring bass pattern and implied chord sequence) Classical variations were generally built on a Theme (a melody, which served as a point of departure for a series of melodic and accompanimental explorations) The Bass vs. the Soprano By basing variations on the bass, the Baroque technique stressed the structural/architectural role of the lowest-sounding voice By basing variations on the melody, the Classical technique was more interested in communicating audible stylistic explorations, rather than contrapuntal elaborations
  7. 7. Mozart’s Slow Movement (Symphony no. 40) <ul><li>Part I - Repeated </li></ul><ul><li>Exposition </li></ul><ul><li>Main Theme </li></ul><ul><li>*No Transition* </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Theme </li></ul><ul><li>Contrasting Passage (unstable) </li></ul><ul><li>Closing Theme </li></ul><ul><li>Part II - Repeated </li></ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><li>Recapitulation </li></ul><ul><li>Main Theme – Altered ending: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abbreviated statement of Secondary Theme is inserted before a satisfying conclusion of the Main Theme </li></ul></ul><ul><li>*No Transition* </li></ul><ul><li>Contrasting Passage (unstable) </li></ul><ul><li>Closing Theme </li></ul>