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Unit II - Class 13


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Unit II - Class 13

  1. 1. George Frideric Handel (1685-1559)
  2. 2. Baroque Overtures: French vs. Italian <ul><li>Italian Overture </li></ul><ul><li>Placed at beginnings of operas and other large-scale vocal-instrumental works </li></ul><ul><li>Called “Sinfonia” – which could also refer simply to a freestanding instrumental piece within an opera </li></ul><ul><li>Three parts: Fast-Slow-Fast </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced evolution of Classical genres (Symphony and Sonata) </li></ul><ul><li>French Overture </li></ul><ul><li>Found at the beginnings of operas and oratorios </li></ul><ul><li>Also frequently used as first movement of instrumental suites </li></ul><ul><li>Two parts: Slow-Fast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part I : Austere, characterized by “dotted” (long-short, long-short) rhythms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part II : Fugal/Imitative – often featuring a return of material from Part I at the very end </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Oratorio: Handel’s Messiah (1742) <ul><li>Features: </li></ul><ul><li>French Overture </li></ul><ul><li>Solos </li></ul><ul><li>Recitatives </li></ul><ul><li>Duets </li></ul><ul><li>Choruses </li></ul>
  4. 4. Bach: Vocal Works <ul><li>Cantatas (both secular and sacred) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated, multi-movement work for voices and instruments involving a free alternation of instrumental movements, solos, duets, etc., and choruses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually based on a single, unifying chorale tune </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Latin Church Music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Including the Mass in B minor, and the Magnificat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Passions and Oratorios </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christmas Oratorio, Easter Oratorio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>St. Mathew’s Passion, St. John’s Passion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like Sacred Cantatas, but usually with divided choir </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chorales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harmonizations of Lutheran chorale melodies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Miscellaneous : Sacred songs, isolated arias, etc. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cantata: “Christ lag in Todesbanden” (Christ lay in the bonds of death) Sinfonia Chorus: Verse I – “Christ lay in the bonds of death” Duet: Verse II – “Nobody could overcome death” Aria: Verse III – “Jesus Christ, the Son God” Chorus: Verse IV – “There was a wondrous war” Aria: Verse V – “Here is the true Passover Lamb” Duet: Verse VI – “So we celebrate the high feast” Chorus: Verse VII – “We eat and live well”
  6. 6. Historical Overview <ul><li>Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>c. 1400-1450 </li></ul><ul><li>Simplification: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homophony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardization of Mass </li></ul></ul><ul><li>c. 1450-1550 </li></ul><ul><li>Imitative Polyphony </li></ul><ul><li>Gradual emergence of instrumental music </li></ul><ul><li>c. 1550-1600 </li></ul><ul><li>Sacred: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reforms of Palestrina </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secular: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of Madrigal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued emergence of instrumental music </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Baroque </li></ul><ul><li>c. 1600-1700 </li></ul><ul><li>Development of Opera </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seconda Pratica </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development of Instrumental Suite </li></ul><ul><li>Development of new string instruments and more virtuosic playing styles </li></ul><ul><li>c. 1700-1750 </li></ul><ul><li>Vivaldi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Codification of Baroque Concerto </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultimate culmination of advanced contrapuntal techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploration of instrumental and vocal genres </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Handel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opera/Oratorio </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Middle Ages </li></ul><ul><li>c. 600-1000 AD </li></ul><ul><li>Sacred, liturgical Music: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monophonic chant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>c. 1000-1200 </li></ul><ul><li>Early Polyphony: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiments with drones and singing in parallel motion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>c. 1200-1300 </li></ul><ul><li>Notre Dame Polyphony: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organum – chant is drawn out in long notes in the lower base, and faster moving lines are added above </li></ul></ul><ul><li>c. 1300-1400 </li></ul><ul><li>Ars Nova: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faster, more rhythmically complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More active melodically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secular Motet </li></ul></ul>