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Global and Global Dust and Smoke over  North America Rudolf B. Husar Washington University, St. Louis, MO Seminar at Forsc...
The  BIG PICTURE <ul><li>How do humans perturb the composition of the atmosphere? </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities & Challe...
What is the magnitude of the anthropogenic perturbation of natural processes? Windblown Dust Volcanic Emissions Industrial...
Early Satellite Detection of Manmade Haze, 1976  Regional Sulfate  Haze over the Midwest Low Visibility Hazy ‘Blobs’ Lyons...
<ul><li>Early Observation-Based Aerosol Climatology AVHRR: </li></ul><ul><li>Tropics Highest AOT; Dust and Smoke Dominate ...
MISR Seasonal AOT (MISR Team) <ul><li>Recent Satellite Data Show All Major  </li></ul><ul><li>Dust and Smoke E mission  Re...
US Air Pollution Control Goal: Attain natural conditions by 2064
Industrial Sulfur Emission Density <ul><li>The regional hot-spots for industrial sulfur emissions are in  </li></ul><ul><l...
Shifts of Attention:  Local, Regional, Global Pollution <ul><li>Before 1950s: </li></ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
The Asian Dust Event of April 1998 On April 19, 1998 a major dust storm occurred over the Gobi Desert The dust cloud was s...
Asian Dust Cloud over N. America On April 27, the dust cloud arrived in North America. Regional average PM10 concentration...
IMPROVE Fine Particle Dust Concentrations   April 25, 1998   April 29, 1998   May 2, 1998 April 1998 Asian Dust event dete...
<ul><li>What kind of neighborhood is this anyway? </li></ul>May 9, 1998 A Really Bad Aerosol Day for N. America Asian Smok...
Sahara PM10 Events over Eastern US <ul><li>The highest July, Eastern US, 90 th  percentile PM10 occurs over the Gulf Coast...
Seasonal Fine Aerosol Composition, E. US Upper Buffalo Smoky Mtn Everglades, FL Big Bend, TX
Attribution of Fine Dust (<2.5  m) Local and Sahara <ul><li>In Florida, virtually all the Fine Particle Dust appears to o...
Satellites detect dust most storms in near real time  The MODIS sensor on AQUA and Terra provides  250m resolution image s...
High Wind Speed – Dust Spatially Correspond  <ul><li>The spatial/temporal correspondence suggests that most visibility los...
PM10 > 10 x PM25 During the passage of the dust cloud over El Paso, the PM10 concentration was more than 10 times higher t...
Origin of Fine Dust Events over the US Fine dust events over the US are mainly from intercontinental transport Dust is sea...
Fine Dust over North America <ul><li>The dust baseline concentration is has a 5x seasonal amplitude from 0.2 to 1 ug/m3 </...
Pattern of Fires over N. America <ul><li>The number of ATSR satellite-observed fires peaks in warm season </li></ul><ul><l...
May 15, 1998 <ul><li>Fire locations detected by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) sensor. </li></ul><ul>...
PM10 Concentrations During the Smoke Event   <ul><li>A füstfelhő útjában mindehol a megengedett érték feletti aeroszol kon...
Smoke Aerosol and Ozone During the Smoke Episode – Inverse Relationship The surface ozone is generally depressed under the...
May-June 2003 Siberian Fires
Aircraft Detection of Siberian Forrest Smoke near Seattle, WA Jaffe et. al., 2003
Seasonal cycle in mean afternoon surface O 3  over the US <ul><li>Based on the Harvard global model and surface observatio...
Long Range Transport of Combustion Products <ul><li>F. Bacon (ca 1600):  The Gasgogners have complained to the King of of ...
Thoughts on Atmospheric Dust <ul><li>Dust exists even on the tops of the highest mountains. It  settles  slowly in clear w...
Gas-Particle Conversion <ul><li>We know that  sulfur, ammonia , etc. can be formed by sublimation of gases </li></ul><ul><...
Pattern of Peat Smoke Pollution in NC Europe <ul><li>Dissertation by  </li></ul><ul><li>Kemp (1914) </li></ul><ul><li>Agri...
Peat Smoke Episode,  Prestel, 1861 <ul><li>A century long debate begun on the causes of the thick haze:  local vs long ran...
Establishing Source-Receptor Relationship Egen, 1828 Smell:  [composition]   Temporal Trend Decay with Distance Wind Direc...
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2007-10-16 ForschungsZentrum Juelich Semianr

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2007-10-16 ForschungsZentrum Juelich Semianr

  1. 1. Global and Global Dust and Smoke over North America Rudolf B. Husar Washington University, St. Louis, MO Seminar at Forschungszentrum Juelich, October 16, 2007 Germany
  2. 2. The BIG PICTURE <ul><li>How do humans perturb the composition of the atmosphere? </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities & Challenges </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is the magnitude of the anthropogenic perturbation of natural processes? Windblown Dust Volcanic Emissions Industrial Aerosols Aerosol are Indicators of Major Biogeochemical Processes Chistian Junge: “In the 50’s wherever you looked there was something interesting” Smoke from Fires
  4. 4. Early Satellite Detection of Manmade Haze, 1976 Regional Sulfate Haze over the Midwest Low Visibility Hazy ‘Blobs’ Lyons W.A., Husar R.B. Mon. Weather Rev. 1976 SMS GOES June 30 1975
  5. 5. <ul><li>Early Observation-Based Aerosol Climatology AVHRR: </li></ul><ul><li>Tropics Highest AOT; Dust and Smoke Dominate </li></ul><ul><li>Where is the Human Impacts?? </li></ul>Husar, Prospero, Stowe, 1997
  6. 6. MISR Seasonal AOT (MISR Team) <ul><li>Recent Satellite Data Show All Major </li></ul><ul><li>Dust and Smoke E mission Regions by Season </li></ul>
  7. 7. US Air Pollution Control Goal: Attain natural conditions by 2064
  8. 8. Industrial Sulfur Emission Density <ul><li>The regional hot-spots for industrial sulfur emissions are in </li></ul><ul><li>E. North America, </li></ul><ul><li>Europe and </li></ul><ul><li>E. Asia </li></ul>US SOx Emission
  9. 9. Shifts of Attention: Local, Regional, Global Pollution <ul><li>Before 1950s: </li></ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoke, Fly ash </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post- 2000s: </li></ul><ul><li>Global </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Change </li></ul></ul>1970s-1990s: Regional Acid Rain, Haze Future??? Multi-Scale Approach?
  10. 10. The Asian Dust Event of April 1998 On April 19, 1998 a major dust storm occurred over the Gobi Desert The dust cloud was seen by SeaWiFS, TOMS, GMS, AVHRR satellites The transport of the dust cloud was followed on-line by an an ad-hoc international group China Mongolia Korea
  11. 11. Asian Dust Cloud over N. America On April 27, the dust cloud arrived in North America. Regional average PM10 concentrations increased to 65  g/m 3 Asian Dust 100  g/m 3 Hourly PM10
  12. 12. IMPROVE Fine Particle Dust Concentrations April 25, 1998 April 29, 1998 May 2, 1998 April 1998 Asian Dust event detection, analysis, reporting by ad-hoc international virtual (web-based) workgroup!! A driver for informatics effort on data sharing and collaboration  
  13. 13. <ul><li>What kind of neighborhood is this anyway? </li></ul>May 9, 1998 A Really Bad Aerosol Day for N. America Asian Smoke C. American Smoke Canada Smoke
  14. 14. Sahara PM10 Events over Eastern US <ul><li>The highest July, Eastern US, 90 th percentile PM10 occurs over the Gulf Coast ( > 80 ug/m3) </li></ul><ul><li>Sahara dust is the dominant contributor to peak July PM10 levels. </li></ul>Much previous work by Prospero, Cahill, Malm, Scanning the AIRS PM10 and IMPROVE chemical databases several regional-scale PM10 episodes over the Gulf Coast (> 80 ug/m3) that can be attributed to Sahara. June 30, 1993 July 5, 1992 June 21 1997
  15. 15. Seasonal Fine Aerosol Composition, E. US Upper Buffalo Smoky Mtn Everglades, FL Big Bend, TX
  16. 16. Attribution of Fine Dust (<2.5  m) Local and Sahara <ul><li>In Florida, virtually all the Fine Particle Dust appears to originate from Sahara throughout the year </li></ul><ul><li>At other sites over the Southeast, Sahara dominates in July </li></ul><ul><li>The Spring and Fall dust is evidently of local origin </li></ul>The two dust peeks at Big Bend have different Al/Si ratios During the year, Al/Si = 0.4 In July, Al/Si reaches 0.55, closer to the Al/Si of the Sahara dust (0.65-0.7) The spring peak is identified as as ‘Local Dust’, while the July peak is dominated by Sahara dust.
  17. 17. Satellites detect dust most storms in near real time The MODIS sensor on AQUA and Terra provides 250m resolution image s of the dust storm Visual inspection reveals the dust sources at the beginning of dust streaks. The NOAA AVHRR sensor highlights the dust by its IR sensors In the TOMS satellite image, the dust signal is conspicuously absent – too close to the ground
  18. 18. High Wind Speed – Dust Spatially Correspond <ul><li>The spatial/temporal correspondence suggests that most visibility loss is due to locally suspended dust, rather than transported dust </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatively, suspended dust and ‘high winds’ travel forward at the same speed </li></ul><ul><li>Wind speed animation ; Bext animation . (material for model validation?) </li></ul>
  19. 19. PM10 > 10 x PM25 During the passage of the dust cloud over El Paso, the PM10 concentration was more than 10 times higher than the PM2.5 <ul><li>AIRNOW PM10 and Pm25 data </li></ul>Schematic Link to dust modelers for faster collective learning?
  20. 20. Origin of Fine Dust Events over the US Fine dust events over the US are mainly from intercontinental transport Dust is seasonal with noise Random short spikes added Sulfate is seasonal with noise Noise is by synoptic weather
  21. 21. Fine Dust over North America <ul><li>The dust baseline concentration is has a 5x seasonal amplitude from 0.2 to 1 ug/m3 </li></ul><ul><li>The dust events (determined by the spike filter) occur in April/May and in July </li></ul><ul><li>The two April/May and the July peak in avg. dust is due to the events </li></ul>Sahara Events Asian + Local Events
  22. 22. Pattern of Fires over N. America <ul><li>The number of ATSR satellite-observed fires peaks in warm season </li></ul><ul><li>Fire onset and smoke amount is unpredictable </li></ul>Fire Pixel Count: Western US North America
  23. 23. May 15, 1998 <ul><li>Fire locations detected by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) sensor. </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke is detected by SeaWiFS and TOMS (green) satellites and surface visibility data, Bext </li></ul>Smoke from Central American Fires <ul><li>The smoke plume extends from Guatemala to Hudson May in Canada </li></ul><ul><li>The Bext values indicate that the smoke is present at the surface </li></ul>
  24. 24. PM10 Concentrations During the Smoke Event <ul><li>A füstfelhő útjában mindehol a megengedett érték feletti aeroszol koncentrációt okozott, és a levegő homályossága gátolta a légiforgalmat </li></ul>
  25. 25. Smoke Aerosol and Ozone During the Smoke Episode – Inverse Relationship The surface ozone is generally depressed under the smoke cloud Extinction Coefficient (visibility) Surface Ozone
  26. 26. May-June 2003 Siberian Fires
  27. 27. Aircraft Detection of Siberian Forrest Smoke near Seattle, WA Jaffe et. al., 2003
  28. 28. Seasonal cycle in mean afternoon surface O 3 over the US <ul><li>Based on the Harvard global model and surface observations </li></ul>Regional pollution: 10-30 ppbv Hemisph. pollution: 5-15 ppbv Natural ozone: 15-25 ppbv Stratospheric ozone: 0-10 ppbv Fiore et al., JGR in prep.
  29. 29. Long Range Transport of Combustion Products <ul><li>F. Bacon (ca 1600): The Gasgogners have complained to the King of of England that smoke from the burning of seaweed in Sussex has spoiled the wine flowers… </li></ul><ul><li>Wargentin and Gadolin (1767): Forest fires in Russia and Finland are causing regional haze in Europe. Used back-trajectories . </li></ul>
  30. 30. Thoughts on Atmospheric Dust <ul><li>Dust exists even on the tops of the highest mountains. It settles slowly in clear weather but is quickly washed down by rain and snow </li></ul><ul><li>Some dust is from the pulverization of road and field surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Other dust comes from materials in the activity of mankind but whence arises the dust observed by means of sunbeams? </li></ul>Constantin Rafinesque, 1818
  31. 31. Gas-Particle Conversion <ul><li>We know that sulfur, ammonia , etc. can be formed by sublimation of gases </li></ul><ul><li>That smoke soot, volcanic productions, meteorites, earths, and even stones or metals may be spontaneously combined by a casual meeting of gaseous emanations . </li></ul><ul><li>It is not, therefore, difficult to conceive how dusty particles may be formed in the great chemical laboratory of our atmosphere. </li></ul>Rafinesque, 1820
  32. 32. Pattern of Peat Smoke Pollution in NC Europe <ul><li>Dissertation by </li></ul><ul><li>Kemp (1914) </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural peat burning begun early in the 1800s and peaked in 1860s. </li></ul><ul><li>The regional haze covered much of the flatland north of the Alps extending to Paris. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to public pressure and diminishing swamp land the practice stopped by the 1870s </li></ul>
  33. 33. Peat Smoke Episode, Prestel, 1861 <ul><li>A century long debate begun on the causes of the thick haze: local vs long range transport ; smoke, dust, earthquakes... </li></ul>
  34. 34. Establishing Source-Receptor Relationship Egen, 1828 Smell: [composition] Temporal Trend Decay with Distance Wind Direction Direct Evidence Trajectory

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