2004-10-14 AIR-257: Satellite Detection of Aerosols
Air and Waste Management Association Professional Development Course AIR-257: Satellite Detection of Aerosols Instructor: Rudolf Husar, Ph.D. Professor of Mechanical Engineering Washington University, St. Louis, MO October 25, 2004, 9:00 a.m. - 12:00 p.m. Asheville, NC Aerosol - Free Quebec Smoke Reflectance Quebec Smoke AOT
Syllabus <ul><ul><li>9:00-9:30 Introduction to satellite aerosol detection and monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9:30-10:00 Satellite Types and their Usage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10:00-10:30 Satellite detection of aerosol events: fires, dust storms, haze </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10:30-10:45 Break </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10:45-11:00 Satellite data and tools for the RPO FASTNET project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11:15-11:30 Satellite Data Use in AQ Management: Issues and Opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11:30-12:00 Class-defined problems, feedback, discussion, exam(?) </li></ul></ul>
April 1998 Asian Dust Events - Synopsis <ul><li>In April 1998, several unusually intense dust storms were generated over the Gobi Desert by springtime cold weather systems with over 20 m/s surface wind speed. </li></ul><ul><li>The dust cloud from the April 19 storm was swiftly transported across the Pacific reaching North America within 5 days. Part of the cloud subsided to the surface between British Columbia and CA while another part was observed aloft in layers up to 10 km. </li></ul><ul><li>During the peak on April 29 the dust increased PM concentrations 20-50 g/m 3 over the West Coast and the daily PM10 concentration approached the health standard. </li></ul>
Asian Dust Cloud Source Region <ul><li>The largest dust storms of the season occurred on April 15 and 19. </li></ul><ul><li>TOMS data indicate that the April 19, 1998 storm was the most intense dust event in the 1997-99 period. </li></ul>
April 15 Dust Cloud Over Asia SeaWiFS data with TOMS overlays (green lines) <ul><li>SeaWiFS satellite data indicate that the dust storms on April 15 and 19 originated from the same region of Gobi Desert. </li></ul><ul><li>The dust sources are streaks of dust plumes originating from specific patches of land. </li></ul>
April 19 Dust Cloud Over Asia SeaWiFS data with TOMS overlays (green lines) After about 500 km of transport, the plumes tend to merge and the streaky plume structure disappears. On April 19, the visibility was reduced due to dust throughout central and eastern Mongolia, and the optical thickness increased from < 0.5 on April 18 to > 2 on April 19. April 19, ‘98
Impact of Dust on Spectral Reflectance Excess spectral reflectance of dust over the ocean Change of the spectral reflectance of soil with increasing dust. Note, the yellow coloration of white clouds viewed through a dust layer.
Figure 3. Dust transport over the Pacific Ocean between April 21-25. In the SeaWiFS images [Kuring, 1998], the dust appears as a yellow dye marking its own position at noon each day.
Dust Cloud Over North America GOES 10 S GOES 10 Geostationary satellite image By April 27 th , the dust cloud rolled into North America and split with one branch heading southward along the CA coast and the another branch continuing eastward across the Canadian Rockies.
West Coast PM10 Concentration <ul><li>Regional average PM10 levels reached 65 µg/m 3 compared to typical values of 10-25 µg/m 3 </li></ul><ul><li>On April 29, the PM10 exceeded 100 µg/m 3 over parts of Washington and Oregon </li></ul>
IMPROVE Fine Particle Dust Concentrations April 25, 1998 April 29, 1998 May 2, 1998 On April 25, the western U.S. was virtually dust-free, but reached high concentrations by April 29. On May 2, the elevated dust concentrations moved over the Rocky Mountains and the Colorado Plateau
Fine Particle Dust Ten Year Trends Figure 8. Ten-year trend of fine particle dust concentration at three IMPROVE monitoring sites.
Vertical Profile of Dust Cloud Over North America The height of the dust layer on April 27 was between 6-10 km Lidar backscatter at JPL, Pasadena. Lidar profiles at Salt Lake City
The Asian Dust Events of April 1998 Prepared by: R. B. Husar, D. Tratt, B. A. Schichtel, S. R. Falke, F. Li D. Jaffe, S. Gassó, T. Gill, N. S. Laulainen, F. Lu. M Reheis, Y. Chun, D. Westpha, B. N. Holben, C. Geymard, I. McKendry, N. Kuring, G. C. Feldman, C. McClain, R. J. Frouin, J. Merrill, D. DuBois, F. Vignola, T. Murayama, S. Nickovic, W. E. Wilson, K. Sassen, N. Sugimoto Paper to be submitted to the JGR issue on dust December 27, 1999 http://capita.wustl.edu/Asia-FarEast/reports/JGR/AsianDustEpisodeApril1998Draft5.htm
The Central American Smoke Event of May 1998 <ul><li>A Draft Summary Based on Reports and Data on the Web </li></ul><ul><li>Rudolf B. Husar and Bret Schichtel </li></ul><ul><li>CAPITA, Dec 1998 </li></ul>
Location of fires (red dots) on May 15, 1998, based on Defense Meteorological Satellite Program ( DMSP ) satellite data NOAA’s Operational Significant Event Imagery (OSEI) Throughout the spring of 1998, thousands of fires in Central America have been burning with twice the intensity of normal springtime fires. Forest Fires over Central America
Smoke from the Central American Fires Based on SeaWiFS and other satellite imagery, thick smoke has been lingering over southern Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras and adjacent oceans throughout the spring season.
TOMS Aerosol Index GOES 8 Visible Imagery May 12 May 14 May 15 May 16 Smoke passes over Eastern North America
Daily TOMS images of absorbing aerosol index May 2 May 3 May 5 May 6 May 4 May 7 May 8 May 9 May 10 May 11 May 12 May 13 May 14 May 15 May 16 May 17 May 18 May 19 May 20 May 21 May 22 May 23 May 24 May 25 May 26 May 27 May 28 May 29 May 30 May 31
Average Excess TOMS Index for Mar., Apr., May 1998 Excess TOMS absorbing aerosol index averaged for March, April, May 1998 compared to 1999. The insert depicts the 1998 smoke impact from a global perspective.
Surface Ozone Concentration Superposition of daily maximum ozone and aerosol extinction maps derived from surface visibility.
PM10 concentration over the Eastern U.S. during the smoke event The smoke drifted into the US and Canada and caused exceedances of the PM standard, health alerts, and impairment of air traffic due to thick haze.
SeaWiFS Surface Reflectance on Clear and Smoky Days Spectral reflectance data derived from the SeaWiFS sensor on May 15, 1998; b) Excess aerosol backscattering over water.
Goes 8 Visible Image HY-SPLIT Trajectories HY-SPLIT Plumes TOMS Aerosol Index Comparison of HYSPLIT Predictions of airmass transport to GOES 8 and TOMS imagery
Surface Haze-Ozone Map Comparison <ul><li>Surface haze maps show the north and eastward transport of smoke aerosol </li></ul><ul><li>Regionally, the smoke does not appear to add ozone to the existing values </li></ul><ul><li>Rather, ozone in the smoky airmass tends to be lower than their surroundings </li></ul>
The BigSmoke in New England, July 2002 Smoke transport from Quebec to New England to … <ul><li>An evolving presentation by a virtual community. Would you like add to this presentation? </li></ul><ul><li>Download this PPT presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Add your content, return to email@example.com </li></ul><ul><li>See also the Aerosol Events Website for discussion </li></ul>MODIS image
Fire Pixels from MODIS , June 25-July 6, 2002 <ul><li>Several satellite sensor ( MODIS , GOES , AVHRR , ATSR …..) detect the location of most fires - DAILY </li></ul><ul><li>These ‘fire pixels’ can be used as sensor-based inputs to regional/global models, e.g. NAAPS </li></ul><ul><li>However, the quantity of smoke emitted from the from the ‘fire pixels’ can not be estimated well . </li></ul><ul><li>Hence, real-time model simulation of smoke transport is limited by the smoke emission estimates </li></ul>Quebec Fires Note pixel clusters due to larger fires Manitoba – Sask. Fires Note pixel clusters due to larger fires SE US Fires Random pixels from small fires
MODIS: The Fine-Scale Picture The Fires and the Smoke Transport of Smoke from N. Quebec to SE Canada and NE US. <ul><li>020705MODIS </li></ul>020706 MODIS MODIS Land Rapid Response System 020707 MODIS
SeaWiFS Hires: The Regional Picture <ul><li>Preceding and during the Quebec smoke event, there was a sulfate episode over the Eastern US. </li></ul><ul><li>The Quebec smoke has a distinctly yellow color, different from the bluish sulfate haze. </li></ul>020706SeaWiFS 020707SeaWiFS 020708SeaWiFS Sulfate Haze Sulfate Haze Sulfate Haze Smoke Smoke Smoke
GOES 8 Animation July 6 animation: low-resolution , high resolution July 7 animation: low resolution , high resolution
HazeCam - Boston <ul><li>020706 10:00 Normal bluish haze </li></ul><ul><li>020707 10:00 Yellow haze - smoke </li></ul>CamNet -Webcam
HazeCam - Hartford <ul><li>020705 9:00 Normal bluish haze </li></ul><ul><li>020707 09:00 Yellow haze – smoke </li></ul><ul><li>Why is this smoke so yellow?? </li></ul>CamNet -Webcam
Smoke Pattern from ASOS Visibility sensors <ul><li>The largest circles correspond to > 100 ug/m3 PM2.5 </li></ul>
SeaWiFS & ASOS & TOMS <ul><li>SeaWiFS & ASOS Yellow circles proportional to ASOS Bext </li></ul><ul><li>SeaWiFS & TOMS absorbing aerosol index. </li></ul><ul><li>Notes: Yellow color (absorbing in blue?); no TOMS for fresh smoke </li></ul>SeaWiFS & TOMS
Quebec Fires, July 6, 2002 <ul><li>SeaWiFS, METAR and TOMS Index superimposed </li></ul>SeaWiFS satellite and METAR surface haze shown in the Voyager distributed data browser Satellite data are fetched from NASA GSFC; surface data from NWS/CAPITA servers
GOES 8 – METAR <ul><li>July 6, 2002 8:15, 12:15, 16:15 EST </li></ul>GOES8 20020706_1315 UTC GOES8 20020706_1315 GOES8 20020706_1715 UTC GOES8 20020706_2115 UTC
TOMS : The Big Picture Absorbing Aerosol Index <ul><li>July 5: The near-source, low level smoke is not detected by TOMS </li></ul>July 5 July 6 July 7 July 8 July 9 July 6-7: Smoke plume signal is very intense over S. Ontario and NE US. July 8-9: Transport to the Atlantic. Where will the smoke reach Europe? How intense, will it be detectable? Would anyone run Hysplit, ATAD? July 10 July 11
Trans-Atlantic Transport of Quebec Smoke <ul><li>July 11: Smoke approaching Europe </li></ul>July 10: Quebec smoke over Mid-Atlantic SeaWiFS Reflectance TOMS Absorbing Aerosol SeaWiFS Reflectance TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Spain Spain E. US
NRL Forecast Model for Dust, Smoke and Sulfate METAR Surface Haze <ul><li>Real-time model and surface observations are compared spatially and temporally </li></ul><ul><li>By July 11 the smoke has cleared, but the EUS sulfate episode persisted </li></ul>Dust Sulfate Smoke METAR Haze Time Selector
Total reflectance and optical depth comparison Smoke plume Haze Filtered clouds
Continuing work <ul><li>Estimation of smoke fluxes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify specific smoke plumes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide map into location grids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use wind vector data to calculate flux through the grids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These values are required for climatological models </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data fusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data from remote sensing and ground-based networks are complimentary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple data sets will be fused to improve understanding </li></ul></ul>