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FASTNET Report: 0409RegHazeEvents04 Eastern US Regional Haze Events: Automated Detection and Documentation for 2004 Contri...
Eastern US PM25 Events, 2004  <ul><li>A goal of the FASTNET project is to detect and document natural aerosol events in th...
2004 EUS PM25 Event Detection <ul><li>The hourly AIRNOW PM25 values are averaged over the EUS </li></ul><ul><li>The hourly...
Region of Event Detection: Eastern US <ul><li>The event-detection metric uses the average concentration, C,  over a region...
Analysts Consoles for Event Characterization <ul><li>Analysts consoles deliver the state of the aerosol, meteorology etc.,...
Feb 19 2004:  <ul><li>Isolated high PM25 occurs over the Midwest, Northeast and Texas </li></ul><ul><li>The aerosol patche...
Mar 25 <ul><li>Broad, contiguous AIRNOW PM25 belt covers the upper Midwest and the Northeast </li></ul><ul><li>The ASOS is...
Apr 18 <ul><li>This modest episode stretches from Wisconsin over Pennsylvania to the Mid-Atlantic States </li></ul><ul><li...
Jun 6-8 <ul><li>This intensive 3-day episode covers much of the Eastern US </li></ul><ul><li>The AIRNOW, ASOS and Visibili...
Jul 21-23 <ul><li>This intensive 3-day episode covers much of the Eastern US </li></ul><ul><li>The AIRNOW, ASOS and Visibi...
Aug 18 <ul><li>This episode has an intensive region in the Northeast and another in the Southeastern US </li></ul><ul><li>...
Sep 4 <ul><li>A single strong aerosol ‘blob’ cover the Midwest </li></ul><ul><li>The AIRNOW PM25, ASOS and Fbext maps all ...
Discussion: The Role of Averaging Region  <ul><li>The size and location of the region strongly influences the event-detect...
Application of Automatic Event Detection: A Trigger and Screening Tool <ul><li>The algorithmic aerosol detection and chara...
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2004-09-23 Eastern US Regional Haze Events: Automated Detection and Documentation for 2004

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2004-09-23 Eastern US Regional Haze Events: Automated Detection and Documentation for 2004

  1. 1. FASTNET Report: 0409RegHazeEvents04 Eastern US Regional Haze Events: Automated Detection and Documentation for 2004 Contributed by the FASNET Community, Sep. 2004 Correspondence: R Husar , R Poirot Coordination Support by Inter- RPO WG Fast Aerosol Sensing Tools for Natural Event Tracking, FASTNET NSF Collaboration Support for Aerosol Event Analysis NASA REASON Coop on EPA - OAQPS AIRNOW PM25 - February
  2. 2. Eastern US PM25 Events, 2004 <ul><li>A goal of the FASTNET project is to detect and document natural aerosol events in the context of the overall PM pattern </li></ul><ul><li>In the past, the definition and documentation of events has been highly subjective and dependent on the analyst, the is event type etc. </li></ul><ul><li>An objective event definition is now possible through spatio-temporal statistical parameters derivable from continuous monitoring data </li></ul><ul><li>The AIRNOW and ASOS monitoring systems along with the proposed detection scheme now allows the real-time detection of PM25 events </li></ul><ul><li>The routine overall characterization of detected events is accomplished by the rich additional real-time data through the FASTNET Analysts Consoles </li></ul><ul><li>This work illustrates the routine event detection and cursory characterization of aerosol events for the Eastern US during Jan-Sep 2004; full event assessment requires detailed customized research </li></ul>
  3. 3. 2004 EUS PM25 Event Detection <ul><li>The hourly AIRNOW PM25 values are averaged over the EUS </li></ul><ul><li>The hourly average values are normalized by the median to derive relative concentrations </li></ul><ul><li>A regional-scale event is declared when the hourly PM25 exceeds, say 1.6x the median </li></ul><ul><li>During Jan-Sep 2004, seven major Eastern US PM25 events occurred: Feb 19, Mar 25, Apr 18, Jun 7-9, Jul 21-23, Aug 18, Sep 4 </li></ul>
  4. 4. Region of Event Detection: Eastern US <ul><li>The event-detection metric uses the average concentration, C, over a region </li></ul><ul><li>Whenever the instantaneous regional average exceeds the spatio-temporal median by a set value (say 2x), a regional event is declared </li></ul><ul><li>For the ‘2004 FASTNET Events’ below, the entire Eastern US region is used; identifying events over smaller regions follows the same procedure. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Analysts Consoles for Event Characterization <ul><li>Analysts consoles deliver the state of the aerosol, meteorology etc., automatically from real-time monitoring data </li></ul><ul><li>Dozens of maps depict the spatial pattern using dozens of surface and satellite-detected parameters </li></ul><ul><li>The temporal pattern are presented on time series for the regional average and for individual stations </li></ul><ul><li>The following pages illustrate the 2004 EUS events, through a subset of the monitored parameters. </li></ul><ul><li>The event-presentation includes limited interpretative comments; the full interpretation of this rich context is left to subsequent communal analysis </li></ul>Spatial Console Temporal Console
  6. 6. Feb 19 2004: <ul><li>Isolated high PM25 occurs over the Midwest, Northeast and Texas </li></ul><ul><li>The aerosol patches are evident in AIRNOWPM25, ASOS and Fbext maps </li></ul><ul><li>The absence of TOMS signal indicates the lack of smoke or dust at high elevation </li></ul><ul><li>The high surface wind speed over Texas, hints on possible dust storm activity </li></ul><ul><li>The NAAPS model shows high sulfate over the Great Lakes, but no biomass smoke </li></ul><ul><li>Possible event causes: nitrate in the Upper Midwest and Northeast, sulfate around the Great Lakes and dust over Texas </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mar 25 <ul><li>Broad, contiguous AIRNOW PM25 belt covers the upper Midwest and the Northeast </li></ul><ul><li>The ASOS is moderate throughout, while the surface FBExt is high over the U. Midwest </li></ul><ul><li>The absence of TOMS signal indicates the lack of smoke or dust at high elevation </li></ul><ul><li>The surface winds indicates war air transport from the Gulf to the U Midwest </li></ul><ul><li>NAAPS shows high sulfate over the Great Lakes, but no biomass smoke or dust </li></ul><ul><li>Possible causes: nitrate in the Upper Midwest and sulfate around the Great Lakes </li></ul>
  8. 8. Apr 18 <ul><li>This modest episode stretches from Wisconsin over Pennsylvania to the Mid-Atlantic States </li></ul><ul><li>The ASOS is high over the Great Lakes and the surface FBExt is high over the U. Midwest </li></ul><ul><li>TOMS shows smoke(?) over Mexico; MODIS AOT is moderate over the Mid-Atlantic </li></ul><ul><li>The surface winds indicate air transport from the Gulf to the Upper Midwest </li></ul><ul><li>NAAPS model indicates high sulfate over Pennsylvania and smoke over the Midwest </li></ul><ul><li>Possible causes: nitrate and smoke over the Midwest, in the and sulfate around the Great Lakes </li></ul>
  9. 9. Jun 6-8 <ul><li>This intensive 3-day episode covers much of the Eastern US </li></ul><ul><li>The AIRNOW, ASOS and Visibility FBext are all elevated </li></ul><ul><li>TOMS shows smoke(?) over the Gulf and Mexico; MODIS AOT over the Northeast </li></ul><ul><li>The surface winds indicate stagnation over the EUS </li></ul><ul><li>NAAPS model shows intense sulfate accumulation over the industrial Illinois-New York . </li></ul><ul><li>Possible causes: sulfate episode </li></ul>
  10. 10. Jul 21-23 <ul><li>This intensive 3-day episode covers much of the Eastern US </li></ul><ul><li>The AIRNOW, ASOS and Visibility FBext are all elevated </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely high MODIS AOT and GASP AOT values cover the East Coast and Gulf Coast </li></ul><ul><li>The surface winds indicate stagnation over much of the East Coast </li></ul><ul><li>NAAPS model predicts elevated sulfate throughout the Eastern US. </li></ul><ul><li>Possible causes: sulfate episode </li></ul>
  11. 11. Aug 18 <ul><li>This episode has an intensive region in the Northeast and another in the Southeastern US </li></ul><ul><li>The AIRNOW, ASOS and Visibility all show similar location of elevated aerosol </li></ul><ul><li>Highest MODIS AOT and GASP AOT values occur over the Northeast </li></ul><ul><li>The surface winds indicate stagnation over the southeastern EUS </li></ul><ul><li>NAAPS model predicts high sulfate in the Northeast and biomass smoke over the Southeast </li></ul><ul><li>Possible causes: sulfate episode in the Northeast, smoke and sulfate in the Southeast(?) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Sep 4 <ul><li>A single strong aerosol ‘blob’ cover the Midwest </li></ul><ul><li>The AIRNOW PM25, ASOS and Fbext maps all show a consistent spatial pattern </li></ul><ul><li>The MODIS AOT confirms the Midwestern haze; the GASP AOT peaks further south </li></ul><ul><li>The surface winds are low over much of the EUS </li></ul><ul><li>NAAPS model also predicts a sulfate ‘blob’ over the Midwest without significant smoke or dust </li></ul><ul><li>Possible causes: sulfate episode from stagnation over the source region </li></ul>
  13. 13. Discussion: The Role of Averaging Region <ul><li>The size and location of the region strongly influences the event-detection; e.g. events in the Northeast occur at different times than Southwestern events. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ EUS events’ can occur either from a single contiguous ‘haze blob’ or from multiple smaller aerosol patches at different parts of the Eastern US </li></ul><ul><li>It would be desirable to develop a detection scheme that can identify events regardless of geographic size, location or duration </li></ul><ul><li>One possible time metric would be the integral of ‘bulges’ over space and time </li></ul>
  14. 14. Application of Automatic Event Detection: A Trigger and Screening Tool <ul><li>The algorithmic aerosol detection and characterization provides only limited information about events </li></ul><ul><li>However, it can be used to trigger further action during real-time monitoring of events </li></ul><ul><li>Also, automatic event quantification can be used as a screening tool for the further analysis of qualified events, e.g. the selection of ‘natural events’ from the total event pool </li></ul>

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