Historical perspectives on childhood and parenting

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Sociology of childhood class, introduction to discussion

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  • The emphasis is on social history and long-term trends (longue durée), often using quantification and paying special attention to geography[3] and to the intellectual world view of common people, or "mentality" (mentalité). Less attention is paid to political, diplomatic, or military history, or to biographies of famous men. Instead the Annales focused attention on the synthesizing of historical patterns identified from social, economic, and cultural history, statistics, medical reports, family studies, and even psychoanalysis.
  • Historical perspectives on childhood and parenting

    1. 1. Children, Childhood andparenting in HistoricalContextChildhood and Education: Sociological PerspectiveEDTHP 597Renata Horvatek
    2. 2. LAYOUT Childhood as social construct Historical perspectives on childhood Social constructs of a child and parenting Sociological and historical changes Discussion: Images, documents, questions Historical perspectives on childhood and parenting 1/28/2013
    3. 3. Childhood - social construct Childhood is socially constructed it is not only a biological or natural state! The idea of childhood varies across time, culture and place“The idea of childhood is not to be confused with affection for children: it corresponds to an awareness of the particular nature of childhood […] that distinguishes the child from the adult.” (Philippe Ariès, 1962) Historical perspectives on childhood and parenting 1/28/2013
    4. 4. Dominant social constructs of a childhood The Miniature Adult Evil/immoral child Innocent child Diego Velasquez (1633) Prince Baltasar Carlos in Silver Historical perspectives on childhood and parenting 1/28/2013
    5. 5. Philippe Ariès (1914 – 1984)Annales SchoolResources and methods: Secondary sources; paintings and work of artThe emergence of childhood as asocial categoryChanges in social institutionsshaped the idea of childhood –from lack of awareness toseparation of children fromadults 13th century Madonna and child Historical perspectives on childhood and parenting 1/28/2013
    6. 6. 3 historical approaches to childhood“Idea of childhood as social construction made historians to adopt children’s perspectives and voices in their studies of children and childhood”. (Corsaro, 2011) Affects of institutional changes in pre-modern world on the social construction of childhood (Aries) Social construction of childhood within the family and its historical shifts (deMause, Pollock) Childhood influencing the world of adults (Mintz, Hanawalt, Alston, Wiggins, West, Nasaw) Historical perspectives on childhood and parenting 1/28/2013
    7. 7. Historical approaches to parenting“[…] ideas about childrearing, like all ideas, bear a systematic and intelligible connection to the culture and organization of the society in which they are found.” (Hays, 1996)• Child rearing and Mothering – socially constructed and changed meanings during the history• Strict gender roles in child rearing during pre- modern times – moral vs. emotional• Turning point – 18th/19th century (Industrial Revolution) • IDEOLOGY OF INTENSIVE MOTHERING • Construct of the middle class in the U.S. URL: • Social stratification https://courses.worldcampus.psu.edu/welcome/crimj4 41/print.html Historical perspectives on childhood and parenting 1/28/2013
    8. 8. Historical approaches to parenting, cont.Scientifically trained mothers duringthe Progressive Era Emotional, behavioral, cognitive development of children Intensive mothering - working class and immigrant mothersThe Permissive Era (1930s – ) Child-centered family Family as oppressive institution (1960s) URL: http://vintageboomer.blogspot.com/2012/07/spock- babies.html Historical perspectives on childhood and parenting 1/28/2013
    9. 9. Discussion1/28/2013 Historical perspectives on childhood and parenting
    10. 10. Social constructs of child (Sorin, 2005) URL: http://www.nowpublic.com/world/child-soldiers-photo-16 Historical perspectives on childhood and parenting 1/28/2013
    11. 11. Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNICEF, 1990)Article 13“1. The child shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of the childs choice.”• What construct(s) of the child we could read from this Article of the Convention? Historical perspectives on childhood and parenting 1/28/2013
    12. 12. Questions for discussion1. When Hays paraphrases contemporary theorists about child- rearing of children in the 19th century: “The children of the middle classes are trained in independence, while children of the working class are trained in obedience”, how would you apply this notion in the contemporary society in the U.S., or Western world, or even in other parts of the world that you are familiar with? Could we discuss about education system’s role in constructing the images of children and mothers of different SES?2. What role does history have in shaping the images of childhood and parenting in the 21st century, and whose history is it?3. Are you aware of policies in your countries that affect the shift of gender based roles in child-rearing? Historical perspectives on childhood and parenting 1/28/2013

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